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The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders

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I present a structural empirical model of collective household labour supply that includes the non-participation decision. I specify a simultaneous model for hours, participation and wages of husband and wife. I discuss the problems of identification and statistical coherency that arise in the application of the collective household labour supply model. The model includes random effects and it is estimated using a panel data set of Dutch couples. The estimates allow me to check the underlying regularity conditions on individual preferences and to obtain estimates of the sharing rule that governs the division of household income between husband and wife. Copyright © The Author(s). Journal compilation © Royal Economic Society 2009.
... The four-part hierarchical responsibility pyramid proposed by Carroll (1991) has received significant acceptance. Carroll (1991) proposed that CSR is composed of economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic dimensions. ...
... The four-part hierarchical responsibility pyramid proposed by Carroll (1991) has received significant acceptance. Carroll (1991) proposed that CSR is composed of economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic dimensions. The economic dimension represents the economic responsibilities to stakeholders, such as profitability and operating efficiency; the legal dimension is related to obligations to comply with rules and regulations. ...
... The resources of exchange can be concrete or symbolic, such as love, status, service, messages, goods, and money. In this research, CSR undertaken by hotels (e.g., donations, funding) addresses emotional needs such as self-esteem and pride, which encourages staff members to reciprocate through positive work behavior (Mishra & Modi, 2016;Korschun et al., 2014;Carroll, 1991). Safety behavior is a basic determinant of customer safety and corporate safety performance during a pandemic Neal & Griffin, 2006). ...
Article
The effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on employee safety behavior in crisis situations remains as a gap in the hospitality literature. Based upon the social-influence and conservation of resources theories, this research constructed a theoretical model of hotel CSR's influence on employee safety behavior with belief restoration and negative emotions serving as moderation variables. The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic served as the background, and a questionnaire survey of 23 hotels in China was conducted with 1594 valid responses being received. The results showed that: (1) CSR positively predicted employee safety behavior; CSR had positive influences on safety compliance, participation and adaptation; (2) safety compliance and participation partially mediated the influence of CSR on safety adaptation; and (3) belief restoration positively moderated the relationship between CSR and safety behavior, and negative emotions negatively moderated the relationship between CSR and safety behavior. This research expands the literature coverage on the effectiveness of CSR in a pandemic and hospitality context, as well as being the first to investigate the effect of CSR on employee safety behavior. The CSR practices of hotels are a critical factor in promoting employee safety behavior, mitigating the negative impacts of the crisis, and assisting recovery and future development.
... In 1970, the scope of CSR got new wheels when Johnson (1973) proposed the detailed dimensions of CSR, which consists of employees, suppliers, government, and the local community. A well-known definition of CSR was proposed by Carroll (1991). Carroll (1991) defines that CSR is the sum of obligations that society expects from firms, and argued that firms must be willing to fulfill these expectations. ...
... A well-known definition of CSR was proposed by Carroll (1991). Carroll (1991) defines that CSR is the sum of obligations that society expects from firms, and argued that firms must be willing to fulfill these expectations. Carroll divides CSR into four dimensions, these dimensions are economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary. ...
Article
The current study aims at exploring the relationship of CSR practices with firm performance (FP) in the non-financial sector of the Pakistan stock exchange (PSX). For this purpose, the study uses sample data of 231 companies listed at PSX. The study uses “donation amount to sales” as a proxy variable for CSR practices and return on equity (ROE), return on assets (ROA) as the proxies of firm performance. The models are tested using a panel regression estimation technique with a fixed effect method, as suggested by Hausman test. The results show that CSR is significantly positively related to ROE. Findings indicate that investment in CSR brings positive change in a firm‟s profitability which ultimately leads to an increase in the shareholder‟s wealth. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Pakistan Stock Exchange, Firm Performance, Fixed Effect Model, Non-financial Sector.
... Originated from the perspective of private organizations, it maintained the initial focus directed only at economic and legal responsibilities, as described by Friedman (1970). Subsequently, it was influenced by stakeholder theory and gained broader approaches to corporate Social responsibility, broadening organizational responsibilities with ethical and philanthropic dimensions (Carroll 1991). ...
... In the 1980s, Wartick and Cochran (1985) proposed a framework using the four dimensions of Carroll (1991) to operationalize the corporate social responsibility, relating it to organizational principles, processes and policies. It was later expanded by the literature on business strategy and competitive advantage through the work of Kramer (2002, 2006). ...
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Discussions about State Social Responsibility and Public Value are not recent. When linked to each other there is not an incremental theoretical sequence that shows the evolution of responsibility in public organizations. This essay aims to elaborate a framework for public administration, based on the Creating Shared Value (CSV). The use of CSV is justified because it allows the conceptual comparison between public and private perspectives. This framework was called State Creation of Shared Public Value and the operational structure of the CSV was maintained with the levels and the evaluation mechanism, but the original definitions were re-specified for the context of Public Value. The CSV based structure through levels and stages guarantees a gradual increase in the scope of benefits from public services that can be framed in the same perspective, with no restrictions of areas or segments for their use through Public Value.
... Originated from the perspective of private organizations, it maintained the initial focus directed only at economic and legal responsibilities, as described by Friedman (1970). Subsequently, it was influenced by stakeholder theory and gained broader approaches to corporate Social responsibility, broadening organizational responsibilities with ethical and philanthropic dimensions (Carroll 1991). ...
... In the 1980s, Wartick and Cochran (1985) proposed a framework using the four dimensions of Carroll (1991) to operationalize the corporate social responsibility, relating it to organizational principles, processes and policies. It was later expanded by the literature on business strategy and competitive advantage through the work of Kramer (2002, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Discussions about State Social Responsibility and Public Value are not recent. When linked to each other there is not an incremental theoretical sequence that shows the evolution of responsibility in public organizations. This essay aims to elaborate a framework for public administration, based on the Creating Shared Value (CSV). The use of CSV is justified because it allows the conceptual comparison between public and private perspectives. This framework was called State Creation of Shared Public Value and the operational structure of the CSV was maintained with the levels and the evaluation mechanism, but the original definitions were re-specified for the context of Public Value. The CSV based structure through levels and stages guarantees a gradual increase in the scope of benefits from public services that can be framed in the same perspective, with no restrictions of areas or segments for their use through Public Value.
... Five factors are identified, namely, social needs responsibility, legal responsibility, environmental responsibility, employee responsibility and product responsibility. While the environmental and legal components have already been identified in previous studies (Glavas and Kelly, 2014;Salmones et al., 2005;Carroll, 1991), the social needs, product and employee responsibilities have been either understudied or not studied at all. Therefore, the present study improves the studies of Salmones et al. (2005), Glavas and Kelly (2014) and Homburg et al. (2013), who have found only two or three factors in measuring CSR. ...
... Such banks are expected to be more likely to develop their activities in the long run. In fact, banks that show great compliance with national law and regulations will not suffer regulations' abusive fees, because firms are expected to pursue their economic missions within the framework of the law (Carroll, 1991). Thus, banks which are investing more in legal responsibility activities are expected to protect the customers' savings against liquid risk and generate more trust in the customers' mind (Choi and La, 2013;Paine, 2000). ...
Article
Purpose-This paper has two purposes. First is to operationalise the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and trust in the context of a developing country, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Second purpose is to test in a disaggregated perspective the impact of each CSR dimension on trust. Design/methodology/approach-Data were collected from 264 customers of six banks and processed with exploratory, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations using LISREL 9.1. Findings-CSR is found to have five dimensions: legal responsibility, social needs responsibility, product responsibility, environmental responsibility and employee responsibility; trust is found to be a three-dimensional construct: integrity, compassion and partnership. Each CSR dimension has a positive impact on customers' perception of trustworthiness. Research limitations/implications-Reliability of trust is not high enough, suggesting the need to deepen research in order to find a more adapted CSR scale for banks. The smallness of sample size might have influenced the robustness of our psychometric results. CSR and trust relationships might be analysed in a more enriched framework including service quality, reputation and banks' employee performance as moderating variables. This paper has measured the two concepts from the customers' perspective only. However, both CSR and trust are best understood in a stakeholder perspective. So, it might be insightful to extend future research in a stakeholder orientation perspective. Practical implications-Banks from developing countries are also concerned with CSR and should invest in it. Clearly, each dimension of CSR should receive enough importance if Congolese banks are to recover their customers' trust. The findings of the study also suggest that banks' customers are aware of the necessity for banks to comply with the country's legislation. Non-compliance can have severe influence on customers' trustworthiness to banks. Social implications-Financial institutions are generally evaluated through financial indicators. The findings suggest that banks customers and other stakeholders begin a shift towards requiring their banks to invest in social and environmental activities in order to improve their local milieu. These aspects are still very neglected, or adopted only as marketing strategies to improve image, without a true willingness to be socially responsive. CSR and trust: disaggregated relations The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: https Originality/value-The two concepts are measured in a context where they did not receive enough importance (developing country), hence providing new knowledge in the field. Further, a disaggregated approach allowed understanding the way each CSR dimension impacts trust, which had not been the case in previous research.
... Drawing on theories in business research, we then present a pyramid of Social Responsibility of AI that outlines four specific AI responsibilities in a hierarchy. This is adapted from the pyramid proposed for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in [34]. In the second part of the survey, we review major aspects of AI algorithms and provide a systematic framework -Socially Responsible AI Algorithms (SRAs) -that aims to understand the connections among these aspects. ...
... To be better understood by a conscientious AI technologist and researcher, Social Responsibility of AI should be framed in such a way that the entire range of AI responsibilities are embraced. Adapting Carroll's Pyramid of CSR [34] in the AI context, we suggest four kinds of social responsibilities that constitute the Social Responsibility of AI: functional, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities, as shown in Figure 1. By modularizing AI responsibilities, we hope to help AI technologists and researchers to reconcile these obligations and simultaneously fulfill all the component parts in the pyramid. ...
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In the current era, people and society have grown increasingly reliant on Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. AI has the potential to drive us towards a future in which all of humanity flourishes. It also comes with substantial risks for oppression and calamity. Discussions about whether we should (re)trust AI have repeatedly emerged in recent years and in many quarters, including industry, academia, health care, services, and so on. Technologists and AI researchers have a responsibility to develop trustworthy AI systems. They have responded with great efforts of designing more responsible AI algorithms. However, existing technical solutions are narrow in scope and have been primarily directed towards algorithms for scoring or classification tasks, with an emphasis on fairness and unwanted bias. To build long-lasting trust between AI and human beings, we argue that the key is to think beyond algorithmic fairness and connect major aspects of AI that potentially cause AI's indifferent behavior. In this survey, we provide a systematic framework of Socially Responsible AI Algorithms that aims to examine the subjects of AI indifference and the need for socially responsible AI algorithms, define the objectives, and introduce the means by which we may achieve these objectives. We further discuss how to leverage this framework to improve societal well-being through protection, information, and prevention/mitigation.
... To adhere to legal responsibility, companies Nor Hadi and Jadzil Baihaqi should maintain business stability by complying with applicable regulations, constitution, and laws (De Schutter, 2008;Phillips, Freeman, & Wicks, 2003). Companies must uphold ethical principles, respect values in society, code of conduct, and conventions that apply in society (Carroll, 1991). Philanthropic responsibility is achieved by upholding humanity, empathy, charity, and responding to community problems. ...
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p>This research examines the underlying motive of CSR implementation and design, according to maqasid al-sharia. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to obtain primary data through interviews with 5 CSR informants. Secondary data was collected from the public company’s annual report on the IDX in 2019. Data was sampled and examined using purposive and content analysis technique. The results showed that there are 2 motives in CSR, specifically social and economic. Furthermore, the economic motive is more dominant and expects provision of monetary feedback. Consequently, CSR becomes less effective and most programs do not follow the real stakeholders’ needs. The dignity of CSR needs to be regained by implementing maqasid al-sharia dimensions. There are 2 approaches used to implement CSR, including a support system that utilizes pressure. The transcendental approach initiates corporate actors through religious values from maqasid al-sharia, making the implementation more humanist and stakeholder-oriented.</p
... The stakeholder theory states that any entity that affects the organization or itself affected by the organization is called stakeholders. Carroll (1991) presented the pyramid approach for the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic activities of the organization. Carroll argued that the primary responsibility of an organization was shareholders' value maximization, followed by legal obligations, ethical behavior, and philanthropic activities. ...
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Despite having a focus on sustainability policy planning, failures occur during the implementation process. The gap between policy and its implementation causes failures of the sustainability policy. Against this backdrop, the primary objective of the present study is to explore the factors that create hurdles in the implementation of corporate sustainability policy in letters and spirits. The study adopts a systematic literature review (SLR) approach and reviews all the possible studies from 1950 to 2019 published by six major publishing houses. These studies were found using selected keywords. The findings of SLR reveal governance, education, and SMEs as frequently appearing words while exploring corporate sustainability. The stakeholder theory and the institutional theory appear as the most cited theories in the sustainability literature. The grassroots approach, environmental impact assessment, integrated sustainability assessment, evidence-based practice approach, systematic approach, economical instrument policy approach, and consultant services approach appear as the most relevant approaches used for policymaking in corporate sustainability. The SLR findings reveal five significant factors that influence corporate sustainability policy implementation and can cause the gap between policy and its implementation. These factors are government institutions (including macro and meso-institutions), internal and external stakeholders, management, organizational barriers, and normative references.
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