Article

Maternity Leave, Early Maternal Employment, and Child Outcomes in the US

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Abstract

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore links between mothers' returns to work within 12 weeks of giving birth and health and developmental outcomes for their children. OLS models and propensity score matching methods are utilised to account for selection bias. Considerable associations between early returns to work and children's outcomes are found suggesting causal relationships between early returns to work and reductions in breastfeeding and immunisations, as well as increases in externalising behaviour problems. These results are generally stronger for mothers who return to work full-time within 12 weeks of giving birth. Copyright 2005 Royal Economic Society.

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... 32 A large, retrospective cohort study of over 16,000 women using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth found that at least 12 weeks of paid leave resulted in a 13% increase in the number of infants breastfed, as well as a 4-5 week increase in breastfeeding duration, even after controlling for confounding variables. 9 Finally, a retrospective cross-sectional survey analysis of working and nonworking mothers in Scotland found that women with a shorter leave had shorter duration of breastfeeding and a higher incidence of cessation than unemployed women. 31 Prior research not focused on paid family leave found that breastfeeding cessation in general is most likely to occur during the month that a mother returns to work. ...
... Specifically, multiple studies have shown a direct correlation between an increase in the duration of paid leave and (1) a decrease in infant and child mortality, [24][25][26]30 (2) an improvement in the physical health of infants and children, including a significant decrease in the rate of rehospitalization for infants during the first year, 27 (3) an increase in compliance with the medical care delivered at pediatricians' visits, 26 and (4) a marked increase in the timely administration of recommended immunizations. 9,28 Each area of impact has a markedly positive effect on the growth and development of the child and on public health in general. ...
... 27 Another large longitudinal study found that children of mothers with at least 12 weeks of paid leave were significantly more likely to receive their vaccinations. 9 Finally, a recent study found a substantial decrease in late vaccinations among 174,000 infants after the California state paid family leave policy took effect, with greater effect sizes for those living in poverty. 28 ...
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For decades, national paid maternity leave policies of 12 weeks or more have been established in every industrialized country except the United States. Despite women representing 47% of the current U.S. labor force, only 16% of all employed American workers have access to paid parental leave through their workplace. As many as 23% of employed mothers return to work within ten days of giving birth, because of their inability to pay living expenses without income. We reviewed recent studies on the possible effects of paid maternity leave on the mental and physical health of mothers and children. We found that paid maternity leave is associated with beneficial effects on (1) the mental health of mothers and children, including a decrease in postpartum maternal depression and intimate partner violence, and improved infant attachment and child development, (2) the physical health of mothers and children, including a decrease in infant mortality and in mother and infant rehospitalizations, and an increase in pediatric visit attendance and timely administration of infant immunizations, and (3) breastfeeding, with an increase in its initiation and duration. Given the substantial mental and physical health benefits associated with paid leave, as well as favorable results from studies on its economic impact, the United States is facing a clear, evidence-based mandate to create a national paid maternity leave policy. We recommend a national paid maternity leave policy of at least 12 weeks.
... Paid family leave (PFL) policies provide essential time away from work for new parents to care for a newly born, adopted, or fostered child. Past research identifies numerous health benefits associated with PFL, including increased initiation and duration of breastfeeding (Berger et al., 2005;Chatterji & Frick, 2005;Chuang et al., 2010;Fein & Roe, 1998;Guendelman et al., 2009;Hawkins et al., 2007;Johnston & Esposito, 2007;Lindberg, 1996;Ogbuanu et al., 2011;Staehelin et al., 2007;Visness & Kennedy, 1997), reduced depressive symptoms among mothers (Chatterji et al., 2011;Chatterji & Markowitz, 2008;Dagher et al., 2011), and increased bonding and participation in childcare activities for fathers (del Carmen Huerta et al., 2013;Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007). Availability of PFL is further associated with greater economic stability particularly for low-income and single mothers, and employers potentially stand to benefit from PFL through increased labor force attachment, improved employee morale, and increased productivity. ...
... Past research identifies significant health benefits for workers and their families associated with PFL. There is a clearly demonstrated relationship between duration of paid maternity leave and breastfeeding, with earlier returns to work consistently associated with reduced initiation and duration of breastfeeding (Berger et al., 2005;Chatterji & Frick, 2005;Chuang et al., 2010;Fein & Roe, 1998;Guendelman et al., 2009;Hawkins et al., 2007;Johnston & Esposito, 2007;Lindberg, 1996;Ogbuanu et al., 2011;Staehelin et al., 2007;Visness & Kennedy, 1997). Infants whose mothers take time from work after childbirth are also more likely to attend well-baby checkups and receive recommended vaccinations in their first year of life (Berger et al., 2005;Hajizadeh et al., 2015). ...
... There is a clearly demonstrated relationship between duration of paid maternity leave and breastfeeding, with earlier returns to work consistently associated with reduced initiation and duration of breastfeeding (Berger et al., 2005;Chatterji & Frick, 2005;Chuang et al., 2010;Fein & Roe, 1998;Guendelman et al., 2009;Hawkins et al., 2007;Johnston & Esposito, 2007;Lindberg, 1996;Ogbuanu et al., 2011;Staehelin et al., 2007;Visness & Kennedy, 1997). Infants whose mothers take time from work after childbirth are also more likely to attend well-baby checkups and receive recommended vaccinations in their first year of life (Berger et al., 2005;Hajizadeh et al., 2015). Additional child health benefits include fewer low-birthweight and small-for-gestational-age births; decreased infant hospitalizations; decreased infant mortality rates; reduced likelihood of obesity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, hearing problems, and ear infections (Lichtman-Sadot & Bell, 2017; Pihl & Basso, 2019; Rossin, 2011;Stearns, 2015;Tanaka, 2005). ...
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Introduction Paid family leave (PFL) has the potential to reduce persistent health disparities. This study aims to characterize differences in access to paid leave by industry sector and occupational class. Methods The Bay Area Parental Leave Survey of Mothers included respondents 18 years of age or older who worked in the San Francisco Bay Area and gave birth from 2016 to 2017. Using linear probability models, we examined differences in five separate measures of PFL by industry sector and occupational class. We extended our regression analysis to simulate the full pay equivalent (FPE) weeks of leave that would have been taken under hypothetical scenarios of increased uptake and wage replacement rates. Results Our study included 806 women in private for-profit or non-profit jobs. In fully adjusted models, blue-collar workers were 10.9% less likely to take 12 weeks of paid parental leave versus white-collar workers (95% CI: -25.9, 4.1). Respondents were 19.2% less likely receive 100% of their regular pay if they worked in education and health services (−29.1, −9.3) and 17.0% less likely if they worked in leisure and hospitality (−29.5, −4.4) versus respondents in professional and financial services. Respondents in leisure and hospitality reported 1.6 fewer FPE weeks of leave versus respondents in professional and financial services (−2.73, −0.42) and blue-collar respondents reported an average of 1.5 fewer FPE weeks versus white-collar workers (−2.66, −0.42). In our simulation analysis, when we manipulated rates of uptake for paid leave, the disparities in FPE by industry sector and occupational class were eliminated. Conclusion We observed substantial inequities in access to paid leave by industry sector and occupational class. These findings underscore the potential importance of universal PFL programs with universal benefits to reduce clear inequities that persist within the labor market today.
... Existing papers focus on how maternal employment affects vaccination take-up rates and timing [13]. Berger, et al. [6] use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine how early maternal employment affects breastfeeding rates and immunizations. Using OLS and propensity score matching techniques, they find that women who return to work before 12 weeks following childbirth are associated with lower on-time immunizations. ...
... To determine whether California's Paid Family Leave decreases late infant immunization, we employ a difference-in-difference (DID) estimation strategy to compare the change in outcome for children born in California before and after the policy's July 1st, 2004 implementation to that of children born in states lacking paid parental leave during the same time period. 6 We estimate two models: ...
... Since our time variable is the year denoted in the NIS survey, Post is a dummy variable that equals 1 for years after 5 Other recent papers examine child health more generally, but do not explicitly study vaccines [9,15,19,21]. 6 We drop District of Columbia and New Jersey from our analysis because both have paid family leave during our sample period. Model 2 exploits an income-to-poverty ratio. ...
Article
Time constraints parents face can affect whether infant children are vaccinated on time. Using the National Immunization Survey, we employ a synthetic control difference-in-difference estimation technique to establish a causal relationship arising from California's implementation of Paid Parental Leave Program as a natural experiment. We find California Paid Family Leave reduced late vaccinations by up to 5 percentage points or approximately 10% for children born to parents in California after the policy was implemented. Further, the policy had a stronger impact on families below the poverty line. Thus access to paid family leave can improve on-time immunization of infants.
... For mothers, shorter maternity leave has been linked to a reduction in the sensitivity they show toward their infant, greater marital dissatisfaction, and increased depression and anxiety (Clark et al. 1997;Gjerdingen and Chaloner 1994;Hyde et al. 2001). Mothers who returned to work full-time within 12 weeks of the birth of their child were more likely to reduce the amount of time they breastfed and the number of well-baby visits their child attended, and they reported higher levels of child externalizing behavior when their child was 4years-old (Berger et al. 2005). Beyond the parent-child relationship, Petts and Knoester (2019), using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, reported that in the years following a child's birth, longer paternity leave was positively associated with parental relationship quality and coparenting quality. ...
... However, the employees covered by and the impact of FMLA on leave-taking have been limited. Mounting empirical evidence has linked shorter leaves for mothers to numerous negative outcomes for children and families (Berger et al. 2005;Clark et al. 1997;Gjerdingen and Chaloner 1994;Hyde et al. 2001), whereas longer leaves for fathers have been linked to numerous positive outcomes (Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel 2007;Petts and Knoester 2019;Rossin 2011). The current study examined if longer leave-taking for mothers and fathers is primarily influenced by financial characteristics or if demographic, identity-relevant, and job characteristics of expectant parents also play a role in their length of leave from work after the birth of their first child. ...
Article
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Parental leave has been linked to numerous positive child and family outcomes, yet little is known about which new mothers and fathers take longer parental leaves. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the financial, demographic, identity-relevant, and job characteristics that predict the duration of maternity and paternity leave in a community sample of 130 U.S. dual-earner couples who were followed across their transition to parenthood in 2008–2009. The findings show that financial characteristics, especially paid leave, are important for leave duration for both parents. In addition, identity-relevant and demographic characteristics mattered to length of paternity leave, whereas job characteristics were relevant to length of maternity leave. For fathers, longer leaves were associated with a greater proportion of paid leave, older paternal age, having a less planned pregnancy, and lower endorsement of maternal essentialism. For mothers, longer leaves were associated with a greater proportion of paid leave, higher household income, and lower job satisfaction. Together, these predictors explained 21% of the variance in maternity leave duration and 30% of the variance in paternity leave duration. In order for all U.S. parents, including fathers and low-income mothers, to reap the benefits of parental leave, financially incentivized leave would be most beneficial.
... Working mothers in the study felt that they were helping to meet the needs of their families by providing financially, but that on occasion, their family relationships did suffer as a result of their employment. Many working mothers also felt that they were good role models for their children [16,17]. ...
... The effects on depression are driven by mothers who are working full time at three months post-childbirth, while for parenting stress, any level of work hours at three months is associated with adverse effects. Alternate shift work among employed mothers is associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress at six months [17,21,27]. As a greater number of women enter the workforce and stay there, more and more children are cared for by adults other than their parents. ...
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Background: Children during their early developmental years face several cognitive and behavioral effects that are the result of their mother work. Objectives: To assess the relationship between mothers'job and psychological state of their preschool-age children at Sakaka City in Saudi Arabia, and to compare mothers job type with the degree of loneliness feeling of their children. Design: A descriptive survey design was used. Sample: A convenient purposeful sample of 120 working mothers of different careers and their preschool-age children aged from (2-6 years). Tools included 1. A structured questionnaire developed by the researcher 2. Likert scale for preschool-age children's loneliness feeling. Results: indicated that the mothers age ranged between 31-40 years are more than a quarter (35.8%), and rest are between (20-30 years), 89.5% of them have a university education. The degree of mothers' work effect on their young children feeling of loneliness was 43.40± 1.095 very affects. On the other hand, 43.25± 3.56 was does not affect at all. Conclusions: It was concluded that there was a relationship between mothers' job and loneliness feelings of their preschool age children. The loneliness feeling for children increases related to the type of mother work where school teachers were the most mothers' career associated with a high sense of loneliness among their children.
... Working mothers in the study felt that they were helping to meet the needs of their families by providing financially, but that on occasion, their family relationships did suffer as a result of their employment. Many working mothers also felt that they were good role models for their children [16,17]. ...
... The effects on depression are driven by mothers who are working full time at three months post-childbirth, while for parenting stress, any level of work hours at three months is associated with adverse effects. Alternate shift work among employed mothers is associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress at six months [17,21,27]. As a greater number of women enter the workforce and stay there, more and more children are cared for by adults other than their parents. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Children during their early developmental years face several cognitive and behavioral effects that are the result of their mother work. Objectives: To assess the relationship between mothers'job and psychological state of their preschool-age children at Sakaka City in Saudi Arabia, and to compare mothers job type with the degree of loneliness feeling of their children. Design: A descriptive survey design was used. Sample: A convenient purposeful sample of 120 working mothers of different careers and their preschool-age children aged from (2-6 years). Tools included 1. A structured questionnaire developed by the researcher 2. Likert scale for preschool-age children's loneliness feeling. Results: indicated that the mothers age ranged between 31-40 years are more than a quarter (35.8%), and rest are between (20-30 years), 89.5% of them have a university education. The degree of mothers' work effect on their young children feeling of loneliness was 43.40± 1.095 very affects. On the other hand, 43.25± 3.56 was does not affect at all. Conclusions: It was concluded that there was a relationship between mothers' job and loneliness feelings of their preschool age children. The loneliness feeling for children increases related to the type of mother work where school teachers were the most mothers' career associated with a high sense of loneliness among their children.
... There is literature that shows that children of mothers who participate in the labour market benefit from their mother's income (rather than father's) as women tend to spend their income on children directly and therefore improve children's health outcomes (see, Duflo, 2000). At the same time, other literature identifies risks to child health arising from mother's participation in the labour market (Berger et al.,2005;Rashad and Sharaf, 2019). ...
... A study from the US by Berger et al., (2005) uses data from a National ...
Article
This thesis is composed of five chapters including three essays of original work relating to maternal employment and child health outcomes. The first chapter provides a motivation, a brief description of the data used and a summary of the findings. Chapter two, forms one of the three essays and provides findings on the impact of maternal employment and household socio-economic status on child health. The chapter uses data from Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys (UDHS) for 2006 and 2011. Chapter three is the second essay in this thesis and again uses Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys for the same years 2006 and 2011 but with a different unit of analysis from the second chapter, as it focuses on mothers instead of children. It investigates factors that influence mothers’ decision choices for employment and subsequently the employment sector. The last essay forms chapter four which uses a UK rich data set of ‘Understanding Society’ to investigate the impact of maternal employment on a child’s happiness. We make our general conclusion in chapter five and the appropriate recommendations.
... This evidence at least appears in Bernal and Keane (2010), Berger et al (2005), Ruhm (2004, Baker et al (2008), Han et al (2001), Waldfogel et.al (2002, and Gregg et al (2005), who study the impact of working mother on cognitive test scores in the beginning of elementary school. However, most of these studies are only able to follow the children for a short-time period, except Ruhm (2008) following until 11 years of children age, so that it leaves the question of whether the relationship pattern would remain the same in the long run. ...
... For instance, mothers who have characteristics associated with high ability tend to have increased employment rates (Ruhm 2004 andHill et al. 2005). This could mask the causal impacts of working mother to child's adulthood well-being. ...
... This evidence at least appears in Bernal and Keane (2010), Berger et al (2005), Ruhm (2004, Baker et al (2008), Han et al (2001), Waldfogel et.al (2002, and Gregg et al (2005), who study the impact of working mother on cognitive test scores in the beginning of elementary school. However, most of these studies are only able to follow the children for a short-time period, except Ruhm (2008) following until 11 years of children age, so that it leaves the question of whether the relationship pattern would remain the same in the long run. ...
... For instance, mothers who have characteristics associated with high ability tend to have increased employment rates (Ruhm 2004 andHill et al. 2005). This could mask the causal impacts of working mother to child's adulthood well-being. ...
Article
This study builds on the debate whether the reduced mother's time and family attention due to employment in the early life of children indeed negatively affect or even bring some advantages to the children in their later life. By connecting two waves of longitudinal data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey 1993 and 2014, this study estimates the long-term effects of early maternal employment on children's likelihood of attaining higher education, participating in employment and earning a higher salary when they are adult. The main finding suggests that neither drawbacks nor benefits of having employed mothers on children's wellbeing 21 years later are evident using ordinary least square estimation. After having a further look to heterogeneity effect, however, it is found that self-employed mothers help increase the probability of children to attain higher education in the long run. Also, mothers working in government office would likely have highly educated children and help increase a child's likelihood to earn more money during adulthood. The estimates are convincingly robust after controlling for rich sets of child, household and village characteristics. It also allows a sensitivity test through carefully deals with potentially omitted variables bias and measurement error in maternal employment.
... Four studies [16,42,58,59] included further analyses on timing of return to work often pointing to early return, i.e., within the rst year postpartum, being associated with more EBP [16, 42,59]. As these analyses were hardly comparable to each other, no meta-analysis followed. ...
... Four studies [16,42,58,59] included further analyses on timing of return to work often pointing to early return, i.e., within the rst year postpartum, being associated with more EBP [16, 42,59]. As these analyses were hardly comparable to each other, no meta-analysis followed. ...
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Introduction: Especially during infancy and early childhood the role of maternal employment for child mental health problems has been investigated. This systematic review with meta-analysis covers very recent evidence on the variables’ of interest association. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies had to compare children 0–7 years of age dependent on their mothers’ employment status, working amount, employment duration, or timing. Behavior problems, prosocial behavior, and subordinate measures, e.g., aggression, constituted child mental health outcomes. Following qualitative syntheses of evidence for the outcomes under investigation respective meta-analyses were conducted, if possible. Results: Being employed was associated with more conduct problems but less internalizing behavior problems; full-time employment was linked to more externalizing behavior problems and more hyperactivity/inattention. Longer employment duration was related to less (internalizing) behavior problems and more prosocial behavior but also more externalizing behavior problems. Qualitative syntheses indicated early maternal return to work to be associated with more externalizing behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Discussion: Whether maternal employment is associated with child mental health strongly depends on the operationalization of maternal employment and the outcome under investigation. Especially part-time employment, longer employment duration, and return to work only after the first year postpartum may be beneficial for child mental health. Practical implications pertain an expanded offer of family leave and to the endorsement of maternal employment after the first year postpartum under consideration of factors that may buffer the negative associations with full-time employment.
... Studies also suggest that the length of paid maternity leave matters for health: fewer than eight weeks of paid family leave increased the probability of reporting a poorer overall health status, and less than twelve weeks of total leave (paid and/or unpaid) was related to increased symptoms of depression Markowitz 2005, 2012). Whether leave is paid is also independently associated with health outcomes, including higher breastfeeding initiation and duration (Baker and Milligan 2008;Pac et al. 2019), increased compliance with regular medical checkup and immunization schedules (Berger et al. 2005) and improved maternal mental health Jou et al. 2018;McGovern et al. 1997). ...
... The differential impact of unpaid leave is often masked when only overall lengths of leave taken are considered: this study further points to the double penalty of the lack of income replacement during the months following birth experienced by low income, less educated women. Whether leave is paid or unpaid has implications for both maternal and child health as well as family economic security (Berger et al. 2005;Baker and Milligan 2008;Markowitz 2005, 2012). However, much of the prior literature focuses either on the unpaid leave obtained via FMLA (Han et al. 2008;Han et al. 2009;Klerman et al. 2013) or evaluates the California state PFL policy using data which does not distinguish between paid and unpaid leave (Rossin-Slater et al. 2013). ...
Article
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Introduction: Paid family leave (PFL) is an important protective policy mechanism to support the health of mothers and children and the economic security of families This paper explores the links of employment and demographic characteristics on leave type and lengths of overall, paid, and unpaid leave in a large city in the United States. Methods: Using a sample of 601 women who worked during pregnancy from the 2016 New York City Work and Family Leave Survey, multinomial and linear regression models were used to assess disparities in the type and length of leave taking. Results: Women eligible for the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) have higher relative likelihood to take only paid leave (RRR = 6.588, p < 0.01). While Black women utilized 3.739 weeks of leave more than white women overall, holding all else constant (p < 0.1), this additional leave is composed of 4.739 more weeks of unpaid leave (p < 0.05). Shortened leave taking by women with less than a college degree is driven by fewer weeks of paid leave (p < 0.01). Discussion: Using unique data from a survey of recent mothers in New York City, this study provides deeper understanding of disparities in the composition of leave. This study adds to the literature by identifying disparities in leave composition that are masked in consideration of total lengths of leave for Black women and those not eligible for FMLA protections. Given the consequences of short leave taking and reliance on unpaid leave, examination of leave composition is required to identify and address disparities.
... At the beginning of the 1990s, employers in the USA were not legally obliged to grant maternity or parental leave, in contrast to the legal provisions in the German-speaking countries in the 2000s. Studies examining data from the USA found that a return of mothers to work returning to work within three months of birth and mothers working while their children were young may have a negative impact children's cognitive development and contribute to behavioural problems [47]. Other reasons could be related to changes in educational content, social developments and in cultural differences between the culture of German-speaking countries and the USA. ...
Article
Background: The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is an assessment to evaluate children’s performance in activities of daily living. Aims: The study investigated if the normative standard scores of the PEDI are applicable to the German version of the PEDI (PEDI-G) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and whether there are differences in the applicability of the PEDI-G between the three countries. Materials and methods: 75 children with normal development (35 girls, 40 boys) from Germany (n = 17), Austria (n = 16), and Switzerland (n = 42) aged between 0.9 month and 7.3 years (SD = 2.03) participated in the study. Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-tests, univariate analyses of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey tests were applied. Results: No significant differences were identified. However, the German-speaking sample showed higher scores for the domain social function in both scales and in the Caregiver Assistance Scale self-care. Lower scores were identified in the Functional Skills Scale mobility. Conclusions and significance: The results support that the normative standard scores of the PEDI are applicable to the PEDI-G and for Austria, Germany and Switzerland, as no significant differences between the countries were identified. However, the generalizability of the results is limited due to sample size and recruitment procedures.
... We feel this direct relationship between economic empowerment and the prevalence of ECC is because of women's empowerment is envisioned as their inclusion into paid labor force [75]. Access to maternity leave may enable women to support healthy eating habits and provide oral health care to infants and toddlers [76] thereby reducing their risk for ECC. On return to work, maternal care may diminish if the mother's attention becomes divided between the child and work [77,78], negatively affecting dietary and oral hygiene habits, and increasing the risk of ECC especially for older children as the result of this study suggests. ...
Article
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Objectives: In view of the association between early childhood caries (ECC])and maternal social risk factors, this study tried to determine if there were associations between indicators of processes, outputs and outcomes of women’s empowerment, and the prevalence of ECC. Methods: In this ecological study, indicators measuring the explanatory variables - economic empowerment, decision-making and violence against women - were selected from the Integrated Results and Resources Framework of the UN-Women Strategic Plan 2018–2021 and WHO database. Indicators measuring the outcome variables - the prevalence of ECC for children aged 0 to 2years, and 3 to 5years - were extracted from a published literature. The general linear models used to determine the association between the outcome and explanatory variables were adjusted for economic level of countries. Regression estimates (B), 95% confidence intervals and partial eta squared (η2) were calculated. Results: Countries with more females living under 50% of median income had higher prevalence of ECC for 3 to 5-year olds (B=1.82, 95% CI=0.12, 3.52). Countries with higher percentage of women participating in their own health care decisions had higher prevalence of ECC for 0 to 2-year-olds (B=0.85, 95% CI=0.03, 1.67). Countries with higher percentage of women participating in decisions related to visiting family, relatives and friends had higher prevalence of ECC for 3 to 5-year-olds (B=0.67, 95% CI=0.03, 1.32). None of the indicators for violence against women was significantly associated with the prevalence of ECC. Conclusion: Empowerment of women is a welcome social development that may have some negative impact on children’s oral health. Changes in policies and norms are needed to protect children’s oral health while empowering women.
... 10 Holding other things constant, higher investments in food and healthcare will result in improved child nutrition (Leslie 1988;Oddo et al. 2018). 11 Holding other things constant, less time for childcare will reduce child human capital and nutrition (Berger, Hill, and Waldfogel 2005; Rivera-Pasquel, Escobar-Zaragoza, and González de Cosío 2015). 12 If, for example, the complementarity between maternal time and monetary investments in the production of child human capital is sufficiently large, and maternal consumption and child human capital are substitutes in household utility, then an increase in maternal wages could decrease time allocated to childcare and worsen child nutrition. ...
Article
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Improving child nutrition and empowering women are two important and closely connected development goals. Fostering female employment is often seen as an avenue to serve both these goals, especially if it helps to empower the mothers of undernourished children. However , maternal employment can influence child nutrition through different mechanisms, and the net effect may not necessarily be positive. We develop a theoretical model to show that maternal employment can affect child nutrition through changes in income, intrahousehold bargaining power, and time available for childcare. The links are analyzed empirically using panel data from farm households in rural Tanzania. We find that the links between maternal employment and child height-forage Z-scores (HAZ) are non-linear. Off-farm employment is negatively associated with child HAZ at low levels of labor supply. The association turns positive at higher levels of labor supply and negative again at very high levels. The associations between maternal on-farm work and child nutrition are weaker and not statistically significant. These findings can help to better design development interventions that foster synergies and avoid potential tradeoffs between female empowerment and child nutrition goals.
... However, it seems very likely that more time with the mother in the first months of life has an impact on children's socio-emotional outcomes. When mothers return to work within twelve weeks after giving birth, Berger et al. (2005) find an increase in problematic behavior in children. Further empirical studies find that parental bonding and minimizing stress factors is important for a child's development (Kottelenberg and Lehrer, 2014;Beeghly et al., 2017;Golding and Fitzgerald, 2017;Schore, 2017). ...
... We feel this direct relationship between economic empowerment and the prevalence of ECC is because of women's empowerment is envisioned as their inclusion into paid labor force [70]. Access to maternity leave may enable women to support healthy eating habits and provide oral health care to infants and toddlers [71] thereby reducing their risk for ECC. On return to work, maternal care may diminish if the mother's attention becomes divided between the child and work [72,73], negatively affecting dietary and oral hygiene habits, and increasing the risk of ECC especially for older children as the result of this study suggests. ...
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Objectives In view of the association between early childhood caries [ECC] and maternal social risk factors, this study tried to determine if there were associations between indicators of processes, outputs and outcomes of women’s empowerment, and the prevalence of ECC. Methods In this ecological study, indicators measuring the explanatory variables - economic empowerment, decision-making and violence against women - were selected from the Integrated Results and Resources Framework of the UN-Women Strategic Plan 2018-2021 and WHO database. Indicators measuring the outcome variables - the prevalence of ECC for children aged 0 to 2 years, and 3 to 5 years - were extracted from a published literature. The general linear models used to determine the association between the outcome and explanatory variables were adjusted for economic level of countries. Regression estimates (B), 95% confidence intervals and partial eta squared (η 2 ) were calculated. Results Countries with more females living under 50% of median income had higher prevalence of ECC for 3 to 5-year olds (B= 1.82, 95% CI= 0.12, 3.52). Countries with higher percentage of women participating in their own health care decisions had higher prevalence of ECC for 0 to 2-year-olds (B= 0.85, 95% CI= 0.03, 1.67). Countries with higher percentage of women participating in decisions related to visiting family, relatives and friends had higher prevalence of ECC for 3 to 5-year-olds (B= 0.67, 95% CI= 0.03, 1.32). None of the indicators for violence against women was significantly associated with the prevalence of ECC. Conclusion Empowerment of women is a welcome social development that may have some negative impact on children’s oral health. Changes in policies and norms are needed to protect children’s oral health while empowering women.
... There is now a substantial body of literature which has linked parental leave to improved infant health outcomes, including reduced infant hospitalizations, low birthweight, premature birth, and infant mortality, as well as improved breastfeeding duration. [4][5][6][7] However, the most robust evidence tying family leave and infant mortality comes from large international studies looking mainly at European countries. These data have shown that the strongest relationship exists between paid family leave and reduced postneonatal mortality. ...
Article
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Objective To evaluate the effect of paid family leave in California on statewide rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, postneonatal mortality, and overall infant mortality. Data Sources Live birth and death certificates from all in‐hospital deliveries occurring in California (state exposed to the family leave policy) and two unexposed states (Missouri and Pennsylvania) from 1999 to 2008 (n = 6 164 203). Study Design We used a difference‐in‐differences approach to compare rates of infant health outcomes before and after implementation of the 2004 policy in California with rates in two states without paid family leave policies. Prespecified stratified analyses examined whether policy response differed by maternal characteristics. Conditional regression models using comparisons matched on a mother's likelihood of living in California in the pre–family leave period were then employed as sensitivity analyses to confirm our findings. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Probabilistic methods were used to match live birth records to maternal and newborn hospital records. Only singleton births were included. Dyads were excluded if the infant gestational age was <23 weeks or greater than 44 weeks or if the birthweight was an outlier. Principal Findings Compared to the unexposed states, adjusted postneonatal mortality rates decreased by 12 percent in California after 2004 (aOR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80‐0.97). There were no significant effects on the other outcomes. There were no differences in the effect by race/ethnicity or insurance status except for increased odds of low birthweight among privately insured women in California after 2004. Point estimates in the propensity score–matched sensitivity models were similar to the results of the fully adjusted models for all four outcomes, but confidence intervals crossed one. Conclusions Implementation of paid family leave policies in California was associated with a 12 percent reduction in postneonatal mortality after adjusting for maternal and neonatal factors.
... The Family and Medical Leave Act provides 12 weeks of unpaid leave for qualified parents. Despite this, only about half of all employees are covered; those who have not worked at least 1,250 hours during a 12-month period or who work for small employers are not eligible for this policy [11]. According to a 2012 Family and Medical Leave Act survey, only 46% of employees took the available family or medical leave because many could not afford the unpaid time off work [12]. ...
Article
Purpose To explore the current status and determine the uniformity of parental leave policies among US radiology residency programs. Methods An electronic survey was developed and sent to 222 radiology residency program directors (PDs) in June 2019 to assess their policies and attitudes toward parental leave. The survey was administered via the Internet Qualtrics Research Suite (Qualtrics, Provo, Utah) format with four reminders sent over the course of 2 months before closing the data collection. Results In all, 74 PDs responded to the survey. Of those, 88% claimed to have a maternal leave policy (88% explicitly written and 77% paid); 80% had a paternal leave policy (88% explicitly written and 75% paid). The average length of maternal and paternal leaves was 7.4 ± 3.9 and 3.7 ± 3.7 weeks, respectively. Parental leaves were allocated at least every other year in over 70% of programs. Approximately 60% of the PDs required residents to make up call rotations for parental leaves. About 90% of responsive programs adjusted angiography and fluoroscopy rotations for trainees throughout the pregnancy or according to the trainee’s request. Policies did not generally address issues of breastfeeding and nontraditional parenthood. Conclusion The proportion of radiology programs with explicit maternal leave policies remained constant compared with previous surveys during the last two decades. However, there was a dramatic rise in the adoption of paternal leave policies. Overall, there was a lack of national uniformity in radiology residency programs’ policies concerning parental leave, leaving open the possibility of national guidance in addressing the issue.
... Most of the existing literature on breastfeeding focus on how maternal employment affects breastfeeding rates (Lindberg, 1996;Visness, et al. 1997;Berger, et al. 2005;Hawkins, et al. 2007;Guandelman, et al. 2009;Chuang, et al. 2010). Staehelin et al. (2007) exploits the paid maternity leave format implemented in Switzerland as a natural experiment and finds positive effect of the policy on breastfeeding. ...
Article
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This paper studies the long-term effects of paid parental leave policy on breastfeeding duration. I use California's Paid Family Leave mandate that was implemented in 2004 as a natural experiment to establish a causal relationship between parental time and breastfeeding duration. Using public data from the National Immunization Survey and difference-indifference estimation technique, I find evidence suggesting a positive impact of California's parental leave policy on improving breastfeeding rates, particularly for children born to poor families. My estimates suggest that breastfeeding of children from poor households improved by approximately 4 percentage points.
... Depending on the design, it can either further or hinder gender equality (Morgan and Zippel 2003;Gangl and Ziefle 2015). Well-paid leaves of short or medium length that also incentivize fathers to take leave can enhance gender equality, both by strengthening mothers' labor force attachment and by encouraging greater involvement of fathers in childcare and housework (Rossin 2011;Tanaka 2005;Ruhm 2000;Nandi et al. 2016;Lamb 2004;Huerta et al. 2013;Berger et al. 2005;Fegert et al. 2011). ...
Article
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The division of parental leave among couples today is still unequal—even in countries with progressive leave schemes. Given the gendered nature of the workplace, we examine how organizational characteristics relate to fathers’ uptake and length of parental leave as well as to the perceived career consequences of leave uptake among those fathers who took leave. In our mixed methods study, we draw on unique quantitative and qualitative data on different-sex couples with young children in Germany (2015). We find that the fear of professional repercussions and the lack of a replacement at work inhibit fathers both from taking leave in general and, for those who take leave, from taking it for more than two months. Interestingly, however, the majority of fathers who took leave did not think that their leave negatively affected their professional advancement. This positive evaluation was independent of the length of leave. We compared fathers’ perceived leave consequences to those of mothers, who tended to have a more negative view of the impact of taking leave on their careers. Both fathers and mothers were more likely to report negative career consequences if they worked in organizations that promoted a strong ideal worker norm, that is, where employees thought that they were expected to prioritize paid work over their private life.
... These factors have been linked to child behavior problems and lower performance on standardized tests related to school readiness. [18][19][20][21][22][23] In 2016, 10.5 percent of all births in the state were to mothers with less than a high school degree, up from nearly 8 percent in 2012. ...
Research
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Report prepared for human service providers, the public, and legislators by the Amherst H. Wilder Foundation, the University of Minnesota, and the Minnesota Departments of Health, Education, and Human Services. This county-level report focuses on economic, health, and family stability “risks” to healthy development of children 0-5 (e.g., percent of children in poverty, percent of children lacking health care coverage, and numbers of children per 1000 in out of home placement). It also covers extent of "reach," or the coverage of publicly funded services to meet early learning, health, and basic needs (e.g., mental health treatment in MN Health Care programs or enrollment in early childhood special education services). It also more recently includes indicators of community resilience (e.g., supports through faith groups, school, and community connections, father involvement, and neighborhood characteristics like parks and libraries)
... Apart from alleviating recruiting and retention di culties for nascent ventures, the availability of paid family leave may directly impact employee productivity through several channels. For one, the extra source of income during family leave may encourage employees to use family leave more comfortably (Baum and Ruhm, 2016;Rossin-Slater et al., 2013), thus resulting in better maternal health (Chatterji and Markowitz, 2008) and children's health and development (Berger et al., 2005;Rossin, 81 2011). The improved work-family balance and general employee well-being in turn suggest that employees may be more likely to perform better after they return to their work (Gubler et al., 2018;Moen et al., 2016). ...
Article
This dissertation consists of three self-contained chapters on strategic human capital and entrepreneurship and explores the causal impacts of specific perks, benefits, and compensation structures on worker behavior and venture outcomes. Chapter 1 addresses a popular trend in technology companies and startups of offering unlimited vacation as an employee perk. I examine whether unlimited vacation benefits firms, the mechanisms, and the contingencies based on organizational conditions in three empirical settings. Using a combination of text analysis of online reviews, difference-in-differences regression of archival data at a high-tech company, and randomized controlled experiments with online workers, I find that the perk leads to more vacation time, higher subjective productivity, and increased overall labor efficiency. These effects involve multiple mechanisms (sorting, productivity, and engagement) and are contingent on social dynamics, bundled HR practices, and the culture for punishing under-performance. Chapter 2 shifts the focus from industry trends in firm HR practices to institutional changes that affect employees’ access to benefits. Through a difference-in-differences design, I examine how employees’ access to the New Jersey Paid Family Leave program impacts the profitability of new ventures. I find that the program adversely affects the likelihood of making profits for the average new venture. The negative effect is stronger for businesses in greater financial stress and with more reliance on incumbent employees. Innovative ventures, however, are more likely to be profitable post treatment. Chapter 3, joint with Andy Wu, links worker preferences to compensation structure to explain why the distribution of equity compensation is more equal than that of salary in many startups. We propose that workers have different equality preferences for different types of payoffs and test our predictions in an experimental group production game. Results suggest that workers view salary and equity in two separate domains, and they are more inequality averse in the equity domain, implying that firms could benefit from a compensation structure that is more equitable in the equity portion. Furthermore, we find a presentation effect: separation of the two domains is triggered only when equity is shown in a different percentage form from the absolute form of salary.
... Depending on the design, it can either further or hinder gender equality (Morgan and Zippel 2003;Gangl and Ziefle 2015). Well-paid leaves of short or medium length that also incentivize fathers to take leave can enhance gender equality, both by strengthening mothers' labor force attachment and by encouraging greater involvement of fathers in childcare and housework (Rossin 2011;Tanaka 2005;Ruhm 2000;Nandi et al. 2016;Lamb 2004;Huerta et al. 2013;Berger et al. 2005;Fegert et al. 2011). ...
Thesis
Die Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Familie ist eine der größten Herausforderungen und gleichzeitig Gelingensbedingung für Geschlechtergerechtigkeit auf dem Arbeitsmarkt und im familiären Bereich. Die vorliegende Dissertation verdeutlicht in drei empirischen Papieren die Relevanz von Sorgearbeit für die Arbeitsmarktpartizipation von Frauen und Männern, sowie die Rolle von Unternehmen für das Unterfangen, berufliche und familiäre Aufgaben zu vereinbaren. Im ersten Papier fragt diese Dissertation nach der Rolle von Haus- und Sorgearbeit sowie ihrer Verteilung im Paar für die Arbeitsmarktpartizipation von Frauen und Männern. Für die Analyse werden Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) der Jahre 2001-2017 herangezogen. Um sich bestmöglich einer kausalen Identifikation anzunähern, werden First- Difference Instrumentalvariablen-Regressionen (FD-IV) geschätzt. Das zweite Papier betrachtet die Gründe von Vätern gegen eine (längere) Elternzeitnahme. Anhand eines Mixed-Methods Forschungsdesigns wird untersucht, welche betrieblichen Determinanten eine (längere) Elternzeitnutzung erklären. Darüber hinaus wird analysiert, ob und in welchem Unternehmenskontext Männer und Frauen Karriereeinbußen nach Elternzeitnutzung erfahren. Die Datenbasis sind qualitative und quantitative Daten einer Zusatzbefragung zum AID:A II Survey. Das dritte Papier untersucht die Frage nach dem Zusammenhang von Homeoffice-Nutzung und Work-Family Conflicts. Konkret wird analysiert, ob es Unterschiede nach Unternehmenskultur gibt. Auf Grundlage des LPP-ADIAB werden Multilevel-Regressionen mit fixen Effekten für Berufe separat für Männer und Frauen geschätzt. Zusammengefasst belegt die Dissertation geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede in der Herausforderung, Erwerbstätigkeit und private Verpflichtungen in Einklang zu bringen. Darüber hinaus wird die Notwendigkeit von politischen Reformen und der Handlungsbedarf, aber auch die Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten von Unternehmen verdeutlicht.
... There is now substantial evidence regarding the beneficial consequences of paid maternity leave (ML) in industrialised countries. These consequences include longer periods of breastfeeding (Berger et al., 2005;Baker and Milligan, 2008;Khanam et al., 2016;Albagli and Rau, 2018), lower mortality rates among infants and young children (Winegarden and Bracy, 1995;Ruhm, 2000;Tanaka, 2005;Fallon et al., 2017;Heymann et al., 2017), higher childhood vaccination rates (Daku et al., 2012;Khanam et al., 2016;Heymann et al., 2017) and, for mothers, better post-partum physical and mental health (Aitken et al., 2015, and literature cited therein). Research also suggests that ML has a positive effect on fertility (Winegarden and Bracy, 1995;Averett and Whittington, 2001;Risse, 2006;Luci-Greulich and Thévenon, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Analysing macro-panel data from 18 African and Asian countries over the period 1995-2016, this article investigates the effects of the level and duration of paid maternity leave on three dimensions of human development: fertility, female formal-sector employment and infant mortality. There is some evidence that, on average, extending the duration of leave leads to reductions in infant mortality and employment. However, there is no conclusive evidence that leave duration has a direct effect on fertility. In contrast, there is some evidence that higher maternity leave payments lead to higher fertility, but no evidence that payment levels have any effect on infant mortality or employment. [Social Science and Medicine, forthcoming]
... A similar trend was reported in the United States where the baseline vaccination coverage rate decreased from around 90% for 1-month-old children to 70% at 16-months old [11]. As children age, it is possible that there are more delays in attending routine visits as parents go back to working fulltime [39]. Additionally, there may be less perceived infectious risks for older children, especially if staying home during lockdown, which may explain why we found that the varicella vaccine coverage was the lowest at baseline and decreased the most after the pandemic onset as it is given as a single vaccine at 15-months old. ...
Preprint
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a disruption in childhood immunization coverage around the world. This study aimed to determine the change in immunization coverage for children under 2 years old in Ontario, Canada, comparing time periods pre-pandemic to during the pandemic. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective open cohort study, using primary care electronic medical record data from the University of Toronto Practice-Based Research Network (UTOPIAN) database, from January 2019 to December 2020. Children under 2 years old who had at least 2 visits recorded in UTOPIAN were included. We measured up-to-date (UTD) immunization coverage rates, overall and by type of vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib, Pneu-C-13, Rot, Men-C-C, MMR, Var), and on-time immunization coverage rates by age milestone (2, 4, 6, 12, 15 and 18 months). We compared average coverage rates over 3 periods of time: January 2019-March 2020 (T1); March-July 2020 (T2); and August-December 2020 (T3). Results: 12,313 children were included. Overall UTD coverage for all children was 71.0% in T1, dropped by 5.7% (95% CI: -6.2, -5.1) in T2, slightly increased in T3 but remained lower than in T1. MMR vaccine UTD coverage slightly decreased in T2 and T3 by approximately 2%. The largest decreases were seen at ages 15-month and 18-month old, with drops in on-time coverage of 14.7% (95% CI: -18.7, -10.6) and 16.4% (95% CI: -20.0, -12.8) respectively during T2. When stratified by sociodemographic characteristics, no specific subgroup of children was found to have been differentially impacted by the pandemic. Conclusion: Childhood immunization coverage rates for children under 2 years in Ontario decreased significantly during the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic and only partially recovered during the rest of 2020. Public health and educational interventions for providers and parents are needed to ensure adequate catch-up of delayed/missed immunizations to prevent potential outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.
... The type of maternity leave coverage provided is correlated to the amount of time that a new mother takes off from work (Berger, Hill, & Waldfogel, 2005). When new mothers have access to paid leave, they are more likely to spend time at home with their newborns after giving birth (Rossin-Slater, Ruhm, & Waldfogel, 2013). ...
Article
During the past four decades, most OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries have adopted or expanded paid family leave, which offers leave to workers following the birth or adoption of a child as well as care for ill family members. While the effects of paid maternity leave on child health have been the subject of a large body of research, little is known about fathers’ leave-taking and the effects of paid paternity leave. This is a limitation, since most of the recent expansion in paid family leave in OECD countries has been to expand leave benefits to fathers. Mothers’ and fathers’ leave-taking may improve child health by decreasing postpartum depression among mothers, improving maternal mental health, increasing the time spent with a child, and increasing the likelihood of child medical checkup. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of paid family leave on the wellbeing of children, extending what we know about the effects of maternity leave and establishing new evidence on paternity leave. The paper examines the effects of paid family leave expansions on country-level neonatal mortality rates, infant mortality rates, under-five mortality rates, and the measles immunization rates in 35 OECD countries, during the time period of 1990 to 2016. Using an event study design, an approximately 1.9 to 5.2 percent decrease in the infant, neonatal, and under-five mortality rates has been found following the adoption of paid maternity leave. However, the beneficial impact is not as visible for extension of paid leave to fathers. The implications and potential reasons behind the larger protective effects of maternity leave over paternity leave on child health outcomes are discussed.
... A similar trend was reported in the United States where the baseline vaccination coverage rate decreased from around 90% for 1-month-old children to 70% at 16-months old [11]. As children age, it is possible that there are more delays in attending routine visits as parents go back to working full-time [41]. Additionally, there may be less perceived infectious risks for older children, especially if staying home during lockdown, which may explain why we found that the varicella vaccine coverage was the lowest at baseline and The MMR vaccine coverage is an often-studied outcome as measles is a highly transmissible VPD. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a disruption in childhood immunization coverage around the world. This study aimed to determine the change in immunization coverage for children under 2 years old in Ontario, Canada, comparing time periods pre-pandemic to during the first year of the pandemic. Methods Observational retrospective open cohort study, using primary care electronic medical record data from the University of Toronto Practice-Based Research Network (UTOPIAN) database, from January 2019 to December 2020. Children under 2 years old who had at least 2 visits recorded in UTOPIAN were included. We measured up-to-date (UTD) immunization coverage rates, overall and by type of vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib, PCV13, Rota, Men-C-C, MMR, Var), and on-time immunization coverage rates by age milestone (2, 4, 6, 12, 15, 18 months). We compared average coverage rates over 3 periods of time: January 2019-March 2020 (T1); March-July 2020 (T2); and August-December 2020 (T3). Results 12,313 children were included. Overall UTD coverage for all children was 71.0% in T1, dropped by 5.7% (95% CI: −6.2, −5.1) in T2, slightly increased in T3 but remained lower than in T1. MMR vaccine UTD coverage slightly decreased in T2 and T3 by approximately 2%. The largest decreases were seen at ages 15-month and 18-month old, with drops in on-time coverage of 14.7% (95% CI: −18.7, −10.6) and 16.4% (95% CI: −20.0, −12.8) respectively during T2. When stratified by sociodemographic characteristics, no specific subgroup of children was found to have been differentially impacted by the pandemic. Conclusion Childhood immunization coverage rates for children under 2 years in Ontario decreased significantly during the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic and only partially recovered during the rest of 2020. Public health and educational interventions for providers and parents are needed to ensure adequate catch-up of delayed/missed immunizations to prevent potential outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.
... In addition to reduced breastfeeding, early maternal employment impedes the monitoring of children's health status. Berger et al. (2005) present associations of early maternal employment and a decrease in the use of preventive health care services (immunizations and 'well-baby' visits), while at the same time problems with externalizing behavior exacerbate. According to Morrill's (2011) instrumental variable estimates, maternal employment leads to a higher likelihood that children suffer from an adverse health event, such as overnight hospitalization, asthma episode, or injury/poisoning. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper assesses the impact of the length of maternity leave on children's health outcomes in the long-run. My quasi-experimental design evaluates an expansion in maternity leave coverage from two to six months, which occurred in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1979. The expansion came into effect after a sharp cutoff date and significantly increased the time working mothers stayed at home with their newborns during the first six months after childbirth. Using this cutoff date as a source of exogenous variation, I exploit German hospital registry data, which contains detailed information on the universe of inpatients’ diagnoses from 1995-2014. By tracking the health of treated and control children from age 16 up to age 35, this study provides new insights into the trajectory of health differentials over the life-cycle. I find that the legislative change generated positive long-term health effects: My intention-to-treat estimates show that children born after the implementation of the reform experience fewer hospital admissions and are less likely to be diagnosed with mental and behavioral disorders.
... The availability of maternity and parental leave increases the chance that people utilise the leave period and return to their pre-childbirth job once it ends (Klerman and Leibowitz, 1997), thereby stimulating continued labour market participation. 12 Moreover, it has been found that maternal care throughout children's first year of life can have a positive impact on their development (Berger et al., 2005;Baker and Milligan, 2010). Despite being provided as a cash benefit, these programmes do therefore reflect aspects of activation and human capital enhancement. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Globalization, technological change, and migration form three major challenges for European welfare states in the 21st century. These challenges are regarded as important sources of inequality on the labour market. Whereas the existing literature has mainly been focused on the sectors and occupations affected by globalization and technological change, the authors of this chapter argue that, via job polarization, these phenomena also affect the type of contract that workers have. They hypothesize that increased competition for low-paying jobs is associated with labour market flexibilization. Another major trend that they analyse is the free movement of labour. New data illustrate that labour migration from Central and Eastern European countries to Western European countries has grown slowly but substantially following recent enlargements of the Union. It has been considered a challenge for welfare states as it might contribute to feelings of economic insecurity and might erode solidarity, which forms the basis for the provision of social policy. Subsequently, the authors analyse how European welfare states have evolved over the past decades. They show that in spite of budgetary pressure stemming from globalization and migration, most countries have increased social expenditure. Furthermore, they analyse to what extent the focus has shifted from classical social protection to social investment policies to enable workers to adapt themselves to new labour market transformations. They contribute to the existing literature by covering years after the financial crisis for all EU member states and by demonstrating a novel way of correcting social expenditures for the number of recipients.
... In addition, paid family leave policies can support the transition to parenting for those financially unable to take unpaid leave, by allowing parents time to connect with their new infant and develop new parenting routines without the stressors of competing work demands (NASEM, 2019a(NASEM, , 2019b. Studies have suggested that shorter maternity leave is associated with observed infant dysregulation and irritability in maternal-child interactions (Clark et al., 1997), externalizing behaviors among children at age 4 (Berger et al., 2005), and attachment security, indirectly, through the quality of parenting interactions (Plotka & Busch-Rossnagel, 2018). Future research could determine if economic security policies such as EITC and paid family leave reduce the number of parents and families needing more intensive treatment to support their children's mental health. ...
Article
Infant and early childhood mental health (IECMH) has been defined as the capacity of infants and young children to regulate their emotions, form secure relationships, and explore their environments. For this special issue, we conducted a review of IECMH outcomes from evaluations of couple- and family-based psychosocial interventions not explicitly designed for trauma exposure published from 2010 through 2019, following Evidence Base Update criteria and the current convention of classifying general categories of intervention approaches rather than the former practice of evaluating specific brand-name packaged programs. Full-text review of 695 articles resulted in 39 articles eligible for categorization into intervention approaches, taking into consideration the theoretical orientation of the treatment, the population served, the intervention participants, the target outcomes, the treatment theory of change, and the degree to which the intervention was standardized across participants. Four intervention approaches were identified in this review as Probably Efficacious: Behavioral Interventions to Support Parents of Toddlers, Interventions to Support Adolescent Mothers, Tiered Interventions to Provide Support Based on Assessed Risk, and Home Visiting Interventions to Provide Individualized Support to Parents. Other intervention approaches were classified as Possibly Efficacious, Experimental, or did not have sufficient evidence in this time period to classify under these criteria. Further research could explore how to ensure that all families who need support can receive it, such as by increasing the reach of effective programs and by decreasing the number of families needing additional support.
... The adduced evidence in favour of this view is that a long maternity leave, when available, is intensely used by all working mothers. Another consideration is related to child well-being, with evidence suggesting that maternal employment seems to have adverse effects on early cognitive and behavioural child outcomes, especially if employment is resumed full time in the first year of the child's life (Brooks-Gunn, Han, and Waldfogel, 2002;Berger, Hill, and Waldfogel, 2005), but also in pre-school years (Ermisch and Francesconi, 2013). On the positive side, instead, Dustmann and Schönberg (2012) find no effect of long leave on child outcomes, while Ruhm (2000) and Tanaka (2005) provide evidence that infant mortality rates decrease, and child health improves. ...
Research
Full-text available
Generous government-mandated parental leave is generally viewed as an effective policy to support women's careers around childbirth. But does it help women to reach top positions in the upper pay echelon of their firms? Using longitudinal employer-employee matched data for the entire Norwegian population, we address this question exploiting a series of reforms that expanded paid leave from 30 weeks in 1989 to 52 weeks in 1993. The representation of women in top positions has only moderately increased over time, and career profiles of female top earners within firms are significantly different from those of their male counterparts. The reforms did not affect, and possibly decreased, the probability for women to be at the top over their life cycle. We discuss some implications of this result to put into perspective the design of new family-friendly policy interventions. JEL Classification: J18, J21, J22, J24, M14
Article
The aim of this study was to determine whether the effects of work and family reconciliation policy on the gender wage gap are moderated by institutional contexts of production and welfare regime. Using time‐series analysis for 13 countries from 1981 to 2015, the study revealed a strong association between childcare and a lower gender wage gap in the Coordinated Market Economies (CMEs)/social democratic welfare states but not in Liberal Market Economies (LMEs)/liberal welfare states. The study also found that the impact of leave generosity on the gender wage gap in CMEs/social democratic welfare states is less salient than in CMEs/continental welfare states. This study highlights the extent to which family policy affects the gender wage gap hinges on how each country organises its market coordination and welfare institutions and pushes the current literature forward to a question of ‘what kinds of’ family policy matters in ‘which’ production and welfare regimes.
Article
We estimate the impact on female labor outcomes of the extension in maternity leave period from 12 to 14 weeks, an amendment to the Colombian labor law in 2011. To identify this impact, we compare labor market outcomes of different groups of individuals with women of child-bearing age. First we compared two groups of women with different fertility rates (low elasticity of substitution), finding that, as result of the extension, women in the high-fertility age group experience an increase in inactivity, informality, and self-employment. When comparing high-fertility age women with men in the same age group (high elasticity of substitution), we find that the extension increases the probability of unemployment, informality and self-employment and decreases wages of women compared with men.
Article
Objective: We aimed to determine whether the association between time off work and a near-exclusive breastfeeding trajectory is moderated by perceived employer support for breastfeeding. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of working mothers (n = 1,468) from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a longitudinal observational (2005-2007) study of U.S. infant feeding behaviors. Previous studies have found four latent infant feeding subgroups in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II sample, each following a distinct breastfeeding intensity trajectory. Multivariate least-squares regression was conducted to estimate whether time off work after delivery predicted increased membership in the subgroup characterized by near-exclusive breastfeeding, and whether this association was moderated by perceived employer support for workplace breastfeeding. Results: Both time off work and perception of more breastfeeding support were independently, positively related to probability of membership in the near-exclusive breastfeeding trajectory (β = 0.16, p = .019, and β = 0.14, p = .004, respectively). The interaction of these two factors suggests an attenuation effect. The addition of paid leave to the model did not change the estimates. Conclusion: The positive relationship between time off and trajectory membership was significant only for mothers who perceived their workplaces to be unsupportive of breastfeeding.
Article
Paid family medical leave (PFML) offers infants, parents, and society at large numerous health and economic benefits. It has been shown to improve neonatal and maternal outcomes, breastfeeding rates, familial relationships, and decrease gender inequalities in the workplace. Though the economic feasibility of PFML has been well established in many countries, the USA lacks a cohesive and comprehensive federal PFML policy. Neonatal healthcare providers play a critical role in impacting neonatal health and should actively advocate for the development and promotion of a federal PFML policy, particularly one that is inclusive of both mothers and fathers and is at least 12 weeks in duration.
Article
Research has shown health and economic benefits to having access to paid family and medical leave, yet eligibility requirements restrict coverage. The impact and variation of these requirements across countries have not been studied. This study addresses this gap using original data on legislated tenure requirements and worker tenure as reported in national household surveys from countries in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to estimate the percentage of workers who would not be eligible for paid leave benefits because of tenure requirements. As the need for different types of leave varies over the life course, ineligibility rates are estimated by age. Findings show that across all types of leave, younger workers (age 20–29 years) were substantially less likely to be eligible than older workers, and that rates of ineligibility declined consistently with each five-year increase in age. This study highlights the important health and economic implications of policy design decisions that can exclude vulnerable sectors of the population.
Technical Report
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PREDICT-ALIGN-PREVENT Manchester, Winnipesaukee Region, and Greater North Country Technical Report for the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services
Article
Despite significant progress in recent decades, the recruitment, advancement, and promotion of women in academia remain low. Women represent a large portion of the talent pool in academia, and receive >50% of all PhDs, but this has not yet translated into sustained representation in faculty and leadership positions. Research indicates that women encounter numerous "chutes" that remove them from academia or provide setbacks to promotion at all stages of their careers. These include the perception that women are less competent and their outputs of lesser quality, implicit bias in teaching evaluations and grant funding decisions, and lower citation rates. This review aims to (1) synthesize the "chutes" that impede the careers of women faculty, and (2) provide feasible recommendations, or "ladders" for addressing these issues at all career levels. Enacting policies that function as "ladders" rather than "chutes" for academic women is essential to even the playing field, achieve gender equity, and foster economic, societal, and cultural benefits of academia.
Article
Introduction Several U.S. states have implemented paid family leave policies for new parents. Few studies have evaluated the impacts of U.S. paid family leave policies on families’ health. This study tests the hypothesis that paid family leave policies in California and New Jersey improved parent and child mental health. Methods Using national data from the 1997–2016 waves of the National Health Interview Survey, the study assessed changes in parental psychological distress (measured using the Kessler 6 score, n=28,638) and child behavioral problems (measured using the Mental Health Indicator score, n=15,987) using difference-in-differences analysis, a quasi-experimental method that compared outcomes before and after the implementation of paid family leave policies in California and New Jersey while accounting for secular trends in states without paid family leave policies. Secondary analyses were conducted to assess differential responses among prespecified subgroups. Data analysis was conducted in 2018–2021. Results Exposure to paid family leave policies was associated with decreased psychological distress among parents (−0.49, 95% CI= −0.77, −0.21). There was no association between the paid family leave policies and children's behavioral problems (−0.06, 95% CI= −0.13, 0.012). Associations varied by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, with some subgroups experiencing benefits, whereas others were negatively impacted. Conclusions Study findings suggest that state paid family leave policies improved mental health among parents, with mixed findings among children, including positive, negative, or no changes in mental health, depending on the subgroup. Future work should clarify how more recent state policies, some of which provide more generous benefits and job protections for low-income parents, influence health among affected families.
Article
We conducted the first experimental tests of the impact of men's access to paid parental leave on anticipated well‐being among heterosexual men and women in the United States. Participants read a news article reporting that paid paternity leave was either likely or unlikely in the United States in the near future, completed a future life‐brainstorming task designed to make this scenario more salient, and reported anticipated outcomes pertaining to well‐being (predicted relationship satisfaction, positive and negative emotions, and life satisfaction). Results from an online sample (Experiment 1, N = 694) revealed that both men and women predicted more positive outcomes when they believed paid paternity leave would (vs. would not) exist. In contrast, results from students (Experiment 2, N = 199) revealed that women predicted better outcomes in the leave (vs. no leave) condition, while men predicted consistently positive outcomes regardless of condition. Looking at the interaction the other way, paternity leave closed a gender gap in anticipated well‐being favoring men. Exploratory analyses revealed that students anticipated increased relationship gender equality in division of labor as a result of paternity leave, but only in gender counter‐stereotypic domains (i.e., paid work outside the home for women; unpaid childcare and housework for men).
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We investigate the relationship between social media use and emotional and behavioural outcomes in adolescence using data from a large and detailed longitudinal study of teenagers from the UK. We use individual fixed effects, propensity score matching and treatment effects with Inverse Probability Weighted Regression Adjustment, controlling for a rich set of children’s and family’s characteristics and using comprehensive sensitivity analyses and tests to assess the potential role of unobserved variables. Our results show that prolonged use of social media (more than 4 hours per day) is significantly associated with poor emotional health and increased behavioural difficulties, and in particular decreased perception of self-value and increased incidence of hyperactivity, inattention and conduct problems. However, limited use of social media (less than 3 hours per day) compared to no use has some moderate association with positive peer relationships.
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Generous government-mandated parental leave is generally viewed as an effective policy to support women’s careers around childbirth. But does it help women to reach top positions in the upper pay echelon of their firms? Using longitudinal employer–employee matched data for the entire Norwegian population, we address this question exploiting a series of reforms that expanded paid leave from 30 weeks in 1989 to 52 weeks in 1993. The representation of women in top positions has only moderately increased over time, and career profiles of female top earners within firms are significantly different from those of their male counterparts. The reforms did not affect, and possibly decreased, the probability for women to be at the top over their life cycle. We discuss some implications of this result to put into perspective the design of new family-friendly policy interventions.
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A variety of civic actors—government, associations, and local agencies—work to help parents advance the vitality of our youngest children. Empirical findings accumulating over the past half‐century identify benefits for infants and toddlers stemming from three policy models: paid leave for parents after a newborn arrives; regular pediatric assessments, including home visiting; and quality caregivers situated in homes or centers. We review what is known about the effects of these policies, along with constituent elements of quality (mediators) that operate proximal to children's health, cognitive, and emotional growth. Much has been learned about how such collective action, carried out by local organizations, advance infant–toddler development. Methodological advances foster new knowledge: moving closer to causal inferences and pinpointing social mechanisms that enrich infant–toddler settings. Less well understood is how policy levers can move the malleable elements of program quality to raise the magnitude or sustainability of program effects. We note the benefits of income‐support efforts for fragile families, while urging new work on how economic dynamics touch the capacity of parents and caregivers to better nurture infants and toddlers.
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Objectives Essential fatty acids (EFA), including linoleic acid (LA) and alpha‐linolenic acid (ALA), are indispensable for proper brain growth especially in the first months after birth when it develops most rapidly. Since fats, especially EFA, in breast milk are highly variable between mothers, we indirectly examined whether milk energy, LA and ALA content in breast milk affect volume and shape of the infant's head. Methods The study encompassed 60 mothers and their healthy term‐born infants between the third and sixth month of lactation. The percentage of macronutrients and dry matter in human milk samples was assessed using Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and LA and ALA concentrations in breast milk were determined using gas chromatography (GC). Infant head measurements were taken using standard anthropometric equipment and methods. Results LA content in breast milk was found to be positively associated with head volume in boys. Furthermore, ALA content was positively associated with the head height‐to‐length ratio thus with more arched head in infants irrespective of sex. No relationship was found between milk energy content in mothers' milk and infant head dimensions. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between EFA concentration in human milk and infant head dimensions. Given that LA and ALA in human milk are variable in women and due to the extremely rapid growth of nerve tissue in the first months of life, adequate supply of EFA in breast milk should attract the attention of public health sciences.
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Despite the critical role that paid maternity leave can assume in the economic lives of low‐income families, research to date has paid insufficient attention to whether paid maternity leave reduces welfare use for low‐income families. Using the Current Population Survey (CPS) March Supplement 2007–2014 with the difference‐in‐difference (DiD) technique, this study finds a significant policy effect of paid maternity leave on reducing the probability of using Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), TANF benefit amounts and TANF participation length. This study confirms that paid maternity leave is likely to prevent low‐income families from using welfare during job interruptions stemming from the birth of a child. Given that TANF is often associated with negative political and social connotations, paid maternity leave can be used as an important social policy to improve economic security as well as offer empowerment in overall social standing for low‐income mothers. The discussion focuses on the implications of the findings in a broader context of American welfare states.
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The relationship between maternal employment and the educational attainment of children is examined using data from the third wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Because maternal employment is potentially endogenous with respect to child educational attainment, instrumental variable estimation is used. In this analysis, two sets of instruments are used based on whether the mother’s employment was affected by the Marriage Bar that was in place at that time in Ireland. A Marriage Bar is the requirement that women in certain jobs must leave that job when they marry. It is found that the probability that a child completes university is 1–3 percentage points lower for each additional year of maternal employment during the first 18 years of the child’s life.
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Context: The New York Paid Family Leave (NYPFL) law was passed in April 2016 and took effect January 1, 2018. Expanding paid family leave (PFL) coverage has been proposed as a public health strategy to improve population health and reduce disparities. Objective: To describe first-year enrollment in NYPFL and to evaluate utilization of NYPFL benefits. Design: Observational study. Setting: New York State. Participants: Employees enrolled in the NYPFL program (N = 8 528 580). Methods: We merged NYPFL enrollment and claim data sets for 2018. Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess utilization by demographic variables and business size. Main outcome measures: Utilization and duration of NYPFL to bond with a newborn or care for a family member differed by employees' age, sex, race/ethnicity, residence, income, and business size. Results: Approximately 90% of working New Yorkers (N = 8 528 580) were enrolled in NYPFL. First-year utilization of PFL for newborn bonding and family care (9.4 and 4.0 per 1000 employees, respectively) was higher than comparable state PFL programs in California, New Jersey, or Rhode Island. An estimated 38.5% of employed women in New York utilized PFL for newborn bonding. Employees who worked at small businesses (1-49 employees) had lower utilization of PFL. Employees with lower incomes were more likely to claim PFL and employees of color or with lower incomes were more likely to take the maximum 8 weeks of PFL. Conclusions: These findings suggest that state PFL programs increase equity in employment benefits. Wider adoption of state/federal PFL programs could help reduce health disparities and improve maternal and infant health outcomes.
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The intersection of maternal employment and child care in the 1st 3 yrs of life was considered. The cognitive and behavioral effects of continuity, intensity, and timing of maternal employment in the 1st yr and of the different types of child-care arrangements were investigated. Employment in the 1st yr had detrimental effects on the cognitive and behavioral development of all children regardless of gender or poverty status. Infancy-care arrangements affected cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Grandmother care was the most beneficial arrangement for cognitive development of children in poverty. Regarding behavioral development, mother care was most beneficial for boys, and baby-sitter care was most beneficial for girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The propensity score is the conditional probability of assignment to a particular treatment given a vector of observed covariates. Previous theoretical arguments have shown that subclassification on the propensity score will balance all observed covariates. Subclassification on an estimated propensity score is illustrated, using observational data on treatments for coronary artery disease. Five subclasses defined by the estimated propensity score are constructed that balance 74 covariates, and thereby provide estimates of treatment effects using direct adjustment. These subclasses are applied within subpopulations, and model-based adjustments are then used to provide estimates of treatment effects within these subpopulations. Two appendixes address theoretical issues related to the application: the effectiveness of subclassification on the propensity score in removing bias, and balancing properties of propensity scores with incomplete data. Statistics Version of Record
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Matched sampling is a method for selecting units from a large reservoir of potential controls to produce a control group of modest size that is similar to a treated group with respect to the distribution of observed covariates. We illustrate the use of multivariate matching methods in an observational study of the effects of prenatal exposure to barbiturates on subsequent psychological development. A key idea is the use of the propensity score as a distinct matching variable. Statistics Version of Record
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This paper considers causal inference and sample selection bias in nonexperimental settings in which (i) few units in the nonexperimental comparison group are comparable to the treatment units, and (ii) selecting a subset of comparison units similar to the treatment units is difficult because units must be compared across a high-dimensional set of pretreatment characteristics. We discuss the use of propensity score-matching methods, and implement them using data from the National Supported Work experiment. Following LaLonde (1986), we pair the experimental treated units with nonexperimental comparison units from the CPS and PSID, and compare the estimates of the treatment effect obtained using our methods to the benchmark results from the experiment. For both comparison groups, we show that the methods succeed in focusing attention on the small subset of the comparison units comparable to the treated units and, hence, in alleviating the bias due to systematic differences between the treated and comparison units. © 2001 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technolog
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This study investigates the economic consequences of rights to paid parental leave in nine European countries over the 1969 through 1993 period. Since women use virtually all parental leave in most nations, men constitute a reasonable comparison group, and most of the analysis examines how changes in paid leave affect the gap between female and male labor market outcomes. The employment-to-populations ratios of women in their prime childbearing years are also compared with those of corresponding aged men and older females. Parental leave is associated with increases in women's employment, but with reductions in their relative wages at extended durations.
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We investigated the effects of early maternal employment on children's cognitive outcomes, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on 1,872 children who can be followed from birth to age 7 or 8. We found some persistent adverse effects of first-year maternal employment and some positive effects of second- and third-year maternal employment on cognitive outcomes for non-Hispanic white children, but not for African American or Hispanic children. These effects are present even after we controlled for a range of individual and family characteristics that affect child development, including those that are likely to be correlated with maternal employment, such as breast-feeding and the use of nonmaternal child care. Controlling for family fixed effects reduces the effects of early maternal employment on some cognitive outcomes but not on others.
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The data set known as Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (SLSY) offers unusual opportunuities for research on questions not easily purpued by developmental psychologists. This article provides a history of Children of the NLSY, describes the data set with special focus on the child outcome measures and a subset of maternal life history measures, highlights several of the research and policy relevant issues that may be addressed, and shows how the intersection of children's and mothers' lives may be studied in less static, more life-course oriented ways. Examplars are given in the topics of maternal employment and child care, adolescent pregnancy and child rearing, divorce, povert, and multigenerational parenting
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Context A number of studies suggest a positive association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in early and middle childhood. However, the only previous study that investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and intelligence in adults had several methodological shortcomings.Objective To determine the association between duration of infant breastfeeding and intelligence in young adulthood.Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective longitudinal birth cohort study conducted in a sample of 973 men and women and a sample of 2280 men, all of whom were born in Copenhagen, Denmark, between October 1959 and December 1961. The samples were divided into 5 categories based on duration of breastfeeding, as assessed by physician interview with mothers at a 1-year examination.Main Outcome Measures Intelligence, assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) at a mean age of 27.2 years in the mixed-sex sample and the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP) test at a mean age of 18.7 years in the all-male sample. Thirteen potential confounders were included as covariates: parental social status and education; single mother status; mother's height, age, and weight gain during pregnancy and cigarette consumption during the third trimester; number of pregnancies; estimated gestational age; birth weight; birth length; and indexes of pregnancy and delivery complications.Results Duration of breastfeeding was associated with significantly higher scores on the Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale WAIS IQs. With regression adjustment for potential confounding factors, the mean Full Scale WAIS IQs were 99.4, 101.7, 102.3, 106.0, and 104.0 for breastfeeding durations of less than 1 month, 2 to 3 months, 4 to 6 months, 7 to 9 months, and more than 9 months, respectively (P = .003 for overall F test). The corresponding mean scores on the BPP were 38.0, 39.2, 39.9, 40.1, and 40.1 (P = .01 for overall F test).Conclusion Independent of a wide range of possible confounding factors, a significant positive association between duration of breastfeeding and intelligence was observed in 2 independent samples of young adults, assessed with 2 different intelligence tests.
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From a theoretical perspective, a paid leave policy for childbirth has two effects: It encourages some women to interrupt work for a longer time, and it entices other women to return to their job after birth rather than quit, resulting in a shorter interruption of work. It is, thus, ambiguous on theoretical grounds alone whether, on average, paid leave leads to longer or shorter interruptions of work. This issue is investigated empirically in an economic framework with survival analysis and data from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth. Women with access to paid leave were found to work later into pregnancy, to be less likely to work during the birth month, and to start work sooner once the infant was at least 2 months old. For women who had paid leave available, additional weeks of leave lengthened work interruptions but at a decreasing rate. All women in the sample had worked continuously for at least 6 months when they became pregnant and did not quit their jobs during pregnancy.
Article
Women's labor force decisions following childbirth are often pivotal in determining their later occupational attainment. This article looks at the determinants of job changing and labor force interruptions among employed women following childbirth, focusing on the working conditions and benefits provided by organizations. Using interviews with 324 randomly selected employed pregnant women, we modeled turnover behavior across the first year postpartum with information on family characteristics, workplace policies in the respondent's last job, and child care use. Results showed that several employer policies significantly decreased job attrition after controlling for the effects of wages, partner's income, and number of existing children- the most important being the length of leave available for childbirth and the ability to avoid mandatory overtime upon return. Supervisor and coworker social support were also effective in preventing turnover among childbearing women. Results also showed some important differences in the causes of turnover that resulted in labor force exits rather than job changes. All else equal, women who held traditional ideas about mothers' responsibilities for home and child care were considerably more likely to experience a labor force interruption following childbirth than others.
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Monte Carlo methods are used to study the efficacy of multivariate matched sampling and regression adjustment for controlling bias due to specific matching variables when dependent variables are moderately nonlinear in . The general conclusion is that nearest available Mahalanobis metric matching in combination with regression adjustment on matched pair differences is a highly effective plan for controlling bias due to .
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To examine relations between time in nonmaternal care through the first 4.5 years of life and children's socioemotional adjustment, data on social competence and problem behavior were examined when children participating in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care were 4.5 years of age and when in kindergarten. The more time children spent in any of a variety of nonmaternal care arrangements across the first 4.5 years of life, the more externalizing problems and conflict with adults they manifested at 54 months of age and in kindergarten, as reported by mothers, caregivers, and teachers. These effects remained, for the most part, even when quality, type, and instability of child care were controlled, and when maternal sensitivity and other family background factors were taken into account. The magnitude of quantity of care effects were modest and smaller than those of maternal sensitivity and indicators of family socioeconomic status, though typically greater than those of other features of child care, maternal depression, and infant temperament. There was no apparent threshold for quantity effects. More time in care not only predicted problem behavior measured on a continuous scale in a dose-response pattern but also predicted at-risk (though not clinical) levels of problem behavior, as well as assertiveness, disobedience, and aggression.
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This policy statement on breastfeeding replaces the previous policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics, reflecting the considerable advances that have occurred in recent years in the scientific knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding, in the mechanisms underlying these benefits, and in the practice of breastfeeding. This document summarizes the benefits of breastfeeding to the infant, the mother, and the nation, and sets forth principles to guide the pediatrician and other health care providers in the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding. The policy statement also delineates the various ways in which pediatricians can promote, protect, and support breastfeeding, not only in their individual practices but also in the hospital, medical school, community, and nation.
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Propensity score matching refers to a class of multivariate methods used in comparative studies to construct treated and matched control samples that have similar distributions on many covariates. This matching is the observational study analog of randomization in ideal experiments, but is far less complete as it can only balance the distribution of observed covariates, whereas randomization balances the distribution of all covariates, both observed and unobserved. An important feature of propensity score matching is that it can be easily combined with model-based regression adjustments or with matching on a subset of special prognostic covariates or combinations of prognostic covariates that have been identified as being especially predictive of the outcome variables. We extend earlier results by developing approximations for the distributions of covariates in matched samples created with linear propensity score methods for the practically important situation where matching uses both the estimated linear propensity scores and a set of special prognostic covariates. Such matching on a subset of special prognostic covariates is an observational study analog of blocking in a randomized experiment. An example combining propensity score matching with Mahalanobis metric matching and regression adjustment is presented that demonstrates the flexibility of these methods for designing an observational study that effectively reduces both bias due to many observed covariates and bias and variability due to a more limited subset of covariates.
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This analysis extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine the potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. I hypothesize that women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. To test this hypothesis, this analysis uses data from Cycle IV of the National Survey of Family Growth to examine the relationship between women's postpartum employment and breastfeeding behaviors in the U.S. from 1980 to 1986. Analyses find that significantly more women who are employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed full-time, suggesting that conflicts between breastfeeding and working at a job vary by the intensity of the employment. Further, a discrete-time hazard model finds that women are more likely to stop breastfeeding in the month they enter employment, suggesting that these behaviors constrain each other. The policy implications of these constraints are examined.
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Family leave coverage increased after the passage of the Family and Medical Leave Act in 1993, the increase was sharpest among workers covered by the Act, suggesting that the law had a positive impact on coverage.
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A comparison was carried out between the propensity score and prognostic models in estimating treatment effects from observational studies. One issue investigated was the effect of estimating the propensity score on estimators of treatment effect. It was found that estimating the propensity score introduced no additional bias. A second question addressed comparisons of the propensity score and prognostic approach when a confounder is omitted. The results indicate that biases due to omitted covariates are large and of the same magnitude. Third, misspecifications of the propensity score were compared to misspecified response models. Here it was found that estimators obtained from incorrect response models had much larger biases than estimators from incorrectly estimated propensity scores. In all cases there were two types of models, one involving a continuous and one a binary response. Least squares estimators for the continuous response were compared to stratified mean differences between treatment groups. For the binary response maximum likelihood estimators of the odds ratio were compared to Mantel-Haenszel estimators. In both cases the strata were based on the quintiles of the true and estimated propensity scores.
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The ability of matched sampling and linear regression adjustment to reduce the bias of an estimate of the treatment effect in two sample observational studies is investigated for a simple matching method and five simple estimates. Monte Carlo results are given for moderately linear exponential response surfaces and analytic results are presented for quadratic response surfaces. The conclusions are (1) in general both matched sampling and regression adjustment can be expected to reduce bias, (2) in some cases when the variance of the matching variable differs in the two populations both matching and regression adjustment can increase bias, (3) when the variance of the matching variable is the same in the two populations and the distributions of the matching variable are symmetric the usual covariance adjusted estimate based on random samples is almost unbiased, and (4) the combination of regression adjustment in matched samples generally produces the least biased estimate.
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With increased numbers of women employed in their children’s first year of life and with increased attention being paid by parents and policy makers to the importance of early experiences for children, establishing the links that might exist between early maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes is more important than ever. Negative associations between maternal employment during the first year of life and children’s cognitive outcomes at age 3 (and later ages) have been reported using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–Child Supplement. However, it was not known whether these findings would be replicated in another study, nor whether these results were due to features of child care (e.g., quality, type), home environment (e.g., provision of learning), and/or parenting (e.g., sensitivity). This study explored these issues using data on 900 European American children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, which provides information on child cognitive scores at 15, 24, and 36 months, as well as data about the home environment (as assessed by the Home Observation of the Measurement of the Environment Scale), parental sensitivity, and child–care quality and type over the first 3 years of life. Maternal employment by the ninth month was found to be linked to lower Bracken School Readiness scores at 36 months, with the effects more pronounced when mothers were working 30 hr or more per week and with effects more pronounced for certain subgroups (i.e., children whose mothers were not sensitive, boys, and children with married parents). Although quality of child care, home environment, and maternal sensitivity also mattered, the negative effects of working 30 hr or more per week in the first 9 months were still found, even when controlling for child–care quality, the quality of the home environment, and maternal sensitivity. Implications for policy are also discussed.
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This article uses data from employer surveys and the March Current Population Survey to investigate the impact of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) on coverage, leave-taking, employment, and earnings. The variation in state laws prior to the FMLA and the variation in coverage under the FMLA provides a “natural experiment” in which the effect of the law can be compared for treatment and con-trol groups. Although the FMLA covers less than half of workers in the private sector (many of whom already had coverage pre-FMLA), this article finds that leave cover-age and usage did increase post-FMLA. The other surprising finding is that this mandated benefit had no significant negative effects on women's employment or wages. ©1999 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
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CPS data for 1979 to 1988 are used to examine the determinants of employment, actual work, and maternity leave for women in the year following childbirth. Women with better market skills (higher expected wages, older, more education) are more likely than other new mothers to have a job and to work. Among employed women, paid leave is also positively related to market skills. Work responds to childbirth more than employment does, with the greatest differences in the first three months following childbirth. Therefore, most women working when their child was one year old had returned to work within three months of childbirth.
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This article investigates the long-term impact of early maternal employment on children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Non-Hispanic White and African American children aged 3 to 4 in the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were followed longitudinally to see whether the effects that prior studies found at age 3 to 4 persist into the school-age years (ages 7 to 8) or whether those effects attenuate over time. The empirical results indicate that maternal employment in the 1st year of a child's life has significant negative effects on White children's cognitive outcomes. These effects persist to ages 7 or 8 for some children but not for others. We also found some negative effects of maternal employment in the 1st year on behavioral problems as assessed at age 7 or 8, but again these effects are found only for White children.
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Stress-dependent porosity and permeability effects have been widely studied at the laboratory scale, as they can significantly affect reserve estimates, well production rate and profitability. Based on current experimental data and theories, a general analytical method of calculating stress-dependent porosity and permeability is developed and applied to a wellbore producing oil from unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sand, with the aid of a coupled geomechanical model by which stress distributions around the wellbore can be specified. For clean weak sand, nonlinear elastic theory is appropriate for calculations of stress-dependent rock properties such as compressibility, porosity and permeability. When evaluated in terms of pore pressure variations, the stress-dependent aspect of porosity and permeability may be negligible as far as stress analysis concerned. With input of different stress-compressibility relationships, the model can be used to help screen those reservoirs for which the effect of stress on permeability should be considered during geomechanical analysis (sand production prediction, reservoir stress arching and shear, plasticity onset, etc.). Also, it can be used for analyzing formation compaction that results from the decrease of stress-dependent porosity. The model limitations have been discussed and it is believed that a microscopic approach based on particulate mechanics may be valuable for future research. Different boundary conditions commonly used in current geomechanics models have been compared and discussed in the development of the poro-inelastic geomechanics model, and boundary restraint is demonstrated to be a critical factor to stress solutions.
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This chapter provides an overview of the methodological and practical issues that arise when estimating causal relationships that are of interest to labor economists. The subject matter includes identification, data collection, and measurement problems. Four identification strategies are discussed, and five empirical examples — the effects of schooling, unions, immigration, military service, and class size — illustrate the methodological points. In discussing each example, we adopt an experimentalist perspective that emphasizes the distinction between variables that have causal effects, control variables, and outcome variables. The chapter also discusses secondary datasets, primary data collection strategies, and administrative data. The section on measurement issues focuses on recent empirical examples, presents a summary of empirical findings on the reliability of key labor market data, and briefly reviews the role of survey sampling weights and the allocation of missing values in empirical research.
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This study investigates the impact of parental leave laws, policies that help families balance work and family life, and the supply, cost, and quality of substitutes for the mother's time on how soon mothers begin working outside the home following childbirth. The data come from the National Child Care Survey 1990, a survey of 4,400 families with children under age 13, and A Profile of Child Care Settings, a study of child care centers conducted at the same time in the same communities. The sample consists of 613 mothers who had a child in the year before the survey. Proportional hazards models were used to model the effects of policies on the risk of working within the year after childbirth, controlling for characteristics of the mother and the family. The results suggest that employer policies affect how quickly mothers who had been employed prior to the birth reenter the workforce. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/69130/2/10.1177_0730888496023004004.pdf
Article
The ability of matched sampling and linear regression adjustment to reduce the bias of an estimate of the treatment effect in two sample observational studies is investigated for a simple matching method and five simple estimates. Monte Carlo results are given for moderately linear exponential response surfaces and analytic results are presented for quadratic response surfaces. The conclusions are (1) in general both matched sampling and regression adjustment can be expected to reduce bias, (2) in some cases when the variance of the matching variable differs in the two populations both matching and regression adjustment can increase bias, (3) when the variance of the matching variable is the same in the two populations and the distributions of the matching variable are symmetric the usual covariance adjusted estimate based on random samples is almost unbiased, and (4) the combination of regression adjustment in matched samples generally produces the least biased estimate.
Article
In the United States and Britain, there is a 'family gap' between the wages of mothers and other women. Differential returns to marital and parental status explain 40-50 percent of the gender gap. Another 30-40 percent is explained by women's lower levels of work experience and lower returns to experience. Taking advantage of 'quasi experiments' in job-protected maternity leave in the United States and Britain, this article finds that women who had leave coverage and returned to work after childbirth received a wage premium that offset the negative wage effects of children. Copyright 1998 by University of Chicago Press.
Article
In this paper we make use of the panel aspects of the German GSOEP, the Swedish HUS and the British BHPS data. In these data sets we known month and year of childbirth and the month to month labor force status of the mother also before giving birth. This permits analysis of labor force transitions triggered by child births of different birth orders. From macro data Swedish women are known to have the highest labor force participation. The difference in total labor force participation of women is totally a result of fewer mothers entering the labor force and entering later in Germany and Great Britain than in Sweden. This paper shows that before birth of first child there is no such difference. We find that German and British women have even higher full-time labor force participation than Swedish women 12 months before the birth of the first child. The difference is more pronounced for second and third births than for first births. We suggest that these differences are caused by different family policy regimes where Germany can be characterized as a breadwinner regime and Sweden a regime oriented towards equal role sharing of father and mother. Our results on determinants of being in the labor force both after and before the birth of a child as well as determinants of the tempo of entering the labor force after birth shows that women`s own human capital is important both in Germany and Great Britain, whereas in Sweden also less educated women have entered the labor force by the time the child is 2 years old.
Article
We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the relationships between maternity leave coverage and U.S. women’s post-birth leave taking and employment decisions from 1988 to 1996. We find that women who were employed before birth are working much more quickly post-birth than women who were not. We also find that, among mothers who were employed pre-birth, those in jobs that provided leave coverage are more likely to take a leave of up to 12 weeks, but return more quickly after 12 weeks. Our results suggest that maternity leave coverage is related to leave taking, as well as the length of time that a new mother stays home after a birth. Copyright Springer-Verlag 2004
Article
PIP In view of the significant and articulate minority view among pediatricians that breast feeding is not "worth the bother" in developed countries, this review of the literature delves into the evidence from both developed and developing countries for the advantages of breastfeeding, both in infants and for long-term health. Infants in developed settings experience twice the hospitalization rate and more severe illness from lower respiratory tract infection, primarily respiratory syncytial virus. In developing countries the mortality risk is 4-fold. for otitis media, the relative risks were 3.3-4.3 for Finnish infants. Bacterial meningitis and/or bacteremia had a 4-fold risk for hospitalization in a Connecticut study, and a 3-fold relative risk in 2 developing country studies. Human milk was the best preventative for bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in prematures in British neonatal units. A 20-fold reduction in neonatal deaths occurred in Philippine study of breastfeeding, especially in low birth weight babies. Diarrhea causes the most infant mortality in developing nations, where bottle-feeding raises rates 14-fold. In the U.S. estimated relative risks is 3.7 for diarrheal mortality. Sudden infant death is about 1/5 less common in U.S. breast fed babies than in bottle fed. There is evidence for better long-term health after breast feeding in disorders such as celiac disease, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, malignant lymphoma, chronic liver disease, atopic dermatitis, and food allergies. The design of good studies of protection conferred by breast feeding, and the possible modes of action of breast milk are discussed.
Article
Theory suggests that the decision to return to employment after childbirth and the decision to breast-feed may be jointly determined. We estimate models of simultaneous equations for two different aspects of the relationship between maternal employment and breast-feeding using 1993-1994 data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Infant Feeding Practices Study. We first explore the simultaneous duration of breast-feeding and work leave following childbirth. We find that the duration of leave from work significantly affects the duration of breast-feeding, but the effect of breast-feeding on work leave is insignificant. We also estimate models of the daily hours of work and breast-feedings at infant ages 3 months and 6 months postpartum. At both times, the intensity of work effort significantly affects the intensity of breast-feeding, but the reverse is generally not found. Competition clearly exists between work and breast-feeding for many women in our sample.
Article
In the early 1990s, both state and federal governments enacted maternity-leave legislation. The key provision of that legislation is that after a leave of a limited duration, the recent mother is guaranteed the right to return to her preleave employer at the same or equivalent position. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we correlate work status after childbirth with work status before pregnancy to estimate the prevalence, before the legislation, of returns to the preleave employer. Among women working full-time before the pregnancy, return to the prepregnancy employer was quite common. Sixty percent of women who worked full-time before the birth of a child continued to work for the same employer after the child was born. Furthermore, the labor market behavior of most of the remaining 40% suggests that maternity-leave legislation is unlikely to have a major effect on job continuity. Compared with all demographically similar women, however, new mothers have an excess probability of leaving their jobs.
Article
This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.
Article
In the mid to late 1980s a major controversy erupted when Belsky's (1986, 1988. 1990) analysis of research produced the conclusion that early and extensive nonmaternal care carried risks in terms of increasing the probability of insecure infant-parent attachment relationships and promoting aggression and noncompliance during the toddler, preschool, and early primary school years. Widespread critiques of Belsky's analysis called attention to problems associated with the Strange Situation procedure for measuring attachment security in the case of day-care reared children and to the failure of much of the cited research to take into consideration child-care quality and control for background factors likely to make children with varying child-care experiences developmentally different in the first place. In this lecture, research concerning the developmental effects of child care and maternal employment initiated in the first year of life that has emerged since the controversy broke is reviewed. Evidence indicating that early, extensive, and continuous nonmaternal care is associated with less harmonious parent-child relations and elevated levels of aggression and noncompliance suggests that concerns raised about early and extensive child care 15 years ago remain valid and that alternative explanations of Belsky's originally controversial conclusion do not account for seemingly adverse effects of routine nonmaternal care that continue to be reported in the literature.
Article
The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.
Article
"Since 1979 German federal maternity leave and benefit policy has given women incentives to stay at home and take care of their newborn and youngest children. In 1986 this leave and benefit policy was changed in several ways, turning it into a powerful instrument for delaying mothers' return to work after childbirth.... We estimate post childbirth return to work hazards for women during the federally protected leave protection period and immediately upon completion of this leave period. During the leave mothers are less likely to return to work the longer is the time left in the leave protection period; however, this result cannot be attributed generally to high levels of maternity benefits. When the leave protection period ends, mothers with strong labor force attachment who are still on leave return to their jobs."
Article
"In this paper we make use of the panel aspects of the German GSOEP, the Swedish HUS and the British BHPS data...[to analyze] labor force transitions triggered by child births of different birth orders.... We find that German and British women have even higher full-time labor force participation than Swedish women 12 months before the birth of the first child. The difference is more pronounced for second and third births than for first births. We suggest that these differences are caused by different family policy regimes where Germany can be characterized as a breadwinner regime and Sweden a regime oriented towards equal role sharing of father and mother. Our results on determinants of being in the labor force both after and before the birth of a child as well as determinants of the tempo of entering the labor force after birth show that women's own human capital is important both in Germany and Great Britain, whereas in Sweden also less educated women have entered the labor force by the time the child is 2 years old."
Article
The present paper tries to measure the effects of paid maternity-leave on three demographic variables: infant mortality, labor-force participation of women in the prime childbearing ages, and fertility rates. A simultaneous-equations model is constructed, using the individual fixed-effects method and a data set comprising 17 OECD countries and four time periods. The structural estimates provide substantial evidence in support of predictions that lengthening the allowed duration of paid leave reduces infant mortality, while increasing both the labor-force participation of young women and the general fertility rate. However, the reduced-form analysis casts doubt on the long-run fertility effect. Maternal-leave policies in industrial countries are surveyed Section III deals with the data and estimation methods. -from Authors