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When Learning Is Just a Click Away: Does Simple User Interaction Foster Deeper Understanding of Multimedia Messages?

Abstract

In 2 experiments, students received 2 presentations of a narrated animation that explained how lightning forms followed by retention and transfer tests. In Experiment 1, learners who were allowed to exercise control over the pace of the narrated animation before a second presentation of the same material at normal speed (part–whole presentation) performed better on transfer but not retention tests compared with learners who received the same 2 presentations in the reverse order (whole–part presentation). In Experiment 2, learners who were allowed to exercise control over the pace of the narrated animation across 2 presentations (part–part presentation) performed better on transfer but not retention tests compared with learners who received the same 2 presentations at normal speed without any learner control (whole–whole presentation). These results are consistent with cognitive load theory and a 2-stage theory of mental model construction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Control over the pace at which new information appears may reduce the risk that new information is already available while old information is not yet fully processed, thereby raising cognitive load. Research suggests that children thus have the opportunity to organize each segment of information mentally and integrate pieces of information before they proceed to new information (e.g., Kirkorian et al., 2016;Mayer & Chandler, 2001). In Mayer's (2011) multimedia theory, one of the principles, the so-called segmenting principle, refers to the importance of controlling the pace at which new chunks of information appear. ...
... Otherwise, it is hard to understand why the main character wishes to make lightning. Thus, additional time reduces this group's risk of cognitive overload due to new chunks of story information that already appear while "old" info is not yet fully understood and integrated with other pieces of information (Mayer, 2011;Mayer & Chandler, 2001). ...
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The study tests the efficacy of a new sort of digital picture book. It includes camera movements to guide children’s visual attention through the pictures and the possibility to control page-turning and the pace at which the camera moves through pictures. There were 56 participants (M age = 60.34 months, SD = 6.24) randomly assigned to three conditions: still images, camera movements (no control over pace), and camera movements (control over pace). For the 50% of children least proficient in language skills, sparingly adding well-chosen camera movements to the illustrations helps children understand the story. In addition, the camera movements’ effect can be enhanced by enabling control over the pace at which new information appears. Particularly the 50% low-language proficiency children benefited from camera movements and spending more time processing information.
... Color coding facilitates the identification of corresponding visual and verbal elements, and improves learning performance through the temporal proximity of relevant information (Ginns, 2006). When learners are able to easily ascertain relevant information and integrate verbal and visual information, they can engage more deeply in the cognitive processing required for meaningful learning (Mayer and Chandler, 2001;Mayer and Moreno, 2003;Seufert, 2003). The present study observed higher theta and alpha powers in the color-coded learning conditions than in the grayscale learning conditions. ...
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Increasing numbers of students around the world are suffering from mathematics anxiety. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematics anxiety and gender, grade, career choices, and academic achievement in Grade 10, 11, and 12 students. This study used the Revised Version of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale to survey 1,548 high school students (570 males and 978 females) from high schools in Vietnam. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were used to analyze data. The results show that there are significant differences in the influence of grade, academic achievement, and students’ career choices on mathematics anxiety. Academic coping strategies, gender, grade, and career choices are significant predictors of mathematics anxiety. Grade 12 students have higher levels of mathematics anxiety than others. Students with high average mathematics scores (9.0–10.0) have higher levels of mathematics anxiety than students with lower scores. Besides, students choosing finance and economics or industrial engineering to pursue into higher education also experienced higher levels of mathematics anxiety than others. This study contributes to the general discussion about the nature of mathematics anxiety and the relationship between mathematics anxiety and academic achievement.
... Thus, the question of how to facilitate deeper processing of specific information in instructional videos is a crucial issue. For example, the measures of providing learner controls or adding system-controlled pauses to instructional media have demonstrated positive effects on learning (Boucheix & Guignard, 2005;Cheon et al., 2014;Hasler et al., 2007;Höffler & Schwartz, 2011;Mayer & Chandler, 2001;Moreno, 2007;Spanjers et al., 2012). Alternatively, interactive prompts could be embedded in instructional videos to induce generative activities and enhance learning (Fiorella & Mayer, 2015;Grabowski, 2004;Wittrock, 1990). ...
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Instructional videos have been widely used in online learning environments. Effective video learning requires self-regulation by learners, which can be facilitated by deliberate instructional design, such as through prompting. Grounded in the interactive, constructive, active, and passive (ICAP) framework, this study compared the effects of explanation prompts and explored how they affected the retention and transfer of learning. In an online experiment, 103 participants were randomly assigned to focused self-explanation, scaffolded self-explanation, and instructional explanation prompting conditions. The results indicated better retention performance from the scaffolded prompt than from the focused prompt. No differences were found in transfer performance across various forms of prompts. Regression analysis suggested that prior knowledge and cognitive load may have interacted with the effect of self-explanation prompts. Prior knowledge positively predicted transfer performance, and cognitive load negatively predicted transfer performance when focused or scaffolded prompts were implemented. Potential explanations concerning how self-explanation prompts affect learning were discussed.
... A meta-analysis (Rey et al., 2019) and several studies (e.g. Biard et al., 2018;Hasler et al., 2007;Mayer & Chandler, 2001), which included different age groups and learning areas, have supported this solution of 'segmenting' materials as opposed to presenting longer, uninterrupted videos or animations. ...
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Background As a result of the COVID‐19 pandemic, many teachers found themselves making a rapid and often challenging shift from in‐person classroom teaching to teaching in an online environment. As teachers continue to learn about working in this new environment, research in cognitive and learning sciences, specifically findings from cognitive load theory and related areas, can provide meaningful strategies for teaching in this ‘new normal’. Objectives This paper describes 12 tips derived from contemporary research in educational psychology, focusing particularly on empirically supported strategies that teachers may apply in their online classroom to ensure that learning is optimized. Implications for Practice These strategies are generalizable across age groups and learning areas, and are categorized into one of two themes: approaches to optimize the design of online learning materials, and instructional strategies to support student learning. A discussion follows, outlining how teachers may apply these strategies in different contexts, with a brief overview of emerging efforts that aim to bridge cognitive load theory and self‐regulated learning research.
... Due to the prevention of participants from clicking external video link, we played the animations in an automatic manner. However, interactivity (i.e., giving control over the space and direction of the animation) has been shown to be a key factor for the effectiveness of animation [42]. Not only such simple control gives learners time to integrate information before proceeding to the next frame, but it also segments the animation into relevant chunks to facilitate learning. ...
Preprint
Proper communication is key to the adoption and implementation of differential privacy (DP). However, a prior study found that laypeople did not understand the data perturbation processes of DP and how DP noise protects their sensitive personal information. Consequently, they distrusted the techniques and chose to opt out of participating. In this project, we designed explanative illustrations of three DP models (Central DP, Local DP, Shuffler DP) to help laypeople conceptualize how random noise is added to protect individuals' privacy and preserve group utility. Following pilot surveys and interview studies, we conducted two online experiments (N = 595) examining participants' comprehension, privacy and utility perception, and data-sharing decisions across the three DP models. Besides the comparisons across the three models, we varied the noise levels of each model. We found that the illustrations can be effective in communicating DP to the participants. Given an adequate comprehension of DP, participants preferred strong privacy protection for a certain type of data usage scenarios (i.e., commercial interests) at both the model level and the noise level. We also obtained empirical evidence showing participants' acceptance of the Shuffler DP model for data privacy protection. Our findings have implications for multiple stakeholders for user-centered deployments of differential privacy, including app developers, DP model developers, data curators, and online users.
... Color coding facilitates the identification of corresponding visual and verbal elements, and improves learning performance through the temporal proximity of relevant information (Ginns, 2006). When learners are able to easily ascertain relevant information and integrate verbal and visual information, they can engage more deeply in the cognitive processing required for meaningful learning (Mayer and Chandler, 2001;Mayer and Moreno, 2003;Seufert, 2003). The present study observed higher theta and alpha powers in the color-coded learning conditions than in the grayscale learning conditions. ...
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In the present study, we tested the effectiveness of color coding on the programming learning of students who were learning from video lectures. Effectiveness was measured using multimodal physiological measures, combining eye tracking and electroencephalography (EEG). Using a between-subjects design, 42 university students were randomly assigned to two video lecture conditions (color-coded vs. grayscale). The participants’ eye tracking and EEG signals were recorded while watching the assigned video, and their learning performance was subsequently assessed. The results showed that the color-coded design was more beneficial than the grayscale design, as indicated by smaller pupil diameter, shorter fixation duration, higher EEG theta and alpha band power, lower EEG cognitive load, and better learning performance. The present findings have practical implications for designing slide-based programming learning video lectures; slides should highlight the format of the program code using color coding.
Chapter
Instructional video in flexible education is a critical knowledge dissemination method using multimedia. Video lectures can produce effective learning when instruction is designed with consideration for the limited and transient information processing capacity of working memory to manage concurrent mental processing in both the auditory and visual channels and generate active processing. Using theories of cognition, this study devised an instructional design (ID) framework for video lectures of varying formats and lengths to enhance the experience of novice learners in an undergraduate course during the COVID-19 pandemic. The ID articulated the complexities and nuances in multimedia teaching and learning. A mixed method study obtained participant (n=180) perceptions about their learning experience and engagement. The study concluded that segmented lectures in various formats positively impacted learning and engagement, with the optimal video lecture length being 5-10 minutes. This chapter discusses the ID elements, viewing practices and engagement in multimedia learning.
Thesis
Dans le cadre du projet E-Fran, nous avons étudié les processus cognitifs liés à l’apprentissage dans le but d’optimiser un simulateur de forêt en réalité virtuelle. Ces travaux de thèse ont donné lieu à quatre expérimentations portant sur un test des principes d’apprentissage multimédia (Mayer, 2009, 2014,2021) en réalité virtuelle, ainsi que sur les mécanismes cognitifs sous-jacents aux acquisitions dans le domaine des écosystèmes forestiers. Notre première étude a porté sur l’apprentissage de la décomposition de la matière organique auprès des plus de 100 élèves de 5ème. Nous avons créé un environnement 3D respectant le principe de cohérence sémantique afin de comparer deux groupes d’élèves qui étudiaient soit la leçon selon une présentation sémantiquement cohérente fixe, soit la leçon selon une présentation libre, complète. Cette étude a permis de confirmer qu’un apprentissage sémantiquement cohérent fixe était préférable dans le cadre d’apprentissages complexes en RV auprès de jeunes élèves. Dans une deuxième étude sur le même thème et auprès d’une population de 230 élèves de 5ème, nous avons testé le principe de contiguïté temporelle et les conditions d’intégration de l’information verbale (commentaire audio) et de l’information visuelle. Le matériel proposé était identique à celui de la première expérience mais était présenté sous forme d’une vidéo non interactive dans laquelle le son était présenté soit 6 secondes, soit 2 secondes avant ou après l’information visuelle. Un groupe étudiait cette vidéo avec une synchronisation (0 secondes) entre l'information verbale et l'information picturale. Cela nous a permis d’évaluer le degré de perturbation des apprentissages multimodaux dans un environnement complexe en 3D lorsque que les informations verbales et imagées ne sont pas présentées simultanément. Les résultats ont indiqué qu'un décalage temporel de 2 secondes seulement entre l'information verbale et l'information picturale perturbait significativement la compréhension et l'apprentissage. Cela nous a permis de mieux appréhender la conception de notre dernière expérimentation portant sur l’importance du guidage visuel, par signalisation, et du feedback dans un environnement forestier en réalité virtuelle immersive dans lequel il est possible d'extraire de l’information à 360° parmi une multitude d’éléments. La tâche expérimentale proposée à plus de 100 élèves de première et terminale d'un lycée agricole, impliquait un diagnostic de l'écosystème de zones forestières en RV en vue de l'implantation d'un lieu d'accueil du public. Les résultats ont montré un effet positif significatif de la signalisation visuelle et du feedback sur la performance de diagnostic et sur la récupération en mémoire de travail des informations pertinentes pour élaborer le diagnostic.
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Studied 4 computer-based training strategies for geometrical problem solving in the domain of computer numerically controlled machinery programming with regard to their effects on training performance, transfer performance, and cognitive load. A low- and a high-variability conventional condition, in which conventional practice problems had to be solved (followed by worked examples), were compared with a low- and a high-variability worked condition, in which worked examples had to be studied. Results showed that students who studied worked examples gained most from high-variability examples, invested less time and mental effort in practice, and attained better and less effort-demanding transfer performance than students who first attempted to solve conventional problems and then studied work examples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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By virtue of its enabling rapid, nonlinear access to multiple forms of information, hypermedia technology is considered a major advance in the development of educational tools to enhance learning, and a massive literature on the use of hypermedia in education has emerged. The present review examines the published findings from experimental studies of hypermedia emphasizing quantitative, empirical methods of assessing learning outcomes. Specifically, the review categorizes this research into three themes: studies of learner comprehension compared across hypermedia and other media, effects on learning outcome offered by increased learner control in hypermedia environments, and the individual differences that exist in learner responses to hypermedia. It is concluded that, to date, the benefits of hypermedia in education are limited to learning tasks reliant on repeated manipulation and searching of information and are differentially distributed across learners depending on their ability and preferred learning style. Methodological and analytical shortcomings of the literature limit the generalizability of all findings in this domain. Suggestions for addressing these problems in future research and theory development are outlined.
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The experiments reported in this article flow from the following assumptions concerning our cognitive processes: (a) Schema acquisition and automation are major learning mechanisms when dealing with higher cognitive activities and are designed to circumvent our limited working memories and emphasize our highly effective long-term memories. (b) A limited working memory makes it difficult to assimilate multiple elements of information simultaneously. (c) Under conditions where multiple elements of information interact, they must be assimilated simultaneously. (d) As a consequence, a heavy cognitive load is imposed when dealing with material that has a high level of element interactivity. (e) High levels of element interactivity and their associated cognitive loads may be caused both by intrinsic nature of the material being learned and by the method of presentation. (f) If the intrinsic element interactivity and consequent cognitive load are low, the extraneous cognitive load is critical when dealing with intrinsically high element interactivity materials. These assumptions are the basic points of cognitive load theory. They were used to suggest that, when learning to use equipment such as computer applications, learning might be facilitated by not having the equipment present, if the material that needed to be learned had an intrinsically high degree of element interactivity. A series of four experiments supported this hypothesis. It was concluded that an analysis of both intrinsic and extraneous cognitive load can lead to instructional designs generating spectacular gains in learning efficiency.
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In Experiment 1, inexperienced trade apprentices were presented with one of four alternative instructional designs: a diagram with visual text, a diagram with auditory text, a diagram with both visual and auditory text, or the diagram only. An auditory presentation of text proved superior to a visual-only presentation but not when the text was presented in both auditory and visual forms. The diagram-only format was the least intelligible to inexperienced learners. When participants became more experienced in the domain after two specifically designed training sessions, the advantage of a visual diagram–auditory text format disappeared. In Experiment 2, the diagram-only group was compared with the audio-text group after an additional training session. The results were the reverse of those of Experiment 1: The diagram-only group outperformed the audio-text group. Suggestions are made for multimedia instruction that takes learner experience into consideration.
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Cognitive load theory suggests that effective instructional material facilitates learning by directing cognitive resources toward activities that are relevant to learning rather than toward preliminaries to learning. One example of ineffective instruction occurs if learners unnecessarily are required to mentally integrate disparate sources of mutually referring information such as separate text and diagrams. Such split-source infonnation may generate a heavy cognitive load, because material must be mentally integrated before learning can commence. This article reports findings from six experiments testing the consequences of split-source and integrated information using electrical engineering and biology instructional materials. Experiment 1 was designed to compare conventional instructions with integrated instructions over a period of several months in an industrial training setting. The materials chosen were unintelligible without mental integration. Results favored integrated instructions throughout the 3-month study. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the possible differences between conventional and integrated instructions in areas in which it was not essential for sources of information to be integrated to be understood. The results suggest that integrated instructions were no better than split-source infonnation in such areas. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 indicate that the introduction of seemingly useful but nonessential explanatory material (e.g., a commentary on a diagram) could have deleterious effects even when presented in integrated format. Experiment 6 found that the need for physical integration was restored if the material was organized in such a manner that individual units could not be understood alone. In light of these results and previous findings, suggestions are made for cognitively guided instructional packages.
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How can students be helped to understand scientific explanations of cause-and-effect systems, such as how a pump works, how the human respiratory system works, or how lightning storms develop? This chapter reviews some encouraging evidence that multimedia learning environments can promote constructivist learning that enables problem-solving transfer. It begins with a description of a multimedia learning scenario, a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, and a set of design principles that lead to constructivist learning. Then, results from more than 40 studies are reviewed. In combination, these studies explore the conditions under which multimedia environments promote problem-solving transfer of scientific and mathematical principles. The concluding section addresses the problem of how multimedia instructional messages can be designed to promote problem-solving transfer.
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Students viewed a computer-generated animation depicting the process of lightning formation (Experiment 1) or the operation of a car's braking system (Experiment 2). In each experiment, students received either concurrent narration describing the major steps (Group AN) or concurrent on-screen text involving the same words and presentation timing (Group AT). Across both experiments, students in Group AN outperformed students in Group AT in recalling the steps in the process on a retention test, in finding named elements in an illustration on a matching test, and in generating correct solutions to problems on a transfer test. Multimedia learners can integrate words and pictures more easily when the words are presented auditorily rather than visually. This split-attention effect is consistent with a dual-processing model of working memory consisting of separate visual and auditory channels.
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Presents a conceptual analysis of four sets of research issues raised by the rapid intrusion of microcomputers into the lives of children. The first involves use of the computer as a vehicle for studying the determinants of intrinsic motivation. The second involves the study of the relationships between intrinsic motivation and instructional effectiveness in educational software. The third involves the empirical examination of contrasting philosophies of instruction embodied in different current approaches to the design of computer-based educational programs. The final set of issues concerns the effects of the widespread introduction of the computer on social equality, the process of social development, and the goals of formal education. It is argued that these issues should be examined before this technology becomes part of daily life. (99 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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It is hypothesized that instructional materials that use dual-mode presentation techniques (e.g., auditory text and visual diagrams) can result in superior learning to equivalent, single-modality formats (e.g., visual text and visual diagrams). This modality effect may be attributed to an effective expansion of working memory. The authors explore the effect from a cognitive-load perspective. Using a variety of instructional materials, the authors found in 3 experiments that participants studying materials incorporating audio text and visual diagrams or tables performed better than those studying a conventional, visual-only format. These results were obtained only for instructions with a high intellectual content. In light of these findings, the central role of cognitive load in instructional design is highlighted, and the implications for multimedia instruction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)