Chapter

Les complexités de La nuptialité : de la précocité des unions féminines à la polygamie masculine en Afrique

In book: Démographie : analyse et synthèses. Volume II : Les déterminants de la fécondité, Chapter: Chapitre 27 : Les complexités de La nuptialité : de la précocité des unions féminines à la polygamie masculine en Afrique, Publisher: INED, Editors: G. Caselli, Jacques Vallin, Guillaume Wunsch
Source: RePEc

ABSTRACT

(English) Evolutions in matrimonial behaviour reveal profound changes in society. Current transitions in nuptiality in African cities can be mainly accounted for by the increase in schooling for girls, but also by growing economic difficulties that tend to weaken traditional systems governing social life. Transitions in nuptiality concern the age at which unions are entered into, but also the entire dynamics of matrimony, including changes in the age differences of spouses, marriage breakdowns, etc. This study particularly underlines the complexity of polygamy, which is more frequent in West Africa than in the other regions of the continent. A certain number of changes have taken place within African societies in recent years. In particular, deepening economic difficulties have led to a marked increase in the average age for first marriages, and unions have become more fragile. These changes can therefore result either in an evolution in the practice of polygamy, or in changes to the other factors. If the age difference on marriage is reduced, polygamy can only be maintained by a corresponding growth in definitive male celibacy. On the other hand, giving up polygamy would have an enormous impact on how these societies are organised and run, especially as this would challenge men's power over women, and elder people's over younger people. _________________________________ (français) L’évolution des comportements matrimoniaux est révélatrice de profondes mutations de la société. Dans les villes africaines, la transition de la nuptialité en cours est largement due à la scolarisation des jeunes filles mais aussi aux difficultés économiques croissantes conduisant à un affaiblissement du système traditionnel de gestion de la vie sociale. La transition de la nuptialité concerne non seulement l’âge d’entrée en union, mais aussi toute la dynamique matrimoniale, comme l’évolution de l’écart d’âges entre conjoints, les ruptures d’union, etc.

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Available from: Philippe Antoine, Jan 02, 2014
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    • "When faced with the arrival of a co-wife women have an outside option which is divorce (Antoine, 2002; Locoh and Thiriat, 1995). Divorce is indeed relatively frequent in Senegal. "
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    ABSTRACT: In a polygamous society, all monogamous women are potentially at risk of polygamy. However, both the anthropological and economic literatures are silent on the potential impact of the risk of polygamy on economic decisions of monogamous wives. We explore this issue for Senegal using individual panel data. We first estimate a Cox model for the probability of transition to polygamy. Second, we estimate the impact of the predicted risk of polygamy on monogamous wives' savings. We find a positive impact of the risk of polygamy on female savings entrusted to formal or informal institutions, suggestive of self-protective strategies.This increase in savings comes at the cost of reduced consumption, both in terms of household food expenditures and wives' private non-food expenses.
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    • "Les informations recueillies faisant appel à la mémoire des enquêtées, certaines unions lointaines de très courte durée pourraient être omises. Cependant, l'utilisation de la fiche « Âge-événement » lors de l'enquête a permis d'améliorer la qualité des données (Antoine, 2002). Les données individuelles sont complétées par celles de l'enquête biographique communautaire (2002) qui a collecté des informations rétrospectives sur les caractéristiques du contexte local susceptibles d'influencer les comportements démographiques des populations. "

    Preview · Article · Sep 2014
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    • "Both societies, to varying degrees, are thus characterized by a double standard in terms of sexual norms (Bajos and Bozon, 2008; Bozon, Michel, 2003) 4 . Normative constraints 3 In Senegal, the existence of the polygamous regime also establishes the adultery committed by men as a completely legitimate practice socially (Antoine, 2002)(Antoine, 2002)(Antoine 2002).. 4 This double standard is reflected in the legal regulations of marriage and sexuality in the two countries. In Morocco, legal age for sexuality and marriage is 18 for men as for women. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines how women or couples manage unplanned pregnancies in the capital cities of Morocco and Senegal (Rabat and Dakar), both subject to strict rules in terms of sexuality among single people. We analyze the social and individual logics prevailing when an unexpected pregnancy is announced and how decisions are made as to whether to continue or terminate the pregnancy. We analyse qualitative data from a program funded by the European Union between 2005 and 2009 on the use of emergency contraception in African cities. Our results show that despite the existence of effective family planning programs in Rabat, circumstances of sexual debut among women are difficult. In Dakar, although chastity before marriage is promoted, non-compliance with this rule is not as severely condemned than in Morocco. Choosing abortion when faced with unplanned pregnancy depends on people's life cycle and on the stage of their relationship. One practice contemplated at a given time in the relationship may no longer be feasible at another time. Finally, in both cities, our data highlight the strong involvement of families in managing couple relationships and their fertility. This influence seems further exacerbated in Morocco where families sometimes fiercely require or forbid abortion.
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