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A Grammar of Madurese

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Abstract

Madurese is a major regional language of Indonesia, with some 14 million speakers, mainly on the island of Madura and adjacent parts of Java, making it the fourth largest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. There is no existing comprehensive descriptive grammar of the language, with existing studies being either sketches of the whole grammar, or detailed descriptions of phonology and morphology or some particular topics within these components of the grammar. There is no competing work that provides the breadth and depth of coverage of this grammar, in particular (though not exclusively) with regard to syntax.
... Madurese people are quite mobile and dynamic. They now spread all over Indonesia or even abroad (Davies, 2010). Younger Madurese go outside Madura for studying in universities. ...
... There have been some studies to describe Madurese Syntax (Davies, 2010), Madurese phonology, lexicon, syntax, (Sofyan, 2007), and verb forms (Azhar, 2010.). These have been a major reference in looking at how standard Madurese is. ...
... As mentioned in the literature review, the syntax of Madurese particularly from Bangkalan regency was studied and published by Davies (2010). This study then tried to involve two other regions, Pamekasan and Sumenep. ...
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This research is aimed to describe the syntactic and lexical variations of the Madurese language based on different ages and regions in Madura. This is due to the changing phenomena of the language, namely Madurese, due to socioeconomic and technological development. Participants of this study were youths and old groups from different regions. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively in accordance to the research problems. It was found out that syntactically, Madurese has similar basic word order structure to that of Indonesian. The possessive structure is determined by the last sound of the word, either vowel or consonant. Other structures, noun phrase, prepositions, adjective clause, nonverbal clause, and existential clause are much similar to those of Indonesian language. No differences were found in terms of syntactic variations among different ages and regions in Madura. In terms of lexicon, some variations do occur as attributed to the socio-cultural background of each speaker. The level of politeness indicates that the social level influences the choice of lexical terms used by speakers based on different ages and regions in Madura.
... This research aims to discuss about Nominalization process or Derivational affixed forming deverbal noun in Madura short story "Tora (satengkes carpan Madura)" that was written by Jamal D. Rahma (2017). Davies (2010) argued that verbs which have additional affixes in Madurese will form a new vocabulary, such as; nouns, adjectives and so on. This also happens to other languages, such as English, Batak language and so forth. ...
... Most of Madurese use both prefix and suffix to modify verb to noun, whether in spoken or written. In Madurese, to create noun from verb, it is mostly done by adding both prefix and suffix (Davies, 2010). The instances of each are listed as follows: ...
... As the suffix which is also able to change the word category, after getting the suffix -an, the word class from the root of the word pekker, which is a verb, changes to an abstract noun. According to Davies, (2010), the suffix -an is "an activity or result of X. ...
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Nominalizations can be structured by adding affixes before or after root to create new words in language. Madurese has several language aspects that have not been widely explored. Previous linguistic studies on Madurese mostly focused on morphological aspects such as Madurese affixation in general. Therefore, this research discusses Madurese Deverbal Nominalization Process (Noun Derived from Verb). The goals of this research are to identify what types of affixes which form deverbal nouns in Madurese and to know how the affixation process that forms the deverbal nouns in Madurese. For example: pa-mandi-an, the root is mandi (take a shower) after it attachés to confix (pa- -an) the word class category changes to noun pa-mandi-an, that is a bath room. This research is a descriptive qualitative research, and the data were collected from a Madurese short story entitled Tora (satengkes carpan Madura), which was written by Jamal D. Rahma (2017). The findings are presented descriptively by identifying the process of the derivational forming nouns. The results of this research shows that prefixes, suffixes, confixes and infixes are contributed to create new lexemes in Madurese.
... The Madurese language belongs to the western Austronesian language family and in specific the western Malayo-Polynesian branch (Adelaar, 2005 as cited in Davies, 2010). It is the fifth mostspoken language in Indonesia (Ethnologue, 2015). ...
... It is spoken by around 3.5 million people, based on Badan Statistik Indonesia (Statistics Indonesia), throughout the Madura Island, ranging from Bangkalan in the west to Sumenep in the East. The Madurese language is not only spoken in Madura Island, but also in some parts of East Java such as Probolinggo, Lumajang, Jember, Sitobondo, Bondowoso, and northern part of Banyuwangi (Davies, 2010). ...
... Stevens ' (1965) discusses the use of the different speech levels. In Davies' (2010) book, he also dicusses the Madurese speech levels. He uses the term kasar, tenggaan, and alos for the mentioned terms above. ...
Thesis
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The present study investigates the pragmatic function of the particle jâ' in Madurese oral narratives and conversations. The particle is often semantically empty, but serves an important pragmatic function within human communication. To uncover this pragmatic function, the present study uses both a qualitative and quantitative approach. It uses the conversation analysis framework to deal with conversation data, while the sentence form and function perspective is used to interpret oral narratives. These approaches often support one another when it comes to pragmatic issues. The findings show that the particle jâ' can function as emphatic particle, explanatory particle, negative imperative particle, and complementizer and can also be used to indicate disappointment. The present study also corroborates the results of previous studies by showing that text type or genre can influence the pragmatic function both quantitatively and qualitatively. It is suggested that jâ was originally an emphatic particle, but there is evidence that it was also used as a negative particle from the very beginning. It could thus be regarded as a case of homonymy. Further study by means of diachronic corpus research might unravel the precise semantic development as well as the pragmatic function of the particle.
... In addition, researchers use different symbols in particular for the vowel [ɤ]. The IPA symbol [ɤ] was first used by Stevens (1980) and this is then followed by other researchers such as Trigo (1991), Cohn (1993aCohn ( , 1993b, Davies (2010), Misnadin (2012), Misnadin et al. (2015) and recently Misnadin and Kirby (2020). However, Davies (2010, pp. ...
... 19-20) notices that the Madurese vowel symbolised with [ɤ] is in fact a mid-close central unrounded vowel, which is normally transcribed using the IPA symbol [ɘ], whereas [ɤ] is the IPA symbol for a mid-close back unrounded vowel instead. Davies (2010) continues using the symbol [ɤ] to conform to the tradition of previous researchers including Stevens (1980), Cohn (1993aCohn ( , 1993b, and Cohn and Lockwood (1994). In addition, the latest Madurese dictionary written by Pawitra (2009) uses a low central vowel [ɐ] for his phonetic transcription. ...
... Furthermore, they will provide an answer to the question whether the three central vowels, i.e. [ɨ, ə, ɤ], which impressionistically sound relatively similar, can in fact be distinguished by their F1 and F2 values. This is important since scholars have some disagreement about the phonetic and phonological status of these Madurese vowels in particular (Anderson, 1991;Cohn, 1993a;Davies, 2010;Stevens, 1968). More importantly, the results can provide a solid description on how the vowel system of Madurese should be best described in light of this acoustic data. ...
Article
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It has been suggested that Madurese has eight surface vowels [a, ɛ, ə, ɔ, ɤ, i, ɨ, u], but there have been disagreements with regard to the number of its vowel phonemes. The disagreements arise partly because some scholars base their analyses of Madurese vowels on phonetic grounds while others base them on certain phonological analyses. Besides, some researchers do not consider native versus non-native Madurese words in their analyses. The paper addresses these problems by incorporating both phonetic and phonological analyses in order to provide a better description of Madurese vowels. To achieve this, we investigated the acoustic realisations of the eight surface vowels by looking at the first and second formant frequencies (F1 and F2) of the high and non-high vowel pairs (i ~ ɛ, ɨ ~ ə, ɤ ~ a, u ~ ɔ). Fifteen speakers of Madurese were recorded reading Madurese words put in a carrier phrase. All segmentations were done employing Praat, and F1 and F2 values were extracted using a Praat script. The data were assessed with a linear mixed-effects model accounting for variation due to both random and fixed factors. The results showed that all high and non-high vowel pairs significantly differed in their F1 values. However, the results for F2 values showed variations; only the pair [ɨ ~ ə] showed a significant difference at vowel onset and at vowel midpoint the pairs [i ~ ɛ] and [ɨ ~ ə] were significantly different. Furthermore, we also looked at the vowels [ɤ] and [ɨ] as well as [ɤ] and [ə] to see if they differed in their F1 and F2 values. Our results confirmed that at both vowel onset and midpoint, they were significantly different. The results were discussed employing phonological analysis and vowel dispersion theory. The result of the analyses suggests that Madurese should be best described as a language with a four-vowel system and further offers a solution to the disagreements on the number of vowel phonemes in Madurese
... According to Davies (2010), one of the most salient properties of Madurese morphology is the voice system-morphology that indicates the relationship of thematic roles and grammatical functions. One of its forms can refer to the actor voice a-. ...
... It signals the active voice verbs and is directly affixed to the root. Davies (2010) states that the prefix ng-and its morphophonological variants, signal actor voice or active voice verbs and they are used when the actor is the subject of the sentence. It is affixed directly to verb roots as exemplified below: ...
... It is closely related to the use of prefix e-. Davies (2010) to the need of analysis and to maintain the primary focus of the study. ...
Article
p>The current research aims to scrutinize the generality and idiosyncrasy of verb formation mirrorred in Madurese language. The language has been easily understood and intuitively acknowledged for native speakers. Since the (ir)regularity, changing a word in shapes and functions, also demonstrates its linguistic facet, the approach from morphological explanation becomes crucial. This is to provide background information for those especially interesting in learning the language and or simply making even the native speakers aware of. Furthermore, it would be beneficial in a way that the proper uses both syntactically and semantically are appropriate. This employed the explanatory research, collecting the data from WA (WhatsApp) group. All members are indigenous of Madura and thus the group facilitates the extensive use of the given language. By identifying, capturing and classifying the required data, they were subsequently analyzed from the proposing morphological underpinnings. The findings of this research demonstrate that prefix a- and –e are considered to be bound morphemes as they cannot stand alone. They function to form a verb in active voice and a verb in passive voice. The generality takes place. The idiosyncrasy is, however, also phenomenal.</p
... One characteristic of the grammatical subject in these languages is that it must be definite or specific (Cole et al. 2002;Sato 2008;Davies 2010;Sneddon et al. 2012). Even though these languages typically allow in situ questions, with a wh phrase occurring in object position or as a prepositional object, since wh words are non-specific, an in situ subject question is disallowed. ...
... The correlation between object extraction and null voice morphology in active clauses has been well discussed in the literature for varieties of Indonesian and related languages (e.g. Saddy 1991;Voskuil 1996;Cole & Hermon 2005;Aldridge 2008;Arka & Manning 2008;Cole et al. 2008;Fortin 2009;Davies 2010;Yanti 2010;Sato 2012;among others). The data presented here show that the pattern also applies to a set of overlooked nominals: possessors. ...
... Familiar Madurese provides a contrast with Indonesian and Javanese; the internal argument of an active transitive clause cannot be extracted (Davies 2010;Jeoung 2017). ...
Article
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This paper discusses possessor sub-extraction in Indonesian, Javanese and Madurese, and its implications for phase-based A-bar extraction of nominals. I show that possessors may extract from their possessive DPs and occur at the left edge of the clause. I argue that the suffix that occurs on the possessum (Indonesian -nya, Javanese -ne, Madurese -Nah) is the pronunciation of the functional head D rather than a pronominal possessor or resumptive pronoun. While the extraction of verbal arguments has been well studied in Indonesian languages, possessor sub-extraction provides a novel set of data that contributes to the discussion on the relationship between voice and nominal extraction. In these languages, voice morphology on the verb must reflect extraction of a low nominal, whether a verbal argument or a possessor. This pattern shows that the functional head Voice regulates A-bar extraction of all nominals that begin in the complement of the verb: the extracted nominal undergoes successive-cyclic movement through the edge of DP, then the edge of VoiceP, before landing in its surface position in CP. This movement is marked by morphological wh-agreement in the nominal and verbal domain. Possessor extraction thus has implications for theories of nominal extraction, phases and clause structure in Indonesian-type languages.
... Second, the particle jâ' displays an interesting feature of pragmatic particles, namely, multifunctionality/ polyfunctionality which this current research is mostly concerned with. Third, it is to further argue that the particle jâ' not only functions as a demonstrative pronoun or equal in meaning to English "Don't" as stated by Davies (2010). Fourth, having known that there are no extant studies on Madurese pragmatic particles, it is a good way to start with the particle that potentially has a multifunctionality feature as what current pragmatic and conversation analysts have done in the recent years. ...
... Fourth, having known that there are no extant studies on Madurese pragmatic particles, it is a good way to start with the particle that potentially has a multifunctionality feature as what current pragmatic and conversation analysts have done in the recent years. The earlier particles mentioned here and in Davies (2010) such as la and ke' were only marking tenses and contrasts. Thus, they are less interesting and perhaps require a more robust corpus from either diachronic or synchronic data to examine their functions. ...
... The Madurese language belongs to the Austronesian language family, specifically Western Malayo-Polynesian (Adelaar, 2005 as cited in Davies, 2010). It is the fifth most-spoken language in Indonesia (Ethnologue, 2015). ...
Article
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In verbal interaction and communication, speakers often employ communicative signals; verbal or non-verbal, special words or phrases, which can be regarded as pragmatic markers (Fraser, 1996; Foolen 2011). This paper aims to investigate the Madurese pragmatic particle jâ’: its position in the sentence and in sequences of interaction, and how it functions in conversation. To achieve the objectives of the present study, conversation analysis was employed to describe the particle’s position in interaction and to account for its pragmatic functions. The data of the present study were taken from recorded conversations among Madurese speakers. This study showed that the particle jâ’ predominantly occurred in turn-initial positions. In addition, the particle jâ’ also appeared in sentence-initial and sentence-middle positions but not in sentence-final positions. In terms of function, the particle jâ’ could function as topic shifts, prohibitive markers, and emphatic markers.
... It is this type of reduplication that will be claimed to provide evidence for a parallel, rather than a cyclic derivational model. Stevens (1965Stevens ( , 1994 and Davies (1999Davies ( , 2010 note that reduplication in Madurese copies the final syllable of a root, and the reduplicant surfaces prefixed to the stem, as illustrated in (6). The result is a pattern whereby the reduplicant is seemingly discontiguous with the corresponding copied portion of the base, as it surfaces on the "wrong side." 4 (6) buku 'book' ku-buku 'books' baca 'read' ca-baca 'read (PL)' bali 'return' li-bali 'return (PL)' toles 'write' les-toles 'write (PL)' malem 'night' lem-malem 'nights' maen 'play' en-maen 'play (PL)' semprot 'spray' prot-semprot 'spray (PL)' (Davies 2010:129-130) Davies (2010:129) notes that there are several meanings associated with reduplication in Madurese, though plural marking appears to be the most frequent (2010:137). ...
... There is a set of phonological augments that appear with some roots, but which have no identifiable meaning, and which contribute toward the delimitation of the base. The augments in question are the set of root "extensions" discussed by Stevens (1965) and Davies (2010). These extensions are consonants that appear root-finally, and which can sometimes add meanings, but many times occur in free variation with the unextended root: kamma 'where' vs. kamma-n 'where' (Davies 2010:126). ...
... wa-buwa 'fruits'] /a-taïa-a/ 'will ask often' [a-ïãP-taïãPã] (*a-ïã-taïãPã) /neat/ 'intention' [jãt-nẽjãt] (*ãt-nẽjãt) (Stevens 1994:368) While the glide [j] appears to be fairly free in its distribution, there are restrictions on [w] and [P]. According to Davies (2010), the labio-velar glide [w] is banned in syllable codas, and the glottal stop [P] is likewise banned in syllable onsets. 5 As (11) illustrates, in reduplicants, the normal phonotactic restrictions apply to these segments, preventing [w] from being copied into a coda, and [P] from being copied into an onset. ...
Article
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Recent approaches to morphological spellout have been cyclic in nature, whereby category-defining heads trigger the spellout of phases in word formation. A prediction of these types of cyclic approach is that phonological conditioning of outer morphemes must be local, such that a conditioning morpheme must be linearly adjacent to the target. This paper presents evidence from Madurese reduplication that provides evidence to the contrary. Two major problems are isolated: (i) a long-distance relationship can exist between a reduplicant and a base, and (ii) the compositional semantics of reduplicants places them outside of a phase, even when the reduplicant must access properties of the root inside of the phase. Both of these problems provide prima facie evidence for a non-local configuration. In order to account for these non-locality effects, it is proposed that identity demands are placed on the base-reduplicant correspondence, and that reduplicative locality is a violable constraint in grammar.
... Both wh-in situ and clefted wh-phrases are interpreted as matrix interrogative clauses (Saddy 1991). Note that subjects must be specific or definite in these languages (Davies 2010, Sato 2008, Sneddon et al 2012. Since a wh-word is nonspecific, a clefted wh-phrase is the only strategy available for subject questions. ...
... Possessive DPs in Indonesian, Javanese and Madurese have a similar surface order: the possessum occurs with a definite suffix, followed by the possessor: a. ata'-eng roma 8 The definite morpheme in Javanese is -ne after vowels and -e after consonants; but in the variety represented here, speakers variably use -e after vowels as well. 9 The definite morpheme in Madurese is realized as -eng following a glottal stop, -nah following a vowel and -Cah elsewhere where C is geminate with the preceding consonant (Stevens 1968, Davies 2010 Note that in these Indonesian-type languages, one possessive structure is used for both animate and inanimate possessors, and the possession relation can be either alienable or inalienable. Additionally, the possessor may be a pronoun, pronominal clitic, name or full DP. ...
... Thus the extraction in (31) and (32) is ungrammatical if the active prefix occurs on the verb: 12 Active voice morphology is sometimes optional in Indonesian, but word order is indicative of voice when the active prefix is omitted (Cole et al 2008). Active voice morphology is obligatory in Javanese and Madurese (Davies 2010, Sato 2008 what Rel Daud will 0-read AV-read 'What will David read?' ...
Article
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This paper examines possessor extraction in three Indonesian-type languages: Indonesian, Javanese and Madurese. I show that possessor extraction patterns are best captured under an analysis in which the possessor undergoes movement from an internal possession structure to the left periphery of the clause; the possessum remains in an A position, while the possessor occurs in an A' position. Possessor movement is subject to general constraints on DP movement in each of these languages, and the voice system determines the ability of the possessor to extract. I discuss implications for the relationship between voice and DP extraction, and conclude that in Indonesian-type languages, voice determines both A and A' movement of any DP moving from within VoiceP.
... Jika tidak sesuai dengan panduan dan kamus, kami menilai bahwa nama tumbuhan tersebut salah dan membetulkannya sesuai ejaan yang berlaku. Evaluasi penulisan tumbuhan ditampilkan dalam bentuk persentase serta penulisan fonologi mengikuti (Davies, 2010). ...
... • Penggunaan diakritik Secara ortografis, bahasa Madura memiliki tiga diakritik untuk melambangkan bunyi /ɘ/ untuk "â", /ɛ/ untuk "è'", dan /ɖ/ untuk "ḍ" (Davies, 2010;Tim Balai Bahasa Jawa Timur, 2012). Aturan dalam tata bahasa Madura yang perlu diperhatikan yakni penulisan "e" yang tidak pernah dituliskan pada akhir suku kata terbuka. ...
Preprint
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Dalam perkembangannya, bahasa Madura mengalami beberapa kali perubahan ejaan baku. Akan tetapi, perubahan ini tidak selalu diikuti oleh peneliti etnobotani dalam menginventarisasi kekayaan tumbuhan yang dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat Madura. Penelitian-penelitian yang dihasilkan memperlihatkan kesalahan penulisan yang cukup signifikan. Artikel ini berusaha menganalisis kesalahan berbahasa ini berdasarkan faktor kompetensi yang disebut error dan performansi yang disebut mistake. Data etnobotani Madura dikumpulkan dari berbagai literatur yang dapat diunduh baik dalam bentuk artikel ilmiah dan tugas akhir (skripsi, tesis, disertasi) menggunakan kata kunci etnobotani “DAN” madura. Data akhir yang terdiri dari 331 nama tumbuhan dianalisis menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif. Dari data tersebut didapatkan kesimpulan bahwa terdapat tujuh kategori kesalahan yang berkaitan erat dengan kekhasan bahasa Madura.
... Madurese is one of members of a Western Austronesian language family which is spoken on Madura, parts of East Java (Davies, 2010). It has been determined that it is most closely related to Balinese, Sundanese, Sasak, Malay, Sumbawa, and Chadic based on the basis of lexical and phonological and syntax as well. ...
... Madurese Consonant Inventory(Davies, 2010;Misnadin & Kirby, 2020). Consonants in parenthesis are restricted to loanwords.In fricatives, the airstream forces its way through a narrow gap between the active andpassive articulators at high speed. ...
Conference Paper
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The FBI and Terrorist Hunting Licence in Laila Halaby's Once in a Promised Land
... Regardless Madurese language has been studied since 1890' signed by Kiliaan's (1897) work on Madurese-Dutch dictionary (and grammar), Madurese micro linguistic units, such as jâ', and jeh, la remain unexplored. Earlier studies tend to focus on morphological and phonological feature (Stevens, 1968;Uhlenbeck, 1964) or grammatical aspects (Davies, 2010). We note that Sofyan (2007), along with Davies (2010), devoted a small discussion of Madurese particles like la which functions to mark perfective aspect in Madurese grammar. ...
... Earlier studies tend to focus on morphological and phonological feature (Stevens, 1968;Uhlenbeck, 1964) or grammatical aspects (Davies, 2010). We note that Sofyan (2007), along with Davies (2010), devoted a small discussion of Madurese particles like la which functions to mark perfective aspect in Madurese grammar. ...
Article
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This paper aims to demonstrate studies of pragmatic particles in Indonesian vernacular languages. Given the fact that Indonesia ranked second most populated language in the world after New Guinea, we would expect a huge number of studies discussing Indonesian local languages. Review to studies of pragmatic particles in Indonesian language is therefore considered salient to carry out to shed light on how different authors examine different particles, what kind of method they employ to describe meaning and functions, and what potential implication this study could contribute in this field. Besides, it also enriches the cross-linguistic study of pragmatic particles in general. Following Macaro et al’s. (2017) guideline of systematic review, this study employed linear process of procedure by deciding keywords, screening title, reviewing abstract, examining full text, and drawing conclusion. The corpus of pragmatic particles employed in reviewed studies ranges from colloquial, spoken, dialogue, and monologue data. Some approaches were used to reveal the pragmatic meanings, such as conversation analysis approach, pragmatics, morpho-syntactic, and even phonological approach. This discussion in the present paper may be fruitful for researchers who are working on pragmatic particles or vernacular languages and suggests that more studies in local languages should be outstripped to sustain national linguistic identity in the global arena. Abstrak This paper aims to demonstrate studies of pragmatic particles in Indonesian vernacular languages. Given the fact that Indonesia ranked second most populated language in the world after New Guinea, we would expect a huge number of studies discussing Indonesian local languages. Review to studies of pragmatic particles in Indonesian language is therefore considered salient to carry out to shed light on how different authors examine different particles, what kind of method they employ to describe meaning and functions, and what potential implication this study could contribute in this field. Besides, it also enriches the cross-linguistic study of pragmatic particles in general. Following Macaro et al’s. (2017) guideline of systematic review, this study employed linear process of procedure by deciding keywords, screening title, reviewing abstract, examining full text, and drawing conclusion. The corpus of pragmatic particles employed in reviewed studies ranges from colloquial, spoken, dialogue, and monologue data. Some approaches were used to reveal the pragmatic meanings, such as conversation analysis approach, pragmatics, morpho-syntactic, and even phonological approach. This discussion in the present paper may be fruitful for researchers who are working on pragmatic particles or vernacular languages and suggests that more studies in local languages should be outstripped to sustain national linguistic identity in the global arena.
... Regardless Madurese language has been studied since 1890' signed by Kiliaan's (1897) work on Madurese-Dutch dictionary (and grammar), Madurese micro linguistic units, such as jâ', and jeh, la remain unexplored. Earlier studies tend to focus on morphological and phonological feature (Stevens, 1968;Uhlenbeck, 1964) or grammatical aspects (Davies, 2010). We note that Sofyan (2007), along with Davies (2010), devoted a small discussion of Madurese particles like la which functions to mark perfective aspect in Madurese grammar. ...
... Earlier studies tend to focus on morphological and phonological feature (Stevens, 1968;Uhlenbeck, 1964) or grammatical aspects (Davies, 2010). We note that Sofyan (2007), along with Davies (2010), devoted a small discussion of Madurese particles like la which functions to mark perfective aspect in Madurese grammar. ...
Article
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Abstrak Makalah ini mereviu beberapa kajian partikel pragmatik dalam bahasa Indonesia, di mana Indonesia menempati ranking ke dua sebagai negara penyumbang populasi bahasa terbanyak di dunia setelah Papua Nugini. Hal ini membuat kami menganggap bahwa reviu atas makalah-makalah yang membahas partikel pragmatik bahasa-bahasa daerah di Indonesia menjadi penting untuk dilakukan untuk melihat bagaimana para penulis membahas partikel pragmatik, metode apa yang digunakan, serta implikasi apa yang dapat dikontribusikan oleh kajian ini pada bidang (partikel) pragmatik. Selain itu, makalah ini juga bertujuan untuk memperkaya kajian lintas bahasa dalam bidang partikel pragmatik secara umum. Kami mengadaptasi model reviu sistemik oleh Macaro dkk (2017) yang meliputi process penentuan kata kunci, penyaringan judul, reviu atas abstrak, pembacaan secara menyeluruh atas teks, dan penarikan kesimpulan. Adapun korpus partikel pragmatik yang digunakan dalam studi ini meliputi bahasa sehari-hari, bahasa percakapan, dialog, dan monolog. Kami menemukan bahwa beberapa penulis menggunakan pendekatan berbeda-beda dalam mengkaji partikel pragmatik, seperti analisis percakapan, pragmatik, morfo-sintaksis, hingga ke fonologi. Bahasan atau diskusi dalam studi ini dapat menjadi sangat bermanfaat bagi para peneliti yang memiliki minat atau bekerja dalam partikel pragmatik pada bahasa-bahasa daerah di Indonesia. Kami juga menyarankan adanya lebih banyak lagi kajian-kajian mengenai bahasa-bahasa daerah agar identitas linguistik nasional (Indonesia) dapat bersaing dalam kancah global. Kata kunci: Bahasa-bahasa daerah di Indonesia, partikel pragmatik, pragmatic, reviu sistemik Abstract This paper aims to demonstrate studies of pragmatic particles in Indonesian vernacular languages. Given the fact that Indonesia ranked second most populated language in the world after New Guinea, we would expect a huge number of studies discussing Indonesian local languages. Review to studies of pragmatic particles in Indonesian language is therefore considered salient to carry out to shed light on how different authors examine different particles, what kind of method they employ to describe meaning and functions, and what potential implication this study could contribute in this field. Besides, it also enriches the cross-linguistic study of pragmatic particles in general. Following Macaro et al's. (2017) guideline of systematic review, this study employed linear process of procedure by deciding keywords, screening title, reviewing abstract, examining full text, and drawing conclusion. The corpus of pragmatic particles employed in reviewed studies ranges from colloquial, spoken, dialogue, and monologue data. In regard with the approaches to reveal the pragmatic meanings, researchers employed conversation analysis approach, pragmatics, morpho-syntactic, and even phonological approach. The discussion in the present paper may be fruitful for researchers who are working on pragmatic particles or vernacular languages. We, after all, suggest that more studies in local languages should be outstripped to sustain national linguistic identity in the global arena.
... Neither can unaccusative subjects launch an external possessor, as shown for the pivot of Locative Voice bagsak 'fall' in (35b The object restriction on external possession in Tagalog, while also found in the closely related language Cebuano (Bell 1976;1983), contrasts with most other Austronesian languages for which external possession has been described. External possession in Malagasy is limited to subjects (Keenan 1972;Keenan & Ralalaoherivony 2001), while Chamorro (Chung 2008), Indonesian (Davies 2010), Javanese (Sneddon 1996) and Madurese (Jeoung 2018) permit extraction of the possessor from both subjects and objects; see Jeoung (2018) for a detailed discussion of external possessor extraction in Indonesian, Javanese and Madurese. Not all themes can launch an external possessor in Tagalog. ...
... The prefix paN-participates in the phonological process of nasal substitution, where the prefix-final nasal undergoes assimilation or fusion with the stem-initial obstruent(Zuraw 2000;2010). ...
Article
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This paper argues that the thematic introduction of applied arguments and their syntactic licensing are independent components in the syntax of applicative constructions in Tagalog. I present novel data on Tagalog external possession, showing that external possessors and other nominals that remain unlicensed in their thematic position move to the specifier of an athematic raising applicative head (Georgala 2012) in order to be licensed and assigned nominative Case by Voice. The Locative Voice and Circumstantial Voice markers are shown to be two morphological reflexes of the same raising applicative head. The proposed raising applicative analysis, paired with the assumption that Voice is the only source of structural Case in the language, provides an explanation for the high applicative-like behaviour of even apparent low applicative constructions, as well as the obligatory promotion of applied arguments to pivot in Philippine-type voice languages.
... Argument extraction in Indonesian is a well-studied topic, and it is well known that subjects in Indonesian may be freely extracted, while extraction of arguments that begin lower than Voice/v require a null prefix instead of the active prefix meN- (Saddy 1991;Voskuil 1996Voskuil , 2000Aldridge 2008;Arka and Manning 2008;Cole et al. 2008b;Fortin 2009;Davies 2010;Yanti 2010;Sato 2012). The goal of the discussion in this section is to show that this generalization profitably extends to a previously overlooked set of nominals: possessors. ...
... Given that subjects may be freely extracted in Indonesian, but objects may be extracted only with null active voice morphology, it follows that the possessors of these arguments show the same pattern. This is consistent with much previous work in Indonesian languages that observes obligatory null verbal morphology as indicative of A-bar movement of the internal object (Voskuil 2000;Aldridge 2008;Cole et al. 2008b;Fortin 2009;Davies 2010;Yanti 2010;Sato 2012;Jeoung 2017, among others). The possessor also obligatorily occurs with the morpheme yang, which I have argued elsewhere is required in all cases of A-bar extraction of nominals. ...
Article
This dissertation investigates the syntax and morphology of several functional morphemes that display surface optionality in Indonesian. Three case studies consider how syntactic environments constrain optional realization. Chapter 2 investigates the declarative complementizers bahwa and kalau, which are disallowed in case of A-bar movement; I show that bahwa is also disallowed in wh-in situ questions that do not involve movement. These facts are developed into an analysis of wh phrases and the structure of wh questions in Indonesian. I also propose that the morpheme yang, as well as the null form of the complementizer, constitute a pattern of morphological wh-agreement on C. Chapter 3 discusses the verbal prefixes meN- and ber-, which have received varied analyses in the literature. I argue that meN- and ber- participate in wh-agreement resulting from A-bar movement, and argue against previous analyses that assume that A-movement results in a similar deletion. In addition, I differentiate between deterministic properties that are relevant in the syntax, and non-deterministic properties of meN - and ber- that are extra-syntactic. This distinction accounts for a number of puzzling properties that have been observed for these prefixes. Chapter 4 discusses possessor sub-extraction in Indonesian, with additional data from similar constructions in Javanese and Madurese. I pursue a novel analysis of the nominal suffix -nya, which is optional is possessive DPs: in possessor extraction, this suffix is a pronunciation of the head D. The analysis of wh-agreement is extended to the DP domain, where -nya marks A-bar movement on phase heads; the consequence is that DP is a phase for syntactic movement. One language-specific finding in this dissertation is that morphological wh-agreement applies across three domains: complementizers, verbs and possessive nominals. This has cross-linguistic implications for the phasehood of DP and wh-agreement patterns. More broadly, the dissertation contributes a syntactic approach to the analysis of variable morphemes, revealing how multiple factors constrain surface optionality.
... Padahal kelas kata verba merupakan kelas kata yang sangat produktif, serta memiliki ciri dan perilaku yang lebih rumit dibandingkan dengan kelas kata lainnya (Sofyan, 2012). Proses morfologis afiksasi bahasa Madura memiliki beberapa keunikan tersendiri sehingga menjadi ciri yang melekat dalam bahasa Madura yang membedakannya dari bahasa yang lain (Davies, 2010). Oleh sebab itu, kajian mengenai proses afiksasi verba bahasa Madura menjadi menarik untuk diteliti. ...
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This study aims to describe the affixation of Madurese verbs in the Pamekasan dialect of low speech level based on the perspective of derivation and inflexion. The data of this research is in the form of Pamekasan dialect Madurese verbs. The data sources in this study were 10 informants who were native speakers of the Pamekasan Madura dialect, which were determined using the snowball sampling technique. Data collection is done by using the interview method with elicitation techniques. The data obtained were then analyzed through three stages: the data reduction stage, the data presentation stage, and the conclusion preparation stage. The results showed three processes of verb-forming affixation in the Pamekasan dialect of Madura, including prefixation, suffixation, and confixation. Based on the data, it was found that several affixes that make up Pamekasan dialect Madurese verbs, including prefixes ma–, a–, ta–, N–, –, pa–, pa–, nga–, and ka–, suffixes –a, – aghi, and –è, and the confixes a–aghi, N–aghi, N–è, ma–aghi, –aghi, ma–ana, –è, a–an, ma–è, and ma–an. This affixation is divided into inflectional affixation, transpositional derivational affixation, and non-transpositional derivational affixation.
... The Madurese voice and applicative paradigms are shown in Table 11. (Davies 2010). ...
... The Madurese voice and applicative paradigms are shown in Table 11. (Davies 2010). ...
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This paper investigates the basic valency orientation and different ways of transitivization in Totoli, a western Austronesian symmetrical-voice language of Indonesia. Totoli can be considered a transitivizing language that makes use of four major valency-increasing strategies: causativization proper, transitive- intransitive alternation within the stative paradigm, alternation between the stative and the dynamic paradigms, and the use of applicative morphology. Taking a closer look at the unique relationship between the symmetrical-voice and applicative systems in Totoli we claim that the language occupies an intermediary position between Philippine-type and non-Philippine-type symmetrical-voice languages, and that the development of applicatives as a system independent from voice may have arisen with the emergence of transitivity as a distinction relevant in the grammar of western Austronesian languages of the non-Philippine-type.
... As a result of the coalescence, an alignment is formed between the edge of the root and the edge of a prosodic word whose unmarked form relates to a morphological word (Schiering, Bickel, & A.Hildebrandt, 2010;Trask, 1996). Alignment having to do with the prosodic word of this sort is also a common phenomenon in other Austronesian languages such as Javanese (Oakes, 2009) and Madurese (Davies, 2010). This alignment constraint can be stated as in Data (3). ...
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Abstract Balinese has two forms in relation to nasal pre xes. First, the initial segment of the verb root can be assimilated with the homorganic nasal and both coalesce. Second, the nasal pre x still assimilates with the rst segment of the verb root but forms a CC cluster. The data source of this study is Balinese dictionaries and analyzed by Optimality Theoretic (OT) so it was found that the af x nasal did not form a cluster with the rst segment of the verb root uniformly occurred in verbs where the rst segment is obstruent both voiced and voiceless while the one forming the cluster is the rst segment of a verb root which is realized by a sonorant. The rst phenomenon can be handled by the constraint * NC (obs) while the second one by violates linearity constraint, namely, Align-L (root) constraint. OT analysis also predicts that the ungrammaticality of an output verb structure ngmaang ‘to give’ due to fact that the correct underlying form baang is confused with its corresponding surface form. Keywords: nasalization, obstruent, sonorant, OT analysis Abstrak Bahasa Bali mempunyai dua bentuk dalam kaitannya dengan pre x nasal. Pertama, segmen awal dari akar verba bisa berasimilasi dengan nasal yang homorganik dan keduanya berkoalisi. Kedua, nasal pre ks masih berasimilasi dengan segmen pertama akar verba, tetapi membentuk klaster CC. Sumber data penelitian ini adalah Kamus Bahasa Bali dan dianalisis dengan Optimality Theoretic (OT) sehingga didapatkan bahwa nasal a ks yang tidak membentuk klaster dengan segmen pertama akar verba secara seragam hanya terjadi pada verba yang mana segmen pertamanya adalah obstruent, baik bersuara maupun tak bersuara sedangkan yang membentuk klaster adalah segmen pertama verba yang direalisasikan oleh segmen bertipe sonorant. Yang pertama bisa ditangani oleh konstrein *NC (obs), sedangkan yang kedua adalah secara jelas melangggar konstrein linieritas, yaitu Align-L (root). Analisis OT juga memprediksi ketidakgramatikalan bentuk-output verba ngmaang ‘memberi’ yang bentuk dasarnya yang benar adalah baang dikacaukan dengan bentuk output-nya. Kata kunci: penasalan, hambatan, sonoran, Analisis OT
... Another venue for further research is the use of -NE in the nominal domain within Javanese, identified as -NE 2 in Section 4.1, and its counterpart in many related languages, descriptively characterised as marking definiteness in Javanese, Madurese, and Indonesian (Davies & Dresser 2005, Davies 2010, Sneddon 2010 An example of this use in Javanese is in (40); other examples throughout the paper include (2), (35), (36), (43), (63), and (64). ...
... And it's not just Javanese. Varying degrees of isolating structure are evident, mutatis mutandis, in many other non-Malayic languages of the region, including Acehnese (Durie 1985), Rejang (McGinn 1982), Nasal (Anderbeck and Aprilani 2013), Madurese (Davies 2010) and Maanyan (Gudai 1985). A similar isolating profile is also evident in the As evident from the interlinear glosses in (7) and (8) above, there is a one-to-one correspondence between morphemes and orthographic words, which, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, can be taken as indicative of a strongly isolating structure. ...
... Speech levels in Javanese are called "undha-usuk", 'levels of language' (Harjawiyana & Supriya, 2009), and in English, they are called "speech levels" (Shinoda, 1973;Poedjosoedarmo, 1968;Wolff & Poedjosoedarmo, 2002), "levels of speech" (Fasold, 1990) or "speech styles" (Errington, 1998;Robson, 1992). The term speech levels are widely used to describe the co-existence of high and low variations in a language, such as Japanese and Korean (Shinoda, 1973;Martin, 1964;Ng & Obana, 1990), Sundanese (Anderson, 1997), Javanese (Geertz, 1960;Poedjosoedarmo, 1968;Wolff & Poedjosoedarmo, 2002;Robson, 1992); Madurese (Davies, 2010), Balinese (Suastra, 2001a/b;Arka, 2005), and Sasak (Austin & Northofer, 2000;Mahyuni, 2005). However, not all of the researchers explicitly provided a detailed explanation of the terms of speech level and the definition of speech level. ...
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This research aims at to analyse the existence of the Indonesian verbs "berkata", "bersabda", and "berfirman" (to say, to state). The method of document study was executed to provide the data, namely the translation of the Holy Quran (2004). Although it is unfair to compare the language of Indonesia and the language of Java from a speech levels point of view, this paper is simply meant to trace how the words of the language of Indonesia show its speech levels in its own way. The Indonesian verbs "berfirman", "bersabda", and "berkata" are used to describe the activity of 'saying' or 'speaking' of God (berfirman), the Prophet Muhammad (bersabda), and people in common (berkata). It is concluded here that there are speech levels in the language of Indonesia, but they are not to compare with the speech levels like in the language of Java, Bali, Madura, Sunda, and or Sasak of Lombok. Keyword: high speech level, honorific word, Indonesian verb, low speech level
... This configuration significantly outperforms the baselines. We hope that the process, the data, and the approaches described in this paper can be used to scale up our system to other low-resource languages of Indonesia, for example large languages such as Madurese (Davies, 2010) and Minangkabau (Adelaar, 1995). One potentially very interesting venue for future research is to investigate different approaches to reducing the data collection costs by recording less data without sacrificing the synthesis quality. ...
Conference Paper
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We present multi-speaker text-to-speech corpora for Javanese and Sundanese, the second and third largest languages of Indonesia spoken by well over a hundred million people. The key objectives were to collect high-quality data in an affordable way and to share the data publicly with the speech community. To achieve this, we collaborated with two local universities in Java and streamlined our recording and crowdsourcing processes to produce corpora consisting of 5,800 (Javanese) and 4,200 (Sundanese) mixed-gender recordings. We used these corpora to build several configurations of multi-speaker neural network-based text-to-speech systems for Javanese and Sundanese. Subjective evaluations performed on these configurations demonstrate that multilingual configurations for which Javanese and Sundanese are trained jointly with a larger corpus of Standard Indonesian significantly outperform the systems constructed from a single language. We hope that sharing these corpora publicly and presenting our multilingual approach to text-to-speech will help the community to scale up text-to-speech technologies to other lesser resourced languages of Indonesia.
... Karakteristik penutur Dialek Barat tanpa ada keraguan dan mengutarakan apa yang ada dalam pikiran mereka secara langsung serta berbicara pada volume yang relatif tinggi. Sedangkan karakteristik penutur Dialek Timur lebih lembut dan sopan ketika berbicara dengan volume relatif rendah (Davies, 2010). Akan tetapi hal tersebut bukan panduan utama karakteristik penutur dua dialek diatas, hal tersebut dijelaskan di sini dalam istilah yang digunakan oleh orang Madura untuk mencirikan diri mereka. ...
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The variations of Madurese intensifying adjectives were investigated in this study. This qualitative study uses a questionnaire as the main instrument to know the intensifying adjectives used by the participants. The participants were asked to translate some sentences from Indonesian to Madurese based on their daily conversations. The participants are native Madurese speakers aged between 15-60 years. The study revealed that there were 28 variations of intensifying adjectives in Madurese which consist of 17 variations of quality level, 3 variations using a determiner before an adjective, 4 variations using a determiner after adjective, 9 variations using a determiner and suffix, and 1 variation using a confix. In the comparative level, it can be divided into equative, comparative, and superlative. There are 5 variations from a comparison of the equivalent level in Madurese, while in the comparative level only one variation is done, it is the addition of lebbi ... deri ..., and the superlative level found 5 variations in the intensity of adjectives.
... Madura island itself has its own distinctive local language that in 1984 Wurn and Shiro Hattori even ranked Madurese language at the third place following Sundanese and Javanese languages as the most widely spoken language in Indonesia (Raihany, 2015). According to the 2000 census, there are approximately 6,8 million Madurese, compared to 83,8 million Javanese, and nearly 31 million Sundanese (Davies, 2010). Given that, it is more evident that the Madurese language is a regional language, which has long been recognized and functioned. ...
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The research aimed to describe the Madurese color lexicons with plant attributes and to analyze those lexicons metaphorically. This research engaged 18 informants to denote Madurese color lexicons by showing 139 color cards. The referential comparison method was followed by sorting the decisive element technique through referential competence-in-dividing, and Connect Compare Equate as the advanced technique was used as the data analysis method. The research finds that 53 color lexicons with plant attributes in 8 Madurese color lexicons, namely potѐ ‘white’, celleng ‘black’, mѐra ‘red’, bhiru ‘green’, konѐng ‘yellow’, cokklat ‘brown’, bhiru ‘blue’, and bungo ‘purple’. Furthermore, these plant attributes can be classified into fruits, flowers, vegetables, seeds, spices, leaves, trees, part of the tree, and part of the fruit. The domination of plant attributes in Madurese color lexicons emerges due to the sociocultural factors embodied in Madurese ethnic group itself, those are (1) farming is Madurese main way of living, (2) Madurese ethnic group respect the nature as the place where they can pray and thank God, and (3) some objects associated with color lexicons are abundantly available at their surroundings, thus they frequently use it in their daily life.
... Pada fase ini juga, penelitian bahasa Madura dalam konteks pendidikan, tatabahasa, morfologi, serta sedikit bagian dari dialektologi pun telah mulai dilakukan seperti yang dilakukan oleh Huda, N, Saliwangi, dan Taryono (1981), Soegianto (1981) (pendidikan), Aminuddin, A, Sadtono N, & Widodo (1984) (tatabahasa), serta Zainudin (1978), dan Saksomo (1985) (morfologi). Adapun kajian bahasa Madura dengan mengangkat dialektologi sebagai ranah kajiannya dilakukan oleh Sugianto, dkk (1981Sugianto, dkk ( /1982 Davies (2010). Kajian fonologi-fonetik dilakukan oleh Anderson (1991), Budhiwiyanto (2010), Chon (1991, Cohn & Ham (1998), Cohn & Loockwood (1994), Davies (2000Davies ( , 2001Davies ( , 2005. ...
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Abstrak: Although bahasa Madura plays important roles in developing bahasa Indonesia, the efforts to conserve it have not been numerously done. One of the indicators of these " half-hearted " efforts are: (1) the small number of publicized studies of bahasa Madura found in national and university libraries, and (2) the small amount of bahasa Madura scientific publication titles found in national and university libraries. The result of this literature study discovers five interesting facts related to bahasa Madura scientific publications found in four national e-libraries. The facts are: (1) most of the scientific publications focus on the internal aspects of bahasa Madura such as bahasa Madura morphology, phonology, grammar and syntax. Studies on the external aspects of the language such as pragmatics, discourse analysis, and so forth are barely to be found. (2) " deep " scientific publications on bahasa Madura are mostly written by foreigner linguists (nonMadurese and non Indonesian), (3) most of bahasa Madura scientific studies conducted by Indonesian people are done because they are funded by government, (4) the developments of bahasa Madura studies do not have patterns. It results the difficulties to map them into phases, (5) the studies are not influenced by many trends and issues in linguistics.
... Lexicography studies have been done by Parwira (2009) andPakem Maddhu team (2007). Grammar studies have been done by Sofyan, et al (2008) and Davies (2010). Phonology-phonetics studies have been done by Anderson (1991), Budhiwiyanto (2010), Chon (1991, 1993, Cohn & Ham (1998), Cohn & Loockwood (1994), Davies (2000Davies ( , 2001Davies ( , 2005. ...
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Bawean language is identified as a hybrid language. Many languages influence the vocabulary of the Bawean language. At least, there are Madurese, Javanese, Malay, Buginese, etc. However, most of Bawean vocabulary are from Madurese. In its distribution to surroundings areas, Madurese is a language that is not easy to change its grammar. Even, it tends to influence the native local language of the people, as the Pandalungan Javanese that is used by the people in the north coast areas of East Java. There, the Grammar of Madurese influences much the Javanese, that is the native language of Javanese people. In other case, it occurs differently in Bawean language. Here, the language that most of the vocabulary comes from Madurese is influenced by the Javanese grammar. It makes the Bawean language different from the Madurese. By doing qualitative descriptive study that compares the significant grammar features of Madurese and Javanese that influence Bawean language, this study is conducted. The data are collected by using observation and interview method. Then, they are analyzed by the identity methods. The study finds that the Madurese Bawean is different from the native Madurese in terms of reduplication and affixation. Although most of the Bawean vocabulary come from Madurese, not all of the Madurese reduplication and affixation Javanese involve the Bawean ones. The Javanese also takes important part in the grammar of Bawean Madurese.
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The Madurese tradition has three hierarchical levels that symbolise the social stratification expressed in its daily language. However, the Qur’ān teaches human equality before God. This article investigates how vernacular tafsir – Al-Qur’an dan Terjemahnya Bahasa Madura – negotiates between the Madurese language and cultural background of social stratification on one side and the Qur’ānic spirit of human equality on the other side. The socio-historical approach and linguistic interpretation are employed to pursue the goal. This article finds that translation of the Qur’ān is a cultural work besides being religious. So, the relationship between Madurese translation as vernacular tafsir of the Qur’ān and local tradition is reciprocal. The vernacular tafsir negotiates the idea of human equality in two ways: choosing the kasar (lower level) style among other styles available in the Madurese language and shifting the base of levels from social hierarchy among human peers to the hierarchy between God and His creatures.
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The paper discusses the way of The Madurese Qur'an Translation negotiates the Islamic norm of Human Equality uses the speech level asserts the social hierarchy in Madurese society.
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This paper investigates what kinds of meanings are expressed by circumfixes cross-linguistically, with an eye toward explaining this rare formal phenomenon. Based on the study of several hundred languages, it shows that circumfixes express negation relatively more often than other functions, followed by a wide array of TAME and derivational meanings and some more specific functions such as adjectival degree or the formation of ordinal numerals. While circumfixes are found in many unrelated languages and in all macro-areas, they nevertheless cluster in specific families, which suggests that it is their diachronic emergence that is rare rather than their synchronic distribution per se. The semantic contributions of circumfixes are explained by different diachronic mechanisms. Negative circumfixes are argued to ultimately follow from the negative cycle, whereas circumfixes encoding other functions are claimed to emerge from the cumulation of functionally compatible morphs, as in the case of certain aspectual and temporal markers. In addition, there is also some evidence that empty morphs may be reinterpreted as parts of circumfixes. All these processes are further constrained by the fact that one half of the developing circumfix has to be a prefix. Since prefixes are relatively rare overall, this necessary condition for circumfixation often is not met. On the other hand, prefixes express negation relatively frequently, and this helps to further explain why circumfixes have strong ties to this particular semantic domain.
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The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed cross-linguistic analysis of so-called emphatic negative coordination (ENC). This kind of clause linkage is illustrated by neither and nor in She neither could nor would speak lightly of the accident. On the basis of a 250-language sample, the paper lays out a new typology of ENC meant to gain novel insights. It is shown that languages can combine ENC types, and that contact and borrowing are relevant triggers for the emergence of this sort of clause linkage. The article also reveals that there is considerable variety in the etymological sources and grammaticalization paths of ENC markers.
Chapter
For thousands of years the appearance of the night sky on a dark moonless night captivated people throughout Indonesia, including those on the island of Madura. Indeed, the Madurese have their own ideas about the night sky, and they used the appearance or the presence of different stars or groups of stars (asterisms) in everyday life, especially during farming and fishing, or voyaging to other Indonesian islands. The Madurese also had their standard cultural responses to unexpected astronomical phenomena such as solar and lunar eclipses. Before the advent of ‘modern education’, villagers did not understand the scientific reasons for these dreaded events. Even today, many villagers still behave in the traditional way when eclipses occur.
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This paper deals with the structural characteristics of adnominal possessive constructions in the Malayo-Polynesian languages of Southeast Asia. There has been much discussion of different aspects of possessive constructions in the Oceanic languages (e.g., Lynch 1973, 1996, 2001; Lichtenberk 1985, 2005, 2009; Blust 2013: 487ff inter alia). By contrast, while the broad geographical patterns of word order in possessive constructions in Austronesian languages is well-known, there are no wide-ranging surveys of the variable features of possessive constructions in MPSEA languages in particular. This chapter lays out the features of both basic and marked possessive patterns with a view to bringing out the diversity seen across the MPSEA area. As such, the discussion will concentrate on representing the often quite substantial differences between possessive constructions, many of which have been conflated descriptively under broad typological labels.
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Data from about one hundred languages reveal that, in spite of resulting typically from articulatory reduction of peripheral vowels in unstressed position, full schwa may also occur in stressed position in stress languages and in unreduced syllables in languages lacking stress. Formant frequency data reveal that this vowel is mid central, though somewhat shifted to the mid back unrounded area (particularly if long and placed in open syllables and at the edges of words), and exhibits a higher or lower realization depending on the number of mid vowels in the vowel system. In spite of occurring in stressed position, full schwa resembles unstressed schwa in being very short, highly variable and possibly low intensity, which accounts for why it is prone to occur in closed syllables and longer words, and may receive stress only if the remaining vowel nuclei in the word are central and/or short peripheral. Moreover, variability in the F1 and F2 dimensions increases with the number of peripheral mid vowels, which appears to obey symmetry and dispersion principles of vowel space organization.
Article
Irrealis markers are characterized by the rampant heterogeneity of their distributional patterns and by the tendency to appear as portmanteau morphemes encoding other grammatical categories (e.g. person). These and other characteristics may find an explanation in diachronic terms, by taking into account the sources from which irrealis markers derive. In this paper, the most frequent sources of irrealis markers are identified by means of a diachronic‐typological survey based on a 100–language sample: these include lexical verbs such as ‘go’, ‘want’ or ‘be’, former subordinate clauses that come to be used as main clauses through insubordination and deictic expressions that refer to distant elements. Considering the diachrony of irrealis markers allows us to explain some of their properties such as, among others (i) their distribution across the domain of non‐actualized situation types, (ii) the primacy of certain non‐actualized situation types that happen to work as bridgeheads in the diachronic development from the source to the target irrealis marker, (iii) the frequent co‐encoding of person and reality status by means of the same markers, and (iv) the existence of ergativity splits involving irrealis clauses. The diachronic‐typological survey conducted in this paper has some implications on the debate on the validity of reality status as a grammatical category with two opposite values of realis and irrealis: it will be argued that the diachronic scenarios leading to the emergence of irrealis markers are not substantially different from those known from the literature on the emergence of modal markers, which makes reality status superfluous as an independent grammatical category.
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Madurese language is one of the regional languages in Indonesia. This laguage used by the Madurese people. Preservation of Madurese language now is minimal. Many migrants come from outside Madura, so communication between the surrounding communities in the Madura region often uses the national language, Indonesian. The use of Madurese as a language of communication began to decrease. This research is an effort to preserve Madurese language by utilizing the translator system technology. Madurese language is a regional language that is difficult to learn, because there are many differences found between writing and pronunciation. To overcome this problem this reasearch develop text to speech module in the Indonesian-Madurase language translation system. There are 3 versions of Madurese language level: Enja’-iyyeh, engghi-enten, and enggi-bunten. The conversion of text into sound is used with the help of syllable recording data created by the author. The process of chopping words into syllables is done using the two-level Finite State Automata (FSA) method. The output of the first level FSA becomes input for the second level. The application of FSA in Text to Speech applications is effectively used with accuracy value of 90%. The resulting sound output is in accordance with the results of syllables, but the pronunciation of some translated sentences does not have the correct intonation. The accuracy results of the intonation pattern in pronunciation of the system is 85%.
Article
Madurese, a Malayo-Polynesian language of Indonesia, is of interest both areally and typologically: it is described as having a three-way laryngeal contrast between voiced, voiceless unaspirated, and voiceless aspirated plosives, along with a strict phonotactic restriction on consonant voicing-vowel height sequences. An acoustic analysis of Madurese consonants and vowels obtained from the recordings of 15 speakers is presented to assess whether its voiced and aspirated plosives might share acoustic properties indicative of a shared articulatory gesture. Although voiced and voiceless aspirated plosives in word-initial position pattern together in terms of several spectral balance measures, these are most likely due to the following vowel quality, rather than aspects of a shared laryngeal configuration. Conversely, the voiceless (aspirated and unaspirated) plosives share multiple acoustic properties, including F0 trajectories and overlapping voicing lag time distributions, suggesting that they share a glottal aperture target. The implications of these findings for the typology of laryngeal contrasts and the historical evolution of the Madurese consonant-vowel co-occurrence restriction are discussed.
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This paper examines the influence of language contact and multilingualism on the encoding of transfer events in the heritage variety of Javanese spoken in Suriname. Alongside Javanese, this community also speaks Sranantongo and Dutch, of which Sranantongo had the longest contact history with Javanese. It is shown that this long period of contact had a structural influence on the expression of transfer events in Surinamese Javanese: Surinamese speakers use double object constructions and two-predicate constructions more frequently than homeland Javanese speakers, a change which we argue to be due to contact with Sranantongo. In addition, Surinamese Javanese speakers overgeneralize one of the two applicative suffixes found in transfer constructions, a phenomenon that results from simplification processes.
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Madurese has the unique pattern in the form of syntactical feature. This unique construction differs from its sister languages, Javanese, Sundanese, Balinese, sasak and Bahasa Indonesia. However, Madurese first possessive construction are not distributed equally on the island of Madura. In fact, their distribution is influenced by Madurese geographic and social factors. Thus, this study aims to describe the construction of Madurese first person possessive construction and the distribution of Madurese first person possessive construction within in Madura Island. Madura island has four regencies, Bangkalan, Sampang, Pamekasan, and Sumenep regency. Although Sumenep is considered as the cultural capital of Madura, each regency in Madura has its own political institution and various local influences. In terms of language, each regency has its own dialect. The research relies on descriptive qualitative research with questionnaire as its main instrument. The findings shows that Madurese has two ways to express first person possessive pattern , the first person possessive markers, tang and sang and the second is by using definite suffix –na. Geographically, tang/sang construction is used in Bangkalan and Eastern Sampang regency while the definite suffix –na construction is used in Western Sampang, Pamekasan and Sumenep regency. Based on social dialect, the tang/sang construction is mostly used for the low level while the definite suffix na- is used for middle and high speech levels.
Thesis
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This thesis presents the first detailed description of reduplication in Kodi, an Austronesian language of Indonesia. It proposes a theoretical analysis of the formal shapes and semantic properties of verbal reduplication, adjectival reduplication and numeral reduplication. It is the first study of reduplication in Kodi under a Generalised Paradigm Function Morphology (GPFM) framework. Empirically, reduplication in Kodi shows two major formal shapes: full reduplication and partial reduplication (syllable and foot reduplication). In terms of meaning, Kodi reduplications are mostly associated with verbal number or pluractionality, indirect noun pluralisation, intensity, distributive numerals or attenuation. It is demonstrated that possible formal shapes of Kodi reduplication are determined by prosodic structural properties (such as notions of feet, heavy syllable, or stress), in addition to the morphological structure of words (such as affixes and stems). It is therefore argued that only the prosodic morphology model can satisfactorily account for the formal shapes in the Kodi reduplication process. However, the issue of form-meaning pairing is also taken into account in this thesis. Such form-meaning pairing is demonstrated as being unable to be handled by a model of prosodic morphology. However, it is demonstrated that the mechanisms in GPFM explicitly capture both forms and semantic properties of Kodi reduplication, incorporating the insights of a prosodic morphology analysis, and therefore, offering the best morphological model for fully analysing the Kodi reduplication process.
Article
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Using a sample of 116 languages, this article investigates the typology of comparative constructions and their distribution in Melanesia, one of the world’s least-understood linguistic areas. We present a rigorous definition of a comparative construction as a “comparative concept”, thereby excluding many constructions which have been considered functionally comparatives in Melanesia. Conjoined comparatives are shown to dominate at the core of the area on the island of New Guinea, while (monoclausal) exceed comparatives are found in the maritime regions around New Guinea. Outside of Melanesia adpositional and other comparative constructions including particle comparatives are most frequent in Austronesian languages. The unity of the conjoined comparative type in the core Melanesian area illustrates that, while morpho-syntactic profiles of Melanesian languages are heterogenous, significant convergence in the “ways of saying things” can be found across the region. Additionally, we find no cases of clause chaining constructions being used for encoding comparatives, even in canonical clause chaining languages of central New Guinea. Our findings thus offer no support for Stassen’s claim of a correlation between temporal chaining type and comparative construction type. Instead we suggest that an areal preference for mini-clauses may explain the dominance of the conjoined comparative in Melanesia.
Article
Madurese ( bhâsa Madhurâ ) is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken primarily on the island of Madura and a number of regions in East Java, Indonesia. Its further subgrouping has remained a matter of some dispute. Early work placed Madurese in a Malayo-Javanic subgroup containing Javanese, Sundanese, and Malay (Dyen 1963). Glottolog and Ethnologue use the more recent ‘Malayo-Sumbawan’ classification (Adelaar 2005a), which puts Malayic, Chamic, and the Balinese-Sasak-Sumbawa group into one branch with Madurese and Sundanese in two other branches, to the exclusion of Javanese. Robert Blust, rejecting the Malayo-Sumbawan hypothesis, tentatively places Madurese in a Malayo-Chamic subgroup (Blust 2009), but also suggests (Blust 2010) that, as Madurese is lexically similar to Malay but phonologically and morphologically quite different, it may once have subgrouped with Javanese and later underwent heavy relexicalization due to language contact (see also discussion in Kluge 2017: 3).
Conference Paper
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Preprint
Using a sample of 116 languages, this article investigates the typology of comparative constructions and their distribution in Melanesia, one of the world's least well-understood linguistic areas. We present a rigorous definition of a comparative construction as a "comparative concept", thereby excluding many constructions which have been considered functionally comparatives in Melanesia. Conjoined comparatives are shown to dominate at the core of the area on the island of New Guinea, while (monoclausal) exceed comparatives are found in the maritime regions around New Guinea. Outside of Melanesia adpositional and other comparative constructions including particle comparative are most frequent in Austronesian languages. The unity of the conjoined comparative type in the core Melanesian area illustrates that, while morpho-syntactic profiles of Melanesian languages are heterogenous, significant convergence in the "ways of saying things" can be found across the region. Additionally, we find no cases of clause chaining constructions being used for encoding comparatives, even in canonical clause chaining languages of central New Guinea. Our findings thus offer no support for Stassen's claim of a correlation between temporal chaining type and comparative construction type. Instead we suggest an areal preference for mini-clauses may explain the dominance of the conjoined comparative in Melanesia.
Article
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In this article I would like to revisit one aspect of the structure of the functional sequence of the clause in light of certain recent developments, in particular Kayne’s (2016) proposal that all heads are necessarily silent. I will also discuss the possibility that (certain) silent heads may be endowed with single features that denote complex notions taking progressive aspect as a case in point.
Conference Paper
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Sejak kemunculannya pada tahun 2002, Kamus Bahasa Daerah Using-Indonesia yang dibuat oleh Hasan Ali sudah sulit ditemukan di beberapa wilayah di Banyuwangi. Padahal, pada tahun 2007 Pemerintah Kabupaten Banyuwangi telah menetapkan bahwa muatan lokal untuk jenjang sekolah dasar dan menengah adalah bahasa Using. Hal tersebut seharusnya membuat keberadaan kamus bilingual Using-Indonesia menjadi semakin dibutuhkan masyarakat. Melihat kondisi demikian, sekiranya diperlukannya pembaharuan Kamus Bahasa Daerah Using-Indonesia itu sendiri selain mendistribusikannya kembali ke masyarakat. Maka dari itu, pada penelitian ini akan mencoba melihat kembali struktur dari kamus bilingual itu sendiri dilihat dengan menggunakan kriteria kamus bilingual dari beberapa ahli, seperti Atkins & Rundell (2008) dan Kridalaksana (2003). Evaluasi ini perlu dilakukan karena latar belakang dari pembuat Kamus Bahasa Daerah Using-Indonesia yang merupakan seorang linguis otodidak (Arps, 2010: 237) sehingga bisa saja ada beberapa kriteria kamus bilingual yang masih belum terpenuhi dari kriteria kamus bilingual secara teori linguistik. Selain itu, struktur Kamus Bahasa Daerah Using-Indonesia juga akan dibandingkan dengan kriteria kamus bilingual dari Summer Institute of Linguistics International (SIL International) dalam buku Making Dictionaries (2000). Tentu saja, manfaat dari penelitian ini adalah dapat menjadi bahan evaluasi untuk membuat Kamus Bahasa Daerah Using-Indonesia yang baru dengan disesuaikan pada kegunaannya di masyarakat. Kata kunci: evaluasi, struktur, leksikografi, kamus bilingual, dan Kamus Bahasa Daerah Using-Indonesia.
Chapter
Our contribution introduces a new typological database on word stress that is being constructed from two separate databases.We offer a sneak preview of the distribution of languages by stress type in these two databases, and conclude that we should not expect to gain any drastic new insights from the new database with respect to this distribution. Secondly, broadening our views beyond Indonesian - which clearly has no word stress - we investigated descriptions of all Austronesian languages for which the phonological status of word stress seems doubtful, to see whether there are more of these "stressless" languages. We conclude that there may be quite a few such languages, and hypothesize that the use of phrasal accent rather than word stress is a fairly widespread linguistic feature in the Malayo-Polynesian area.
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE FORTIETH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE BERKELEY LINGUISTICS SOCIETY February 7-9, 2014 General Session Special Session Approaches to the Syntax-Phonology Interface Parasessions Semantic Theory in Underdescribed Languages Language, Inequality, and Globalization Editors Herman Leung Zachary O’Hagan Sarah Bakst Auburn Lutzross Jonathan Manker Nicholas Rolle Katie Sardinha Berkeley Linguistics Society Berkeley, CA, USA
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