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The Educational System in Luxembourg. CEPS Special Report, 21 September 2009

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This paper was prepared as part of the INCLUD-ED Project, an Integrated Project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission. Integrated Projects bring together the critical mass of activities and resources needed to achieve ambitious clearly defined scientific objectives and are expected to have a structuring effect on the fabric of European research. INCLUD-ED was the only project focused on compulsory education which was selected in the last Calls for Proposals of the 6th Framework Programme.

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... There are also two stages of post compulsory secondary education -general upper secondary (ages 15-17 years) and a period of specialisation (ages 17-19 years). The system is highly centralised and the responsibility for schooling is with the national Ministry of Education, which is also in charge of drafting curricula (Tozzi and Étienne 2008;Geyer 2009;Koenig 2012). ...
... in the second year of primary education and written French from the third year onwards. Additionally, pupils learn English as a "truly" foreign language (Geyer 2009). ...
... PISA results attest to this claim. In the 2000 PISA evaluation, Luxembourg was ranked last among the EU countries in language, maths and science literacy (Geyer 2009;Tröhler 2013). PISA scores demonstrate the gap between immigrant and native pupils as well as the gap between pupils from different socio economic status (Carey and Ernst 2006). ...
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Teachers are one of the main components of an educational system that facilities a prosperous and resilient society. Salary plays a crucial role in attracting and retaining high-quality teachers. The relationship between teacher salary and student achievement is complex and inconclusive. A high teacher salary alone is not a guarantor of educational attainment. Teachers in Luxembourg have the highest gross salary among OECD countries, yet - in international comparison - the student achievement stagnates and has been below average.
... The responsibility to organize education is decentralized to the three language-communities: the Flemish-speaking community, the Frenchspeaking community and the German-speaking community. Each community runs its education independently; therefore, there may be significant differences in the educational systems between these communities (Geyer, 2009). The study focused on the Flemish-speaking community of Belgium (Flanders), and the student city of Leuven served as the main setting for the research project. ...
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Improving education achievement in Luxembourg is a priority for strengthening productivity growth and enhancing residents. employment prospects in the private sector, where employers mainly hire cross-border workers. Student achievement in Luxembourg is below the OECD average according to the 2003 OECD PISA study, with the performance gap between immigrant and native students being above average. A factor that makes learning more difficult in Luxembourg than in other countries is the use of three languages of instruction (L�tzebuergesch, German and French). New empirical evidence presented in this paper based on the PISA tests suggests that the reforms over the past decade or so to attenuate these difficulties have had considerable success: the adverse impact of immigrant status on PISA test scores is around the OECD average. The fact that the performance gap between immigrant and native students is nevertheless greater than average reflects other factors, notably the relatively large difference in socio-economic background between immigrant and native students. The paper also discusses further reforms that are underway or planned to improve achievement of immigrant students. Another feature of Luxembourg.s education system is that it is highly stratified, with children being sorted into a large number of parallel tracks at an early stage and there being a high rate of grade repetition. International evidence suggests that stratification increases the impact of socio-economic background on student achievement. Reforms to reduce stratification are discussed in the remainder of the paper, together with reforms to enhance achievement more generally by improving teaching skills and basing school programmes on key competences. This paper relates to the 2006 Economic Survey of Luxembourg (www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/luxembourg). Am�liorer la performance du syst�me �ducatif au Luxembourg Am�liorer la r�ussite scolaire au Luxembourg constitue une priorit� pour renf
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In 1839 the current borders of Luxembourg were drawn approximately along the Romance-Germanic language border. From that moment on, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was inhabited by a population speaking a German dialect, while by historic tradition and political opportunity, the administrative and judicial language continued to be French. This paper focuses on two aspects: the study of the interference between Lëtzeburgesch on the one hand and French, German and English on the other. The description of the present linguistic situation based on a sociolinguistic survey done in 1997. Bourdieu's concept of the legitimate language is modified to match the Luxembourgish situation of 'triglossia with trilingualism' and the legitimate multilingual language competence, which requires a subtle understanding of the combination of different varieties of the three languages officially in use in Luxembourg, is depicted.
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This paper was prepared as part of the INCLUD-ED Project, an Integrated Project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission. Integrated Projects bring together the critical mass of activities and resources needed to achieve ambitious clearly defined scientific objectives and are expected to have a structuring effect on the fabric of European research. INCLUD-ED was the only project focused on compulsory education which was selected in the last Calls for Proposals of the 6th Framework Programme.
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