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Health and Schooling: Evidence and Policy Implications for Developing Countries

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Abstract

PIP Health and education are typically viewed as distinct topics from both the research and policy perspectives. Accordingly, the direct interactions between health status and education have been neglected in both research and policy making. The authors use survey data collected from students during the 1980s in Piaui, Ceara, and Pernambuco states as part of an evaluation of a major educational intervention program, EDURURAL, to investigate the complementarities of health with school attainment and cognitive achievement. A series of anthropometric measures for individual students in rural northeast Brazil are used in educational performance models. The promotion models and value-added achievement models both demonstrate the importance of students' visual acuity. Poor vision systematically leads to higher drop-out rates, more grade repetition, and lower achievement. The achievement models also point to the role of good nutrition.

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... Though less relevant for more sophisticated health care, the feedback effects between health and schooling are important. A number of analyses, summarized in Gomes-Neto, Hanushek et al. (1997), have indicated the importance of adequate nutrition and good basic child health for educational attainment. The same study suggests, for a rural population in North-East Brazil, that improved health status reduces the probability of dropping out and increases grade achievements. ...
... One example of the participation approach is the development of report cards where community opinion is canvassed and summarized in a short report on the appropriateness, quality, and effectiveness of services delivered. Report cards are used in India (Mumbai, Bangalore and Calcutta) and the Philippines (Goetz and Gaventa 2001). They are then used to put pressure on public officials to change services. ...
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About this series... This series is produced by the Health, Nutrition, and Population Family (HNP) of the World Bank's Human Development Network. The papers in this series aim to provide a vehicle for publishing preliminary and unpolished results on HNP topics to encourage discussion and debate. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author(s) and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, to its affiliated organizations or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent. Citation and the use of material presented in this series should take into account this provisional character. For free copies of papers in this series please contact the individual authors whose name appears on the paper. Enquiries about the series and submissions should be made directly to the Managing Editor Joy de Beyer (jdebeyer@worldbank.org) or HNP Advisory Service (healthpop@worldbank.org, tel 202 473-2256, fax 202 522-3234). For more information, see also www.worldbank.org/ hnppublications.
... Children who have been stunted in childhood are therefore more likely to delay school enrollment, perform poorly in school, repeat a grade, and drop out of school than those who have not been stunted [9,10]. However, some studies observed no signi cant association between childhood stunting and academic performance [11,12], grade repetition [10,13], and school dropout [14]. ...
... *Some studies were counted more than once because they use more than one type of exposition or outcome leading to a number of studies greater than 16 and a total of percentages greater than 100%. (13) or high (2) risk of confounding bias ( Table 3 in Additional le 2). More than one-fth (4, 25%) of studies have a high risk of bias due to missing data. ...
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IntroductionAlthough many studies have examined the associations between growth problems in infancy and age at school entry, grade repetition, school dropout and schooling level in developing country, no synthesis of the evidence has been conducted. We aim to review evidence of the effects of stunting, or height-for-age, on schooling level and schooling trajectories, defined as the combination of school entry age, grade repetition, and school dropouts.Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies (last update March 20, 2021) estimating that estimate the association between stunting, or height-for-age, and at least one component of the school trajectory, or schooling level, using five databases (PubMed, Embase, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), Web of Science and PsycINFO). Study selection and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. Pooled effects were calculated using the generic inverse variance weighting random effect model. The studies’ risk of bias was assessed using the ROBINS-I tool for non-randomized studies.ResultsWe screened 3944 records by titles and abstracts and retained 16 for inclusion in the qualitative and meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed that an increase in height-for-age leads to an increase in early enrollment [OR: 1.34 (95% CI: 1.07; 1.67)], a reduction in late enrollment [OR: 0.63 (95% CI: 0.51; 0.78)], an increase in schooling level [MD: 0.24 (95% CI: 0.14; 0.34)], and a reduction of school overage [OR: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70; 0.90)]. The odds of grade repetition increased by 59% (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.18; 2.14) for stunted children compared to those with no stunting.Conclusions This review suggests that stunting in childhood might lead to a delay in school enrollment, grade repetition, school dropout, and low schooling levels in developing countries. Future research should evaluate the effect of stunting on academic trajectories in the same population and explore the potential modification effect of socioeconomic status. The current findings suggest that policy makers need to work more to prevent stunting and to include health issues in educational policies. Systematic review registration : PROSPERO CRD42020198346
... A maioria das investigações nacionais sobre diferenças intelectuais e sua relação com variáveis sociais ou acadêmicas pode ser encontrada no período do início do século passado até a década de 1970. Após esse período, é bastante difícil encontrar estudos amplos e sistemáticos (Flores-Mendoza, 2006 Gomes-Neto et al. (1997) analisaram especificamente os dados de avaliação de 378 alunos rurais do estado do Ceará matriculados na segunda série em 1985 e que continuaram em 1987. As variáveis independentes consistiram de medidas antropométricas (peso, altura e espessura do tríceps), anos de escolaridade dos pais, acuidade visual e motivação para continuar os estudos. ...
... O amplo estudo de Gomes-Neto et al. (1997) em áreas rurais do Ceará, por exemplo, mostrou que 15% dos alunos tinham desnutrição crônica, 32% eram severamente desnutridos e 45% tinham alguma deficiência visual. Essa condição de nutrição e de saúde geral dos alunos rurais estava significativamente relacionada ao desempenho escolar. ...
Article
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The study had as objective to raise information about the rural children cognition. This sample was composed by 144 rural children, aged from 6 to11 years old, who live in a very poor village localized in the north of Minas Gerais State. The Coloured Matrices Progressives test was applied as well as three subtests from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for ChildrenIII [Arithmetic, Digit Span and Code]. The results showed that, in general, the differences in performance on these tests were associated to age only in younger groups. The comparison between the rural children sample (n=59) to the urban children one (n=143), aged from 7 to 8 years old and all of them academic level equivalent, pointed 30 points of intellectual quotient difference on Raven, and 16.18 points of intellectual quotient difference on two verbal subtests [Arithmetic and Digit Span]. It was concluded that environmental deficits affect more the fluid intelligence than the crystallized intelligence.
... Gomes-Neto et al. 7 showed that primary schoolchildren with reduced vision had a higher probability of repeating a class and scoring very low on achievement tests. Similar relationships between poor vision and academic performance were seen in findings of many researchers like Goldstand et al. 8 in the United States of America, Toledo et al. 9 and Junior et al. 10 in Brazil, Chen et al. 11 in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia, and Kotingo et al. 5 in the southern part of Nigeria. ...
... P = 0.000). Similar findings with regard to low vision and poor academic performance were found by Chen et al. 11 in Malaysia, Kotingo et al. 5 in southern part of Nigeria, Toledo et al. 9 and Gomes-Neto et al. 7 in Brazil, Williams et al. 38 in the United Kingdom, and Taylor et al. 39 in the United States of America. This may be due to the fact that more than 80% of what the child learns in school comes through the use of the eyes. ...
Article
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Background: The Sustainable Development Goal 4 ensures that all children have an inclusive and equitable quality education. However, uncorrected refractive errors (UREs) have been a major cause of limitations with regard to quality education as vision plays a vital role in child learning and development. Thus, any problem affecting the child's vision could adversely affect the quality of the child's education. Aims: The aim of this research was to assess the quality of education of the children with URE in Sokoto metropolis, Sokoto State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren in four randomly selected primary schools within Sokoto metropolis was carried out from July 2016 to October 2016 using the illiterate "E" chart and a pinhole. Relevant history and basic ocular examinations were done using a multistage sampling technique. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS) version 20. Results: A total of 113 students were surveyed; 56 (49.6%) males and 57 (50.4%) females. The age range was between 5 and 15 years, and the mean age was 10.89 ± 2.27 years. The prevalence of URE was 9.7%, with more than half of the students within the age group of 10-12 years (P = 0.018) and more common in females (54.5%) than males (45.5%) (P = 0.775). More than 90% of the respondents had never had a prior eye examination. The average mean academic performance of the pupils with URE (49.54% ±10.49%) was statistically significantly lower than those without refractive error (71.08 ± 10.09), mean difference = 21.55 (95% confidence interval, 15.18-27.92) (t = 6.70, P = 0.000). Conclusions: The negative implications of URE on the quality of education and other socioeconomic aspects of life underscore the need to increase efforts on its screening and increase other relevant interventional measures.
... Behrman (1996) reviewed a large number of studies and reported a significant positive relationship between child health and schooling. For example, Gomes-Neto et al. (1997) noted that nutrition and health status strongly affected both grade attainment and student achievement of Brazilian children. They found that the students' short term nutrition had a strong role in cognitive learning although it did not have the same effect on their grade repetition. ...
... Most of the previous studies, such as Chutikul (1986), Jamison (1986), Moock andLeslie (1986), andGomes-Neto et al. (1997), did not consider the fact that child health and schooling performance both reflects household decisions regarding investments into children's human capital, which is determined simultaneously in the household. In other words, most previous studies on the impact of child health on schooling did not control for the endogeneity of child health. ...
Article
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Purpose – This paper aims to examine the impact of child health (measured by nutritional status) on schooling performance of Bangladeshi children. Design/methodology/approach – The data set used in this study comes from a survey titled “Micronutrient and Gender Study (MNGS) in Bangladesh”. The survey was administered by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). The author controls for the potential endogeneity of child health by an instrumental variables approach. The results indicate that the impact of child health on school achievement will be overestimated if endogeneity of child health is ignored. Findings – The results reveal that child health has significant effects on school enrolment and grade attainment, although it does not affect the current school attendance. The impact of child health is stronger for school enrolment compared to grade attainment. Originality/value – This study improves the understanding on the relationship between child health and schooling in several ways. First, the author controls for the potential endogeneity of child health by an instrumental variables approach. The chosen instrumental variables (i.e. heights of father and mother) are strong predictors of child health and satisfy the validity test. Second, this study examines the effects of child health on wide ranges of schooling measures:enrolment, attendance and attainment.
... Child and youth health is seen as a fundamental political issue for LMICS since investment in health, mainly during the first period of infancy, affects the potential development of the individual (Glewwe, 2005;Glewwe, Jacoby, & King, 2001). A series of empirical studies have shown evidence of the existence of a positive effect of health on education, reporting strong evidence that an improvement of health and nutrition promotes better educational outcomes (Alderman, Behrman, Lavy, & Menon, 2001;Glewwe & Jacoby, 1995;Glewwe et al., 2001;Gomes-Neto, Hanushek, Leite, & Frota-Bezzera, 1997). ...
... Most studies have focused on measures of health in infancy and their impact on the development of the individual (Glewwe et al., 2001;Gomes-Neto et al., 1997). However, it is during adolescence that major transitions take place, with puberty and the rapid maturing of the brain leading to new behaviours and capabilities, causing transformations in various spheresfamily, friends, education, and health (Viner et al., 2012). ...
Article
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To analyze how socio-economic factors and behavioural characteristics are related to the failure of academic progress. Data of the 1993 Birth Cohort of the city of Pelotas, Brazil, were analyzed using four follow-up waves. As a measure of the failure of academic progress, we used indicators of the age-grade gap. We analyzed the association of demographic, socio-economic, and behavioural characteristics. Factors associated with failure of academic progress were assessed through logistic regression. There are a higher odds of the age-grade gap when the adolescent is not white, man, of low socio-economic status, whose parents have low schooling and living in large families. In relation to risk behaviours, alcohol and tobacco consumption represent higher odds of the age-grade gap at age 18. The results show that socio-economic factors and behavioural characteristics are important predictors of academic progress. Public policies that seek to promote education should be targeted at the most vulnerable groups, decreasing the observed inequalities.
... A maioria das investigações nacionais sobre diferenças intelectuais e sua relação com variáveis sociais ou acadêmicas pode ser encontrada no período do início do século passado até a década de 1970. Após esse período, é bastante difícil encontrar estudos amplos e sistemáticos (Flores-Mendoza, 2006 Gomes-Neto et al. (1997) analisaram especificamente os dados de avaliação de 378 alunos rurais do estado do Ceará matriculados na segunda série em 1985 e que continuaram em 1987. As variáveis independentes consistiram de medidas antropométricas (peso, altura e espessura do tríceps), anos de escolaridade dos pais, acuidade visual e motivação para continuar os estudos. ...
... O amplo estudo de Gomes-Neto et al. (1997) em áreas rurais do Ceará, por exemplo, mostrou que 15% dos alunos tinham desnutrição crônica, 32% eram severamente desnutridos e 45% tinham alguma deficiência visual. Essa condição de nutrição e de saúde geral dos alunos rurais estava significativamente relacionada ao desempenho escolar. ...
Article
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O estudo objetivou analisar a situação cognitiva de crianças da zona rural. Participaram do estudo 144 crianças com idade entre seis e onze anos de idade de uma vila rural, de situação socioeconômica bastante precária, situada na zona norte do Estado de Minas Gerais. Empregaram-se as Matrizes Progressivas de Raven e os subtestes Aritmética, Dígitos e Código do Teste Wechsler Intelligence Scale for ChildrenIII. Os resultados mostraram, de forma geral, que as diferenças de desempenho nos testes estão associadas à idade apenas em grupos de menor idade. A comparação de uma subamostra de crianças rurais (n=59) com uma de crianças urbanas (n=143) de sete e oito anos de idade, com equivalência de nível de escolaridade, apontou uma diferença de 30 pontos de quociente intelectual no teste Raven e uma diferença média de 16,18 pontos de quociente intelectual nos subtestes aritmética e dígitos. Conclui-se que déficits ambientais afetam com maior intensidade a inteligência fluida do que a inteligência cristalizada.
... Ao investigar o desempenho acadêmico e cognitivo de alunos da zona rural do nordeste brasileiro, Gomes-Neto et al. (1997) encontram evidências de que a boa nutrição tem destaque nos resultados dos escolares, sugerindo que crianças bem nutridas aprendem mais. Desse modo, ao passo que o programa de alimentação escolar saudável melhora a nutrição dos alunos, há uma transmissão direta do efeito no progresso e desempenho escolar. ...
Conference Paper
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Among the factors that can influence educational outcomes, food insecurity can be included, which can impair children's cognitive achievement. In this sense, this study analyzed the influence of the National School Feeding Program (PNAE), evaluating schools with nutrition professionals, on educational outcomes, measured by the proficiency scores of 5th-grade students in the 2019 SAEB exam. The Local Average Treatment Effects (LATE) approach was used since there is endogeneity in the program component. The results were positive and significant, showing that the presence of nutritionists as technicians in charge of the program increases, on average, 14.31 and 4.6 points in the scores in the math and portuguese tests, respectively. In general, the evidence found contributes to showing the importance of the PNAE and the role of the nutritionist in school performance, since the inclusion of this professional promotes ealthy school nutrition and this can contribute to children's cognitive development.
... Most of the previous studies. such as Chutikul (1986), Jamison (1986), Moock and Leslie (1986), and Gomes-Neto et al. (1997), did not consider the fact that child health and schooling performance both reects household decisions regarding investments into children's human capital, which is determined simultaneously in the household. In other words, most previous studies on the impact of child health on schooling did not control for the endogeneity of child health. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the impact of child health on educational achievement of Bangladeshi children. We control for the potential endogeneity of child health by an instrumental variables approach with the use of instruments that are strong predictors of child health and satisfy the validity test. Our results indicate that the impact of child health on school achievement will be overestimated if endogeneity of child health is ignored. Our results reveal that child health has signicant eects on school enrolment and grade attainment, although it does not aect current school attendance. The impact of child health is stronger for school enrolment compared to grade attainment.
... In the Brazilian case, Machado (2008) showed that for children between 7 and 14 years old and from the Northeast and Southeast regions, low height-for-age status increases the chances of late entry into school. The study by Gomes-Neto et al. (1997) uses data from a major education intervention program, EDURURAL (conducted in three Northeastern states in the 1980s), which measured students' health. This program was designed to reduce low achievement and high drop-out rates in these rural areas. ...
Article
This paper studies the relationship between single motherhood and children's height-for-age z-scores in Brazil. In order to isolate the causal effect between family structure and children's condition, we estimate an econometric model that uses male preference for firstborn sons and local sex ratios to instrument the probability of a woman becoming a single mother. Our results have a local average treatment effect interpretation (LATE). We find that children being raised by a single mother (whose marital status is affected by a firstborn girl and a low sex ratio) have a height-for-age z-score that is lower than that of children of similar characteristics that cohabit with both progenitors. We claim that the increasing trend of single motherhood in Brazil should be of concern in health policy design.
... www.ijsr.net of dropping out of school, and 18 percentage point higher probability of repeating a grade and scored about 0.2 to 0.3 standard deviations lower on achievements tests. [20] In our study 99 (28.29%) of the 350 students selected from two secondary schools had compromised vision (less than 90% on the snellen chart), and 57.58% of those with reduced visual acuity had poor academic performance and a higher probability of repeating the class. Chen-AH et al in his study conducted among 1, 103 school children in 7 public schools in the Klang valley region of Malaysia, showed that children with average and above average achievement showed a different visual performance profile from those with low academic performance. ...
Article
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Abstract: Background: The eyes play vital role in our lives and are perhaps the most gift we have. Visual perception or vision is the ability to interpret information and surroundings from the effects of visible light reaching the eye. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was used that involved the use of data form, for each of the 2 secondary schools and the administration of 360 self administered structured questionnaires to pupils in these secondary schools. Results: 71.71% of the population studied had normal visual acuity while 28.29% had reduced visual acuity. 57.77% of those with normal visual acuity had good academic performance (≥50% average academic score). While 42.23% of those with normal acuity had poor academic performance (average academic scoreless than 50%). Of the 99 students with reduced visual acuity 42.42% had good academic performance (≥50% average academic score), while 57.58% of those with reduced visual acuity had poor academic score (average <50%).Visual acuity had a significant impact on their academic performance. Conclusion: In this study series, we recommend that there should be immediate referral of children with suspected visual problem for proper investigation and treatments. Also school screening programmes should be established and follow up for refractive error involving both preschools and children should be done to avert poor academic performances of children and its sequellae. Keywords: reduced ‘visual acuity’, refractive error,” school children, visual screening; vision 2020; visual acuity and academic performance.
... In developing countries, research has examined the role of early childhood nutrition status on children's educational outcomes and it found mixed results. The prior studies use different indicators to measure educational or cognitive development, such as IQ score, as measures of intelligence (Gomes-Neto et al. 1997;Glewwe and Jacoby 1995;Yamauchi 2008;Alderman et al. 2009). In Ghana, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe research finds that well-nourished children enroll on-time, or even two months earlier into primary school, face lower risk of repeating the first year of primary school, and generally adhere more to anticipated academic trajectories respective to age than similarly aged children who are malnourished Alderman et al. 2006;Grantham-McGregor et al. 2007;Yamauchi 2008;Alderman et al. 2009). ...
Article
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Using the 2010 Nigeria DHS EdData Survey (2010 NEDS), this research examines the association of early childhood malnutrition and its interaction with female gender, residence in northern Nigeria, rural areas, and/or life in poverty on the age of entry into primary school. Specifically, it investigates whether these relationships vary by maternal education and child’s age bracket. The multi-level linear regression results show that early childhood malnutrition increases the age of entry into primary school, particularly for rural children, children living in poverty and children whose mothers have less than a secondary school education. The results also indicate that regardless of a child’s age bracket, the interaction of early childhood malnutrition and poverty increases the age of entry into school; however, among children seven and older only, the combination of early childhood malnutrition and living in rural areas increases the age of entry into primary school. These findings show that developmental, human capital and economic theories are applicable to the discussion of early childhood nutrition and education in Nigeria. Policies to address the nutritional needs of children must focus on improving the socioeconomic status of households, in conjunction with inclusion of early childhood education and nutrition programs.
... 29. Gomes-Neto et al. (1997), Alderman, Behrman, Khan, Ross, and Sabot (1997), Case, Fertig, and Paxson (2005),and Eide, Showalter, and Goldhaber (2010). ...
... It does provide a peek into the impact of poor vision on academic achievement. [5] The purpose of this study was to gather information on the refractive status of students so that an effective approach can be planned to tackle the burden of readily correctable refraction problems in school children. Children were also prescribed glasses and medicines when found necessary. ...
Article
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Purpose: To study the prevalence and relative frequency of refractive error among school children in NorthWest Rajasthan so that an effective approach can be planned to tackle the burden of readily correctable refraction problems. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to study the magnitude of refractive errors among school children in Northwest Rajasthan. Results: A total of 1078 children were examined. The subjects consist of 702 females (65.1%) and 376 males (34.9%). The children were aged 5-19 years (mean = 9.8 ± 3.2 years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.6-10.0). 265 children representing 24.6% (95% CI: 21.9-27.8%) of the children examined had refractive errors. This comprises of astigmatism (n=134,12.4%), followed by myopia (n=68,6.3%) and hyperopia (n= 63, 5.8%), of the 1078 children examined. Conclusion: Refractive error was found in 24.6% of the subjects, astigmatism being the most common followed by myopia and hyperopia. Cost-effective strategies for vision screening of school children should be incorporated into the school health programmes to prevent devastating impact of visual impairment on a child's education and development.
... They find significant effects of child health on cognitive development in cross sectional analyses. Similarly other studies report significant association between child health ( including nutritional studies) and child schooling as indicated by cognitive achievement tests, mainly in the work of Florencio (1988) on the Philippines, Johnston & al (1987), Pollit & al (1993) on the Guatemala and a less strong association demonstrated by Gomes-Neto & al (1997) on Brasilia. Grade attainment is also positively associated with height in the studies of Chutikul (1986) in Thailand, Moock and Leslie (1986) in Nepal, Jamison (1986) in China and by Harbison &Hanushek (1992) in Brasilia. ...
Article
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This paper investigates why children in Bangladesh often delay primary school enrolment, despite the prediction of human capital theory that schooling will begin at the earliest possible age. We present an econometric analysis of the effects of child health on school enrolment and grade attainment using the Matlab Health and socio-economic survey conducted in Bangladesh in 1996. All the previous studies represent careful attempts at identifying the impact of the child health on child schooling, but all of them are open to criticism for one of a variety of reasons. We improve on these studies in a number of ways mainly by incorporating into our analysis the endogenous nature of child health. Some of our results challenge the conclusions found in the literature. First, we find that for this sample, child health-as measured by a wide range of anthropometric indicators-and child's probability of being enrolled in school, are at best weakly related. Second, we show without ambiguity that once enrolled nutritional deficiencies retard substantially school progress: Underweight children tend to be in lower grades than well-fed children of the same age. It is estimated that a one standard deviation improvement in weight-for-age would be expected to reduce the grades behind by about 0.25 years or about 13.5% of the actual years attained. Finally, our estimates suggest that the weight-for-age indicator appears as the best predictor of nutritional status.
... Although less relevant for more sophisticated health care, it is important to be aware of the important feedback effects between health and schooling. A number of analyses, summarized in Gomes-Neto, Hanushek et al., 1997, have indicated the importance of good basic child health, including adequate nutrition, on educational attainment. The same study suggests, for a rural population in North-East Brazil, that improved health status reduces the probability of dropping out and increases grade achievements. ...
... Second, there is some evidence linking vision problems and academic outcomes (Gomes-Neto et al., 1997;Hannum & Zhang, 2012;and Walline & Johnson Carder, 2012). This literature is largely correlational in nature and thus does not necessarily imply that treating vision problems will improve educational outcomes for students with vision problems because those students may be fundamentally different from students without vision problems in some unobserved way. ...
Article
More than 20 percent of all school-aged children in the United States have vision problems, and low-income and minority children are disproportionately likely to have unmet vision care needs. Vision screening is common in U.S. schools, but it remains an open question whether screening alone is sufficient to improve student outcomes. We implemented a multi-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the impact of vision screening, and of vision screening accompanied by eye exams and eyeglasses, provided by a non-profit organization to Title I elementary schools in three large central Florida school districts. We find that providing additional/enhanced screening alone is generally insufficient to improve student achievement in math and reading. In contrast, providing screening along with free eye exams and free eyeglasses to students with vision problems improved student achievement as measured by standardized test scores. We find, averaging over all students (including those without vision problems), that this more comprehensive intervention increased the probability of passing the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Tests (FCATs) in reading and math by approximately 2.0 percentage points. We also present evidence that indicates that this impact fades out over time, indicating that follow-up actions after the intervention may be necessary to sustain these estimated achievement gains.
... A review based on qualitative studies of substance use, diet and sexual health was not included (Jamal et al., 2013). We also excluded articles that had no measure of school quality (Apps et al., 2013), had used an aggregate-level international student achievement test score as a measure of school quality (Jamison et al., 2007), or included no health outcome (Gomes-Neto et al., 1997). ...
Article
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Robust evidence suggesting a strong association between greater educational attainment, better health and lower mortality, has led to speculation that the quality of schooling can also have effects on health. This review critically summarises findings from 15 studies in a growing area of research concerning the effects of school quality on health. Findings suggested positive, long-term benefits of high-quality pre-school. Other findings suggested that higher teacher wages, lower pupil–teacher ratios, a longer school year, and higher college selectivity had mostly positive long-term effects on health and mortality. Several studies found that school quality modified the effect of years of completed education on various health outcomes. Some measures of school quality including smaller class size in relation to mortality, and higher college selectivity in the case of smoking were not consistently related to better health. While studies varied in their consistency and significance, the weight of the evidence together, suggests that some health inequalities over the life course were explained partly by differences in school quality. This may be related to improved cognition, occupational characteristics, and the incomes of those exposed to better quality schooling. Direct health knowledge and behaviour may also play a role.
... Uncorrected refractive errors (UREs) are a particularly significant problem in school children . On the educational level, children with reduced vision have a higher probability of dropping out of school and underachieving on examinations (Gomes-Neto et al. 1997). Socially, they are more prone to school bullying and other social problems associated with school drop-outs (Fulk and Goss. ...
Article
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Background Studying the epidemiology of refractive errors (REs) among school students is important for developing national strategies that can prevent visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence and risk factors of RE among preparatory school students in Beni-Suef, Egypt. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 469 school students aged 12~14 years received visual acuity (VA) assessments using Snellen’s chart, and students who failed the test (visual acuity worse than 6/9 in either eye) were subjected to refractive evaluation using an autorefractor. Results The overall prevalence of RE among the sampled students was 22.8% (71% myope and 29% hyperope). There was a statistically significant association between RE and family factors. Students whose parents both wore glasses were more likely to have RE (P < 0.001, OR = 3.24) and students with two or more siblings wearing glasses showed higher rates of RE (P < 0.001, OR = 4.5). Students with RE reported more hours/day watching TV (P < 0.001, OR = 3.59). Conclusion The prevalence of RE in preparatory school students in Beni-Suef was detected. Family history and indoor activities are determining risk factors for RE. Nearly half of our school students with RE were newly detected in this study.
... An evaluation of home-school integration is based on Scriptore [29] and Neri [44], who highlighted the substantial direct effects of lack of sanitation on health and students' performances. The relationship between health and school performance has also been the subject of investigations by other researchers [45][46][47][48][49]. Such issues still demand deeper examinations regarding improved quality of life and preschooler health conditions when population density and income, among other aspects, are taken into account. ...
Article
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The aim of this article is to measure the impact of basic sanitation services on the mortality rate of children under five years of age (U5MR) in the municipalities of the State of Alagoas, Brazil. A multivariate multiple linear regression model was applied for all 102 cities of Alagoas for data years 1991, 2000 and 2010. The research findings are evidence that access to basic sanitation services in the municipalities of the State of Alagoas, especially household sanitary sewage, is associated with a statistically significant reduction of U5MR, p < 0.01 . The estimates show that the 10% increase in access to household sanitary sewage is associated to a reduction of 5.7 deaths per 1000 born alive (BA). Based on a simulation of universal basic access sanitation services in the municipalities of the State of Alagoas, it is observed that only this public policy would be able to reduce child mortality by more than 94%. The end results of this study are important subsidies to guide basic sanitation policies not only in the State of Alagoas, Brazil, but also in developing regions all over the world, considering the evidences of social and environmental impact.
... Gomes-Neto et al. 7 showed that primary schoolchildren with reduced vision had a higher probability of repeating a class and scoring very low on achievement tests. Similar relationships between poor vision and academic performance were seen in findings of many researchers like Goldstand et al. 8 in the United States of America, Toledo et al. 9 and Junior et al. 10 in Brazil, Chen et al. 11 in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia, and Kotingo et al. 5 in the southern part of Nigeria. ...
... Such quality measures are listed under "Sociopolitical Institutions" in Appendix Table A1, and include democracy, assessed quality of institutions, and accountability (Cockx & Francken, 2014. Some researchers also control for health (education) when estimating resource effects on education (health) (e.g., Kim and Lin 2017), because of complementary linkages between them (Bue & Klasen, 2013;Gomes-Neto et al., 1997). Similarly, some articles examining resource effects on education outcomes control for education inputs such as the number of schools/teachers , class size, student to teacher ratios , or education expenditures (Araji & Mohtadi, 2018;. ...
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We survey the growing literature studying the effects of natural resource abundance or dependence on human capital accumulation, a key factor in development and economic growth. This survey distinguishes between measures of resource abundance versus dependence, and between input, outcome, or participation measures of education and health. We find that a majority of studies find adverse effects of natural resource abundance or dependence on education and health, but that a small to sizeable minority find mixed or beneficial effects. The sheer robustness of negative findings across numerous approaches lends credibility to theories that reliance on resource extraction risks negative effects on the quantity or quality of supply of education and health services, and the demand for advanced education. At the same time, the minority of studies finding positive resource effects suggests there are both methodological and policy lessons that can be learned.
... Children with poor vision face multiple barriers in education, as it is commonly accepted that 46 a significant part of learning during the first 12 years of life occurs through vision. 47 Schoolchildren with URE are at a major disadvantage in a range of classroom activities [9], 48 which affects their school attendance and academic performance [10][11][12][13]. 49 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 School Health and Nutrition (SHN) programmes use schools as platforms to deliver safe, 50 simple, and effective interventions essential for child development and growth. ...
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Poor vision due to unaddressed refractive error in children is considered to be a public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Research shows that correcting refractive error with spectacles could have a positive impact on school attendance and academic performance for children. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of integrating vision screening and provision of spectacles in existing school health programmes in Cambodia and Ghana. Budget impact analysis of the intervention scale up is also reported, including univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. This study suggests that the scale up of school-based vision screening programmes is affordable in resource limited settings, such as Cambodia and Ghana, considering the current education budgets, and providing there is sufficient in-country capacity to deliver such interventions at scale. The study highlights several policy and programme implications and provides suggestions for minimising costs and maximising efficiencies of vision screening in a school setting. Findings from this analysis can help education planners and international partners to improve their planning and budgeting processes for school-based interventions to improve health and learning outcomes for children in low- and middle-income countries.
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This article analyses gender differences in children's nutrition and access to health care in Pakistan with a view to uncovering parents motives for the favouring of sons in South Asia. It is found that, among 0 to 5-year-old children, boys are favoured in the allocation of health care. However, girls appear as nourished as or better nourished than boys. This is taken to be evidence that intra-household gender discrimination has primary origins not in parental preference for boys but in differential returns to parents from investment in boys and girls.
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Bangladesh has experienced the largest mass poisoning of a population in history owing to contamination of groundwater with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic. Prolonged drinking of such water risks development of diseases and therefore has implications for children's cognitive and psychological development. This study examines the effect of arsenic contamination of tubewells, the primary source of drinking water at home, on the learning outcome of school-going children in rural Bangladesh using recent nationally representative data on secondary school children. We unambiguously find a negative and statistically significant correlation between mathematics scores and arsenic-contaminated drinking tubewells at home, net of the child's socio-economic status, parental background and school specific unobserved correlates of learning. Similar correlations are found for an alternative measure of student achievement and subjective well-being (i.e. self-reported measure of life satisfaction), of the student. We conclude by discussing the policy implication of our findings in the context of the current debate over the adverse effect of arsenic poisoning on children.
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Nutrition programs may be evaluated by comparing the productivity of individuals who have benefited from a program to the productivity of similar individuals who have not benefited. To perform such an evaluation a model of the demand for several distinct forms of human capital may be required, of how public agencies and private firms work with households to produce human capital, and of how these investments increase the productivity of individuals. An integrated wage function with endogenous human capital might then be estimated that provides policymakers with a tool for simulating the private and social returns to nutrition.
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This introductory volume on cost-benefit analysis for practitioners, students and trainers integrates accounting and financial analysis concepts with those of economics as they relate to the formats and the mathematics of cost-benefit analysis. It uses the economist’s approach of building up accounts from project budgets. It sets up the cash flows using direct costing rather than absorption costing. This approach has been taught to the staff of the major multinational development agencies for more than two decades in workshops conducted by the author and colleagues. It has also been taught to government officials in dozens of workshops sponsored by the multinational organizations and is in widespread – though not universal – use throughout the world. Examples and variations are to be found in the materials on project analysis developed in the 1980s and early-1990s in the (former) Economic Development Institute of the World Bank (subsequently reorganized and renamed the World Bank Institute).
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Abstract: Uncorrected refractive errors continue to remain a public health problem among different population groups. Among school children, it has a considerable impact on learning and academic achievement especially in under-served and under-resourced communities. There is a dearth of information about the magnitude of the problem in Ghana. A school based crosssectional study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and distribution of refractive error among school children in the Cape Coast Municipality of Central Region of Ghana. A total of 1103 school children were enumerated out of which 961 underwent a full eye examination. The children were aged between five and 19 years (mean = 10.5 ± 3.4 years, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.3–10.7). Non-cycloplegic refraction was performed on each child who failed the reading test. Hyperopia was defined as spherical power of $+2.00 dioptres sphere (DS), myopia as #−0.50 diopters (D) and astigmatism as a cylindrical power of #−0.50 D. Of the children examined, only 0.6% had previously had an eye examination. The prevalence of low vision and blindness in the study population was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.881–0.919) and 0.1% (95%CI: 0.081–0.119) respectively. 25.6% (95% CI: 22.84–28.37) of the children examined had refractive errors. This comprises of 44 (4.6%; 95% CI: 3.3–5.9) hyperopia, 66 (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.3–8.5) myopia and 135 (14.1%; 95% CI: 11.9–16.3) astigmatism of the 957 children examined. The study concludes that uncorrected refractive error is a common cause of visual impairment among school children in the municipality. A low uptake of eye care is also noted in the study. The study therefore recommends the education authority, in collaboration with the District Health Directorate, institutes appropriate measures to ensure compulsory eye examination for school children in the Cape Coast Municipality.
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This paper presents an econometric analysis of the effects of child health on school enrollment and grade attainment in Bungladesh. It improves on past studies in a number of ways mainly by incorporating into its analysis the endogenous nature of child health. The results challenge the conclusions found in the literature. First, it finds that in Bangladesh, a child's health and his/her probability of being enrolled in school are at best weakly related. Second, it shows that once enrolled, nutritional deficiencies retard substantially school progress: Underweight children tend to be in lower grades than well-fed children of the same age. It is estimated that a one standard deviation improvement in weight-for-age would be expected to reduce the grades behind by about 0.25 years or about 13.5 percent of the actual years completed. Finally, the estimates suggest that the weight-for-age indicator appears as the best predictor of nutritional status.
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About 10% of primary school students in developing countries have poor vision, but very few of them wear glasses. Almost no research examines the impact of poor vision on school performance, and simple OLS estimates could be biased because studying harder may adversely affects one's vision. This paper presents results from a randomized trial in Western China that offered free eyeglasses to rural primary school students. Our preferred estimates, which exclude township pairs for which students in the control township were mistakenly provided eyeglasses, indicate that wearing eyeglasses for one academic year increased the average test scores of students with poor vision by 0.16 to 0.22 standard deviations, equivalent to 0.3 to 0.5 additional years of schooling. These estimates are averages across the two counties where the intervention was conducted. We also find that the benefits are greater for under-performing students. A simple cost-benefit analysis suggests very high economic returns to wearing eyeglasses, raising the question of why such investments are not made by most families. We find that girls are more likely to refuse free eyeglasses, and that parental lack of awareness of vision problems, mothers' education, and economic factors (expenditures per capita and price) significantly affect whether children wear eyeglasses in the absence of the intervention.
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Eğitim ve sağlık, beşeri sermayeyi oluşturan iki temel unsurdur. Her iki unsurun, beşeri sermaye üzerinde etkisinin olmasının yanı sıra birbirleri üzerinde de pozitif etki yaratma güçleri vardır. Sağlık; eğitime katılım, devamlılık, eğitimi tamamlama açısından eğitime katkı sağlar. Eğitim ise; bireylerin sağlıklarını koruma ve geliştirmeleri konusundaki bilinç düzeyini artırma gücüne sahiptir. Çalışmada, sağlığın eğitim üzerinde yaratacağı pozitif etki, Türkiye için ARDL Sınır Testi Yaklaşımı aracılığıyla incelenmiştir. Veri kısıtı nedeniyle, 1975-2014 dönemine ait veriler kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada sağlık göstergeleri olarak; bin kişiye düşen doktor sayısı, kişi başına düşen cari sağlık harcaması, doğumda yaşam beklentisi, onbeş yaş üstü kişi başına alkol tüketimi kullanılırken eğitim göstergesi olarak ise genel okullaşma oranı tercih edilmiştir. Analiz sonuçlarına göre, kısa dönemde kişi başına düşen cari sağlık harcaması ile okullaşma oranı arasında negatif ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Uzun dönemde ise modelde yer alan sağlık değişkenlerinin tamamının okullaşma oranı üzerinde negatif etkiye sahip oldukları belirlenmiştir
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El presente trabajo estima el efecto causal del Programa de Alimentación Escolar (PAE) sobre el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes del sector oficial, de grado once, del municipio de Ibagué en el 2018, utilizando la información del Simat y la base de datos de las pruebas Saber 11 del Icfes. Metodológicamente se utiliza un modelo econométrico de evaluación de impacto que se basa en la técnica de propensity score matching PSM para identificar el efecto causal. Los resultados sugieren que el programa no tuvo ningún impacto sobre el desempeño académico de los estudiantes. Los problemas asociados a la asignación del operador y a la gestión del programa parecen haber influido de forma significativa sobre la efectividad del programa.
Chapter
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One of the sustainable development goals proposed by the United Nations for the development of planet earth is peace and justice. Absence of peace is conflict, crisis or war which are detrimental to a peaceful and developed world. The media institution needs to play its part by promoting peace in crisis situation. Unfortunately, Blasi believes that peace journalism is impossible until certain conditions and pre-conditions are met. But the problem is that there is no standard the media use to report crisis despite the numerous frames available for news report. Study aimed to suggest frames that could be used as a model to report crisis of any sort. Content analysis was employed and study was anchored on framing theory by Entman. Four scholarly articles that analysed media frames in crisis situations in seven Nigerian elite newspapers were studied. Results showed that media framed problems and the cause of the problem to a large extent, while solution to the problem and moral lessons were framed to a very small extent. This kind of report is not constructive. Study concluded that giving salience to the last two purposes of framing promotes constructive report, and recommended that the four purposes of framing by Entman be employed as standard for reporting crisis while the rest of the frames would be subsumed under it. Key words: Frames, Media, Peace Journalism, United Nations, Sustainable Development
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Objectives To determine the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors (URE) among children 3-10 years and to affirm the necessity of a national school-based visual screening program for school-aged children. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medina, Saudi Arabia in 2015. Children were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling from 8 kindergarten and 8 primary schools. Those included were screened to diagnose UREs using a visual acuity chart and an auto refractometer according to American guidelines. The prevalence and types of UREs were estimated. Results Of the 2121 children enumerated, 1893 were examined, yielding a response rate of 89.3%. The prevalence of UREs was 34.9% (95% CI = 32.8%-37.1%), with significant differences in different age groups. The prevalence of astigmatism (25.3%) was higher compared to that of anisometropia (7.4%), hypermetropia (1.5%), and myopia (0.7%). Risk of uncorrected refractive error was positively associated with age, and this was noted in astigmatism, myopia, and anisometropia. In addition, the risk of hypermetropia was associated with boys and that of myopia was associated with girls. Conclusions The prevalence of UREs, particularly astigmatism, was high among children aged 3-10 years in Medina, with significant age differences. Vision screening programs targeting kindergarten and primary schoolchildren are crucial to lessen the risk of preventable visual impairment due to UREs.
Article
This paper is one of the few papers to investigate the relationship between poor eyesight and educational outcomes. Using data from rural Ethiopia that collected data on visual acuity, results show that girls with poor eyesight have an increased probability of dropping out of school. Girls that suffer from poor eyesight have an 8 percentage points higher probability of dropping out of school. No such relationship for boys is found. Results also show that, for both boys and girls, learning achievement is negatively related with poor eyesight. The paper sheds light on the potential benefits to educational outcomes of providing eyeglasses to visually impaired children.
Chapter
The focus on human capital as a driver of economic growth for developing countries has led to undue attention on school attainment. Developing countries have made considerable progress in closing the gap with developed countries in terms of school attainment, but recent research has underscored the importance of cognitive skills for economic growth. This result shifts attention to issues of school quality, and there developing countries have been much less successful in closing the gaps with developed countries. Without improving school quality, developing countries will find it difficult to improve their long-term economic performance.
Technical Report
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This research report raises a number of questions on Pakistan’s dairy sector. Firstly, how realistic is the official data on livestock population, average milk production per animal and milk availability in the country? Secondly, how can we cope with the seasonal variation in fodder availability for smallholder dairy producers? Thirdly, what are the changing dynamics and economic outlook and returns for the non-corporate dairy farms? Fourthly, what is total factor productivity change in the non-corporate dairy farms and how it is changing the economic outlook and covariates of TFP change? Fifthly, what is the potential of corporate dairy farms in the country especially after the Livestock Development Policy 2007? Sixth, how milk processing industry can cope with the challenge of full capacity utilization? Seventh, how nutritional deficiencies affect productivity and GDP growth in the country? Finally, what is the impact of a sales tax on dairy processing industry in terms of overall welfare in the country?
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A importância da educação para o desenvolvimento econômico e social de um país é consenso nas literaturas nacional e internacional. Devido a isso, conhecer quais fatores estão correlacionados e podem, em alguma medida, ter impacto no desempenho educacional, é uma ação necessária e tem sido pauta de discussão entre pesquisadores em todo o mundo todo. No Brasil, o impacto da saúde na educação é um assunto pouco estudado, possivelmente em virtude de dois fatores, a ausência de base de dados com informações detalhadas sobre o tema e problemas de endogeneidade, os quais surgem quando há uma tentativa de mensurar esse efeito. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a correlação entre características de saúde e o desempenho médio em Português e Matemática dos estudantes da 8ª série/9ºano das escolas públicas das capitais brasileiras e do Distrito Federal. Para tal, foram estimados modelos de mínimos quadrados ordinários com base na PeNSE 2009 e 2012 e nas Provas Brasil de 2009 e de 2011. O estudo mostrou que a prática de atividade física igual ou superior a 300 min por semana tem correlação positiva com o desempenho em Português e em Matemática; revelou ainda que ter sido agredido por algum adulto da família tem correlação negativa com o desempenho em ambas as disciplinas; outra evidência, comer frutas cinco vezes ou mais por semana está positivamente correlacionado à performance em Matemática.
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This study aims to evaluate the role of exposure of students to behavioral risk factors to health - smoking, alcohol and overweight - in educational attainment in Brazil. We use microdata from the National Survey of School Health (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar-PENSE) 2012 and parametric and nonparametric techniques to estimate the effect of exposure to these factors in the indicator of delay in school progression of students in the 9th grade of elementary school. The main results indicate that exposure to risk factors has direct effect on delay in school progression. Furthermore, these effects are more intense for students with lower socioeconomic level. Then, the findings of this study suggest the importance of public policies that promote prevention of these risk factors among children, once the exposure to risk factors to health can generate repercussions not only in health but also in the educational component of human capital.
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This paper examines the impact of childhood malnutrition on schooling performance in rural Bangladesh. The results reveal that malnourished children are less likely to enrol in school on time and achieve an age-appropriate grade by 26 percentage points and 31 percentage points, respectively. Other important determinants of schooling outcomes include infrastructure and education level of parents. One major contribution of this paper is the control for the endogeneity of malnutrition status, which otherwise might lead to bias estimates.
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This book presents the results of an eight-year study of academic achievement, student performance, and education costs in rural northeastern Brazil. It investigates the presumption that students automatically perform better when more school resources are provided. Two main topics are examined: (1) the success of EDURURAL, an educational intervention project in rural Brazil sponsored by the World Bank; (2) the education policies that could improve school performance and academic achievement within a fixed budget. The authors discuss how selectively investing in school resources improves educational performance, boosts promotion rates, and lowers grade repetition. They show how the reduction in grade repetition saves enough in operating costs to offset the original investment in added resources. -from Publisher
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This paper utilizes recent findings to address, from the perspective of an educational planner, the question of how educational systems can intervene to improve the health and nutritional status of school-age children. Existing data are adequate to identify several widespread problems among school-age children that have well established negative consequences for school participation and performance. These problems include chronic protein-energy malnutrition, iron-deficiency anaemia, iodine deficiency, and intestinal helminth infection. -from Authors
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This paper discusses intervention packages and their costs, and then briefly overviews, from an economic perspective, the strength of the claim of health and nutrition interventions for school-age children on scarce resources. The authors conclude that, given what is known about the probable effect of health and nutrition interventions for learning and attendance, and given the relatively modest cost of a carefully designed, carefully targeted programme, the implication for educational planners is clear: more investment in child health and nutrition will pay off well for education. Cost-benefit analyses suggest that appropriate health and nutrition interventions in the schools are likely to prove to be very high-yield investments.
Data were obtained from 720 Guatemalan 1st–6th graders on measures of height, weight, muscular strength, age, sex, school performance, and socioeconomic level. These factors were compared through statistical regression with scores on the Otis-Lennon Mental Abilities Test and tests of reading comprehension, speed, and vocabulary. Results indicate that environmental factors, particularly socioeconomic variables, influenced cognitive factors; physical growth was not as important. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Data on 350 primary school age children from subsistence farm households in the Terai (southern plains) region of Nepal are analyzed to assess the relationship between nutritional status and school participation. Only fifteen percent reported attending school; nutritional status, particularlyas measured by percent of median height-for-age, was found to be a significant determinant of both enrollment in school and age-adjusted grade attainment. It is concluded that local interventions or national policies designed to improved child nutritional status could have important educational as well as health benefits.
Article
In this paper we explore evidence concerning the relationship between parents' and children's education using a new body of data, the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS-2), which contains information on the education of as many as four generations within a given family. These data allow us to study the spread of education in Malaysia over much of this century by examining the educational attainment of birth cohorts from 1910 to 1980. More significantly, we use these data to study the effects of parental education on the progress of their children through elementary, secondary, and post-secondary school within a sequential discrete-time hazard model which allows for correlations among unmeasured family and individual-specific components. For a subset of the cohorts, we are able to introduce time-varying covariates to measure the family's economic circumstances, the quality of its environment, and the composition of the sibset at the time a given decision is made.
Article
Measuring educational performance and understanding its determinants are important for designing policies with respect to such varying issues as teacher accountability, educational finance systems, and school integration. Unfortunately, past analyses of student achievement and educational production relationships have been plagued by both a lack of conceptual clarity and a number of potentially severe analytical problems. As a result, there is considerable confusion not only about what has been learned, but also about how such studies should be conducted and what can be learned. This review considers each of these issues and also relates knowledge from these studies to research about areas other than just school operations and performance.
Article
Reviews both the scholarly literature on the subject and donors' experience. The book provides an overview of primary education systems and argues that developing countries must do more to serve the needs of all children. Those who have traditionally been underrepresented in primary school - girls and children from poor and rural families - must have greater access to education and more encouragement to enroll. At the same time, the curriculum must be strengthened, teaching made more effective, and other measures taken to ensure that when students complete the primary cycle, they have mastered what is taught. The authors discuss strategies for improving five aspects of primary education systems. The book concludes by outlining the challenges countries face at different stages of educational development and then suggesting priorities for reform. Appendix tables provide data on 129 countries, individually and by income group. -from Publisher
Article
In this paper we review the available summary measures for the magnitude of socio-economic inequalities in health. Measures which have been used differ in a number of important respects, including (1) the measurement of "relative" or "absolute" differences; (2) the measurement of an "effect" of lower socio-economic status, or of the "total impact" of socio-economic inequalities in-health upon the health status of the population; (3) simple versus sophisticated measurement techniques. Based on this analysis of summary measures which have previously been applied, eight different classes of summary measures can be distinguished. Because measures of "total impact" can be further subdivided on the basis of their underlying assumptions, we finally arrive at 12 types of summary measure. Each of these has its merits, and choice of a particular type of summary measure will depend partly on technical considerations, partly on one's perspective on socio-economic inequalities in health. In practice, it will often be useful to compare the results of several summary measures. These principles are illustrated with two examples: one on trends in the magnitude of inequalities in mortality by occupational class in Finland, and one on trends in the magnitude of inequalities in self-reported morbidity by level of education in the Netherlands.
Article
Based on measurements of triceps skinfold thickness and upper arm circumference of a cross-sectional sample of 19,097 white subjects aged 1 to 74 yr, derived from the United States Health and Nutritional Examination Survey of 1971 to 1974, the arm muscle circumference, arm muscle area, and arm fat area were calculated. Thereafter, age- and sex-specific percentiles for all three estimates of upper arm tissues were obtained. Based on empirical and theoretical evidence, it is recommended that assessments of nutritional status be made on the basis of areas of fat and areas of muscle rather than direct skinfold thickness and arm circumference. It is also recommended that these new norms should replace those currently in use.
Article
Investments in education have traditionally ignored the productive role of nutrition. This study of the relationships between nutritional status and learning among urban and rural Filipino children shows the possible complementarity of nutrition with other social investments aimed at improving school achievement. A traditional production function of learning approach is used to show the significant association between school achievement and two dimensions of nutritional status. Some of the possible pathways by which nutrition can affect learning are also explored.
Article
This paper explores evidence concerning the relationship between parents' and children's education using a new body of data, the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS-2), which contains information on the education of as many as four generations within a given family. These data allow study of the spread of education in Malaysia over much of this century by examining the educational attainment of birth cohorts from 1910 to 1980. More significantly these data are used to study the effects of parental education on the progress of their children through elementary, secondary, and post-secondary school within a sequential discrete-time hazard model which allows for correlations among unmeasured family and individual-specific components. For a subset of the cohorts, time-varying covariates are introduced to measure the family's economic circumstances, the quality of its environment, and the composition of the subset at the time a given decision is made. -Authors
Article
Data on the height, weight, age and grade level of over 3,000 children in five quite different locations in China allow computation of how far behind in school each child is, relative to where he should be given his age, as well as of the nutritional status variables of height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height. This paper uses these data to estimate the impact of the nutritional variables on the available measure of school performance. Children tend to be about one grade further behind in rural areas than in the provincial capitals, and about one-half a grade further behind in the provincial capitals than in Beijing. Even after controlling for location, however, lower nutritional status (particularly height-for-age) was found to affect school performance adversely; a one standard deviation reduction in height-for-age, for example, would result in a child's being about one-third of a year further behind. Though results from a geographically limited sample should be generalized only with substantial caution, and alternative interpretations of the data are possible, it does appear likely that malnutrition in rural China remained sufficiently prevalent in 1979 to retard the school advancement of large numbers of children.
Estado nutritional e rendimento escolar
  • C G Victora
  • J S D Estanislau
  • J S D Da Costa
Victora, C. G., Estanislau, J. S. D. and Da Costa, J. S. D. (1982) Estado nutritional e rendimento escolar. Jornal de Pediatria 52, 115-117.
School Quality and Achievement in Rural Brazil Malnourished Children of the Rural Poor: The Web of Food, Health, Education, Fertility, and Agricultural Production Production functions, input allocations and unobservables: The case of child health and schooling success
  • References Armitage
  • J Gomes-Neto
  • J B Harbison
  • R W Holsinger
  • D B Leite
  • Dc Balderston
  • J B Wilson
  • A B Freire
  • M E Simonen
Lambda* 13.941 0.57 Constant 157.707 15.57 147.826 4.86 148.674 4.83 REFERENCES Armitage, J., Gomes-Neto, J. B., Harbison, R. W., Holsinger, D. B. and Leite, R. H. (1986) School Quality and Achievement in Rural Brazil. World Bank, Washington, DC. Balderston, J. B., Wilson, A. B., Freire, M. E. and Simonen, M. S. (1981) Malnourished Children of the Rural Poor: The Web of Food, Health, Education, Fertility, and Agricultural Production. Auburn House, Boston, MA. Behrman, J. R. and Lavy, V. (1995) Production functions, input allocations and unobservables: The case of child health and schooling success. (Mimeo).
Programa de merenda escolar
  • Colares
Colares, C. A. L. (1986) Programa de merenda escolar. Cadernos Cedes 4, 48-54.
Malnourished Children of the Rural Poor: The Web of Food
  • J B Balderston
  • A B Wilson
  • M E Freire
  • M S Simonen
Balderston, J. B., Wilson, A. B., Freire, M. E. and Simonen, M. S. (1981) Malnourished Children of the Rural Poor: The Web of Food, Health, Education, Fertility, and Agricultural Production. Auburn House, Boston, MA.
Production functions, input allocations and unobservables: The case of child health and schooling success
  • J R Behrman
  • V Lavy
Behrman, J. R. and Lavy, V. (1995) Production functions, input allocations and unobservables: The case of child health and schooling success. (Mimeo).
School Quality and Achievement in Rural Brazil
  • J Armitage
  • J B Gomes-Neto
  • R W Harbison
  • D B Holsinger
  • R H Leite
Armitage, J., Gomes-Neto, J. B., Harbison, R. W., Holsinger, D. B. and Leite, R. H. (1986) School Quality and Achievement in Rural Brazil. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Making Schools Work: Improving Performance and Controlling Costs
  • E A Hanushek
  • C S Benson
  • R B Freeman
  • D T Jamison
  • H M Levin
  • R A Maynard
  • R J Murnane
  • S G Rivkin
  • R H Sabot
  • L C Solmon
  • A A Summers
  • F Welch
  • B L Wolfe
Hanushek, E. A., Benson, C. S., Freeman, R. B., Jamison, D. T., Levin, H. M., Maynard, R. A., Murnane, R. J., Rivkin, S. G., Sabot, R. H., Solmon, L. C., Summers, A. A., Welch, F. and Wolfe, B. L. (1994) Making Schools Work: Improving Performance and Controlling Costs. Brookings Institution, Washington, DC.
Variables educativas, socioeconomicas y de crecimi-281
  • C G Sabogal
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