ArticlePDF Available

Aloe vera their chemicals composition and applications: A review

Authors:
  • SAGE University Indore India

Abstract and Figures

It was known to people in Egypt and also Greece for example Aristoteles explains special charactristics of Aloe vera. Jelâtin that is extracted from this plant is continuously used to treat burns, cuts and inflamed scars since many years. It is useful for skin damaged from X ray as reported in many reaserchs in journals related X rays. On the other hand concentration of glikoz in gelatin, results in high osmotic presure, that protect skin from live bacteria. Aloe vera include ‘’Antrokinon’’ cemicals that are known as anti virus, anti bacteria and anti cancer. Aloe vera has 400 species but just 2 species; A.barbadensis and A.aborescens are used for trade in the world. This plant need very less water for living and also can survive on saline soils, beaches and is resistance to disases and insects. It can live in very hot regions, but cannot tolerate cold. Aloe vera grows in, Mexico, India, South and centeral America, Africa, Australia, Carribians and Iran. This paper reviews history, its chemicals, medical usage, plant morphology, extracts and agronomy of Aloe vera.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Contents lists available at BioMedSciDirect Publications
Journal homepage: www.biomedscidirect.com
International Journal of Biological & Medical Research
Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(1): 466-471
Aloe vera their chemicals composition and applications: A review
a b
Sharrif Moghaddasi M * , Sandeep Kumar Verma
A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T
Keywords:
Review Article
Aloe vera,
Aloerin,
Aloein famodin,
Antrakiyon,
Skin,
Burn,
Dermatology,
Skin diseases.
It was known to people in Egypt and also Greece for example Aristoteles explains special
charactristics of Aloe vera jelatin that is extracted from this plant is continuously used to treat
burns, cuts and inflamed scars since many years. It is useful for skin damaged from X ray as
reported in many researches in journals related X rays. On the other hand concentration of
glucose in gelatin, results in high osmotic presure, that protect skin from live bacteria. Aloe
vera include ''Antrokinon'' cemicals that are known as anti virus, anti bacteria and anti cancer.
Aloe vera (Aloe vera )has 400 species but just 2 species; A.barbadensis are used for trade in the
world. This plant need very less water for living and also can survive on saline soils, beaches
and is resistance to diseases and insects. It can live in very hot regions, but cannot tolerate cold.
Aloe vera grows in, Mexico, India, South and centeral America, Africa, Australia, Carribians and
Iran. This paper reviews history, its chemicals, medical usage, plant morphology, extracts and
agronomy of Aloe vera.
hand concentration of glucose in gelatin, results in high osmotic
presure, that protect skin from live bacteria. Aloe vera include
''Antrokinon'' chemicals that are known as anti virus, anti bacteria
and anti cancer. Researchers shows that plant is very helpful for
treatment of Psoriyazis. Aloe vera is very similar to Cactus but
belongs to Lily family of Aloe barbadensis groups. Aloe vera has
400 species but just 2 species; A.barbadensis and A.aborescens are
used for trade in the world. This plant need very less water for
living and also can survive on saline soils, beaches and is resistance
to diseases and insects. It can live in very hot regions, but cannot
tolerate cold. Aloe vera grows in South Texas, Florida and South
California in USA. It also grows in Mexico, India, South and centeral
America, Africa, Australia, Carribians and Iran. This paper reviews
history, its chemicals, medical usage, plant morphology, extracts
and agronomy of Aloe vera.
Ancient Egyptian papyrus and Mesopotamian clay tablets
describe aloe as useful in curing infections, treating skin problems
and as a laxative[1]. Cleopatra was said to include aloe cream in her
beauty regimen [2]. Aloe was used by Hippocrates and Arab
physicians, and was carried to the Western Hemisphere by Spanish
The plant of Aloe vera and its usage as drug dates back to 6000
years B.C. The plates blonging to Sumer period during 2200 years
BC, show use of this plant as a drug. In that plates, it is written
about origin of this plant as Africa, that has 240 species and is ever
green. Cleopatra said that her beauty is due to use of Aloe vera
plant. One prescription that belong to 1550 BC shows Aloe vera
plant used for different illness. It was known to people in Egypt and
also Greece for example Aristoteles explains special charactristics
of Aloe vera. Jelatin that is extracted from this plant is continuously
used to treat burns, cuts and inflamed scars since many years. It is
also used in cosmetics sector, medical sector and beverage sectors.
It is useful for skin damaged from X ray as reported in many
researc hes i n journals relate d X rays. Because of high
concentration of water and oil in this plant, it helps to protect skin
from drieness and so the skin that is burnt or cut heals very quickly.
BioMedSciDirect
Publications
aIslamic Azad University/Saveh Branch, Iran
b Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Biology, Bolu- 14280, Turkey.
* Corresponding Author : DR. Sharrif Moghaddasi M.
Islamic Azad University
Saveh Branch, Iran
Copyright 201 BioMedSciDirect Publications IJBMR - All rights reserved.1 ISSN: 0976:6685.
c
International Journal of
BIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH
www.biomedscidirect.com
ISSN: 0976:6685
Int J Biol Med Res
Volume 2, Issue 1, Jan 2011
Copyright 2011 BioMedSciDirect Publications. All rights reserved.
c
1. Introduction
explorers. Legend has it that Alexander the Great captured the
island of Socotra in the Indian Ocean to secure its aloe supplies to
treat his wounded soldiers[3].Aloe is also popular in both
traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine (India). The Chinese
describe aloe's skin and the inner lining of its leaves as a cold, bitter
remedy which is downward draining and used to clear
constipation due to accumulation of heat [4]; the gel is considered
cool and moist. In Ayurvedic medicine, the traditional medicine of
India, aloe is used internally as a laxative, antihelminthic,
hemorrhoid remedy, and uterine stimulant (menstrual regulator);
it is used topically, often in combination with licorice root, to treat
eczema or psoriasis. In Arabian medicine, the fresh gel is rubbed
on the forehead as a headache remedy or rubbed on the body to
cool it in case of fever, as well as being used for wound healing,
conjunctivitis, and as a disinfectant and laxative[5].
Today aloe vera gel is an active ingredient in hundreds of skin
lotions, sun blocks and cosmetics[6]. The gel's use in cosmetics has
been boosted by claims that it has similar anti-aging effects to
vitamin A derivatives[7]. Aloe first gained popularity in the United
States in the 1930's with reports of its success in treating X-ray
burns [8,9,10]. Recently, aloe extracts have been used to treat
canker sores, stomach ulcers and even AIDS. Some natural health
enthusiasts promote aloe gel as a cleansing juice [11]. Some
naturopaths promote aloe juice as a way to prevent and treat renal
stones [12]. Many mothers keep a plant handy in the kitchen where
it readily thrives in bright sunlight with little care [13]. When faced
with a minor burn, a fresh leaf can be cut and the gel of the inner
leaf applied directly to the burn immediately after the injury [14].
The inner leaf lining of the plant is used as a potent natural laxative.
In a 1990 survey of members of a health maintenance
organization, aloe vera was used by 64%; of these, 91% believed it
had been helpful [15]. Aloe is also an ingredient in Compound
Benzoin tincture [16].
Sharrif Moghaddasi M / Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(1): 466-471
467
From the gel:
1. Polysaccharides: glucomannan and acemannan
2. Other: carboxypeptidase, magnesium, zinc, calcium, glucose,
cholesterol, salicylic acid,prostaglandin precursors (gamma-
linolenic acid [GLA]), vitamins A, C, E, lignins, saponins, plant
sterols and amino acids [3].
From the latex leaf lining:
3. Anthraquinone glycosides: aloin, aloe-emodin, barbaloin
2.1 Medicinal species: Aloe vera, A. barbadensis (Barbados aloe),
A. vulgaris, A.arborescens, A. ferox (Cape aloe), A. perryi (Socotrine
or Zanzibar aloe). There are over300 species of aloe, most of which
are native to South Africa, Madagascar and Arabia [5]. The
different species have somewhat different concentrations of active
ingredients [17,18].
2.3 Plant description: The botanical name of Aloe vera is Aloe
barbadensis miller. It belongs to Asphodelaceae (Liliaceae) family,
and is a shrubby or arborescent, perennial, xerophytic, succulent,
pea-green color plant. The aloe plant has long (up to 20 inches long
and 5 inches wide), triangular, fleshy leaves that have spikes along
the edges. The fresh parenchymal gel from the center of the leaf is
clear; this part is sometimes dried to form aloe vera concentrate or
diluted with water to create aloe juice products. The sticky latex
liquid is derived from the yellowish green pericyclic tubules that
line the leaf (rind); this is the part that yields laxative
anthraquinones[21]. The flowers (not used medicinally) are
yellow.
2.4 Where it's grown: Aloes are indigenous to South Africa and
South America, but are now cultivated worldwide except in tundra,
deserts and rain forests. In the US aloe is commercially cultivated
in southern Texas [22]. It takes approximately four years to reach
maturity and has a life span of about 12 years.
2. Botany
Figure 1: Aloe vera plant.
3. AloeVera: Potentially Active Chemical Constituents
468
Table 1: Summary of the chemicals composition of A. Vera [23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29].
Class Compounds Properties
Anthraquinones/anthrones
Chromones
Enzymes
Inoraganic compounds
Miscellaneous including
organic comounds and lipids
Proteins
Saccharides
Vitamins
Hormones
Carbohydrates
Aloe-emodin, aloetic-acid,
anthranol, barbaloin,
isobarbaloin , emodin,
ester of cinnamic acid.
8-C-glusoly-(2'-O-cinnamoly)
-7-O-methlyaloediol A,
8-C-glucosyl-(S)-aloesol,
8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methylaloediol A,
8-C-glucosyl-7-0-methylaloediol,
8-C-glucosyl-noreugenin,
isoaloeresin D, isorabaichromone,
neoalosin A
Alkaline phosphatese,
amylase,bradykinase,
carboxypeptidase, catalase,cyclooxidase,
cyclooxygenase,lipase, oxidase,
phosphoenolpyruvate, carboxylase,
superoxide dismutase
Calsium,chlorine,
chromium,
copper,iron,magnesium,
manganese,potassium,phosphorous,
sodium,Zinc
Arachidonic acid,
Y-linolenic acid, steroids(campestrol,
cholesterol, Bsitosterol),
triglycerides, triterpenoid, gibberillin,
lignins,potassium sorbate,salicylic acid,
uric acid
Lectins, lectin-like substance
Mannose, glucose, L-rhamnose, aldopentose
Vitamin A, B12,C, E,choline and folic acid
Auxins and gibberellins
It also contains salicylic acid that
possesses anti-inflammatory and
antibacterial properties.
Lignin, an inert substance,
when included in topical preparations,
enhances penetrative effect of the other
ingredients into skin. Saponins that are
the soapy substances from about
3% of the gel and have cleansing
and antiseptic properties.
Vitamin A, C and E are antioxidants and
antioxidant neutralizes free radicals.
That helps in wound healing and have
antiinflammatiory action.
Pure mannan, acetylated mannan,
acetylated glucomannan,
glucogalactomannan, galactan,
galactogalacturan,
arabinogalactan,
galactoglucoarabinomannan,
pectic substance, xylan, cellulose
Aloin and emodin acts as analgesics,
antibacterials and antivirals.
A glycoprotein with antiallergic properties,
called alprogen and novel
anti-inflammatory compound.
The novel anti-inflammatory commands .
Bradykinase helps to reduce excessive
inflammation when applied to the skin
topically, while others help in the
breakdown of sugars and fats.
They are essential for the proper
functioning of various enzymes systems
in different metabolic pathways
and few are antioxidants
Sharrif Moghaddasi M / Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(1): 466-471
4. Biological activity of Aloe vera
The gel or mucilage obtained from the flesh of the leaf contains
quite different compounds from the bitter latex extracted from the
leaf lining [30]. Aloe gel is 99% water with a pH of 4.5 and is a
common ingredient in many non-prescription skin salves. The gel
contains an emollient polysaccharide, glucomannan. It is a good
moisturizer, which accounts for its use in many cosmetics [31].
Acemannan, the major carbohydrate fraction in the gel, is a water-
soluble long chain mannose polymer which accelerates wound
healing, modulates immune function (particularly macrophage
activation and production of cytokines) and demonstrates
antineoplastic and antiviral effects [32]. The gel also contains
bradykininase, an anti-inflammatory [33], magnesium lactate,
which helps prevent itching, and salicylic acid and other
antiprostaglandin compounds which relieve inflammation.
The leaf lining (latex, resin or sap) contains anthraquinone
glycosides (aloin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) that are potent
stimulant laxatives. These water soluble glycosides are split by
intestinal bacteria into aglycones which effect the laxative action.
The laxative effect from aloe is stronger than from any other herb,
including senna, cascara or rhubarb root; it also has more severe
side effects such as cramping, diarrhea, and nausea [34]. For
medicinal use, the leaf lining is dried and the residue is used as an
herbal laxative. The products are usually taken at bedtime.
They are poorly absorbed after oral administration, but
moderately well absorbed after bacterial hydrolysis. They are
eliminated in the urine, bile, feces and breast milk. They turn
alkaline urine red [35]. Most herbalists recommend that they be
avoided during pregnancy due to the risk of stimulating uterine
contractions and also avoided during lactation due to the risk of
excretion in breast milk [36]. Aloe is seldom recommended as a
first choice among laxative preparations due to the severe
cramping and nausea associated with its use.
4.1 Healing properties: Various researchers reported that the
effective components for wound healing may be tannic acid [37]
and a type of polysaccharide [38]. Other researcher have also
reported that glucomannan, a mannose-rich polysaccharide and
gibberellin a growth hormone interacts with growth factor
receptors on the fibroblast therby stimulating its activity and
proliferation which in turn significantly increase collagen
synthesis after topical and oral Alov vera [39] Aloe gel not only
increased collagen content of the wound but also changed collagen
composition and increased the degree of collagen cross linking.
Due to this, it accelerated wound contrcation and incresed the
breaking strength of resulting scar tissue [40] An increased
synthesis of hyaluronic acid and dermatan sulfate in the
granulation tissue of a healing wound following oral or topical
teratment has been reported [41].
469
significant increase in the number of circulating monocyte and
macrophages which mirrored clinical improvements [42]. In a
pilot study in HIV-infected persons acemannan increased the
number of white blood cells and improved symptoms [43]. Aloe
extracts also increased phagocytosis in asthmatic adults [44].
Alprogen inhibit calcium influx into mast cells, therby inhibiting
the antigen-antibody-mediated release of histamine and
leukotriene from mast cells [45].In a study on mice that had
previously been implanted with murine sarcoma cells, acemannan
stimulates the synthesis and release of interleukin -1(IL-1) and
tumor necrosis factor from macrophages in mice, which in turn
inhitiated an immune attack that resulted in necrosis and
regression of the cancerous cells [46]. Several low-molecular-
weight compounds are also capable of inhibiting the release of
reactive oxygen free radicals from activated human neutrophils
[47].
4.3 Antimicrobial: Aloe vera contains 6 antiseptic agents: Lupeol,
salicyclic acid, urea nitrogen, cinnamonic acid, phenols and sulfur.
They all have inhibitory action on fungi, bacteria and viruses.
Acemannan acts alone and synergistically with azidothymidine
(AZT)and acyclovir to block reproduction of Herpes and the AIDS
virus [48], AntifungalAloe extract treatment of guinea pig feet that
had been infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes resulted in
a 70% growth inhibition compared with untreated animals [49]. In
recent, atudies, a polysaccharide fraction has shown to inhibit the
binding of benzopyrene to primary rat hepatocytes, therby
preventing the formation of potentially cancer-initiating
benzopyrene-DNAadducts. An induction of glutathione S-
transferase and an inhibition of the tumorproting effects of
phorbol myristic acetae has also been reported which suggest a
possible benefit of using aloe gel in cancer chemoprevention
[50,51,52].
4.4 Skin and mucus membranes: In humans, aloe has been
reported to accelerate healing from deep scrapes, frostbite, flash
burns of the conjunctiva, and even canker sores [53, 54,55]. Only
one study has had an opposite effect; that is, aloe-treated surgical
wounds healing by secondary intention took longer to heal than
comparison wounds [56]. Despite the conflicting research, some
dentists and otolaryngologists use aloe gel to promote healing in
injured tissues in the mouth, nose, sinuses and ear [57]. Aloe gel
has most often been used as a topical treatment for burn wounds
[58]. In a study of 27 adults with partial thickness burns, those
treated with aloe healed an average of six days faster than those
treated with Vaseline gauze [59]. Psoriasis remedy In a 1995
double-blind, placebo controlled study of aloe's effect on 60
patients with psoriasis vulgaris, an aloe vera extract (0.5%) in a
hydrophilic cream resulted in a significant clearing of the psoriatic
plaques in 83.3% of the aloe-treated patients versus 6.6% of the
placebo group [60]. The aloe treatment was well tolerated with no
adverse drug-related side effects. Its moisturizing effects has also
been studies in teratment of dry skin associated with occupational
exposure where aloe vera gel gloves improved the skin integrity,
decreases appearance of fine wrinkle and decreases erythema
[61] .It has also anti-acne effect.
4.2 Immune modulati on : Im munostimu la nt a nd ant i-
inflammatory (gel) ,In a case studies of 14 HIV-1+ patients who
were prescribed 800 mg/day of acemannan, there was a
Sharrif Moghaddasi M / Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(1): 466-471
4.5 Effects on skin exposure to UV and gamma radiation: Aloe
vera gel has been reported to have a protective effect against
damage to skin [62, 63]. Exact role is not known , but following the
administration of alove vera gel, an antioxidant protein,
metallothionein, is generated in the skin which scavenges hydroxyl
radicals and prevents suppression of superoxide dismutase and
glutathione peroxidase in the skin. Its reduces the production and
release of skin keratinocyte-derived immunosuppresive cytokines
such as interluki n -10 and hence prevents UV-induced
suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity [64].
4.6 Anti-diabetic effects: Several pre-clinical (in animal) and
clinical (in human) trials showed a blood glucose lowering effects
for Aloe vera gel preparations in different forms (e.g. juice or as
constituents in bread etc.) . In a study on streptozotocin- induced
diabetic rats oral administration of Aloe vera gel (alcohol insoluble
residue extract) significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose,
herpatic transminases, plasma and tissue cholestrol, triglicerides,
free fatty acids and phospholipids and in addition also significantly
increased plasma insulin levels. The decresaed plasma levels of
high density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased levels of low
density lipoprotin cholestrol in the sterptozotocin-induces rats
were restored to normal after teratment with gel extract [65].
From the findings of another study on streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats, it was suggested that the mechanism of action of Aloe
vera extarcts to reduced blood glucose levels is by enchancing
glucose metabolism. It was further proposed that the glucose
lowering effect could be explained by an antioxidant mechanism
becasue it attenuated oxidative damage in the brains of
sterptozotocin-induced mice and reduced peroxidation levels in
the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats [66].
5. Conclusions: Aloe vera bulk as well as extracts are widely used
in food, cosmetic, healthcare, skincare and medical industry as
active ingredients for extra therapeutic, hygienical, rejuvenating,
health enhance effectives. Although, Aloe vera has wide spectrum
of the propertiess and uses. Food and Drug Administration of USA
has already approved the developmental study of Aloe vera in the
treatment of Cancer and AIDS. In future, controlled studies are
requied to prove the effectiveness of Alove vera under the various
conditions.
470
6. References
[1] Shelton RM. Aloe vera: its chemical and therapeutic properties. Int J
Dermatol .1991; 30:679-83.
[2] Haller J. A drug for all seasons: medical and pharmacological history of aloe.
Bull NY Acad Sci .1990; 66.
[3] Atherton P. Aloe vera: magic or medicine? Nurs Stand .1998; 12:49-52, 54.
[4] Bensky D, Gamble A, Kaptchuk TJ. Chinese herbal medicine : materia
medica. Seattle, Wash.: Eastland Press, 1993:xxv, 556.
[5] Ghazanfar SA. Handbook of Arabian medicinal plants. Boca Rato: CRC Press,
1994.
[6] Grindlay D, Reynolds T. The Aloe vera phenomenon: a review of the
properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel. J Ethnopharmacol
.1986; 16:117-51.
[7] Danhof I. Potential reversal of chronological and photo-aging of the skin by
topical application of natural substances. Phytotherapy Research. 1993;
7:S53-S56.
[8] Rowe T. Effect of fresh Aloe vera in the treatment of third degree roentgen
reactionss on white rats. J Am Pharm Assoc .1940; 29:348.
[9] Rowe T. Further observations on the use of aloe vera leaf in the treatment of
third degree x-ray reactions. J Am Pharm Assn .1941; 30:266.
[10] Lewis WH. Medical botany : plants affecting man's health. New York: Wiley,
1977.
[11] McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A. American Herbal Products
Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton. New York: CRC Press,
1997; 231.
[12] Murray MT, Pizzorno JE. An Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. Rocklin, CA:
Prima Publishing. 1991.
[13] Duke JA. Green Pharmacy. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press. 1997; 507.
[14] Ship A. Is topical aloe vera plant mucus shelpful in burn treatment? JAMA
1977; 238:1770.
[15] Brown JS, Marcy SA. The use of botanicals for health purposes by members
of a prepaid health plan. Res Nurs Health .1991; 14:339-350.
[16 ]R ob be rs J E, S pe ed ie M K, Ty le r V E. P ha rm ac og no sy a nd
pharmacobiotechnology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1996: ix, 337.
[17] Yagi A, Tsunoda M, Egusa T, Akasaki K, Tsuji H. Immunochemical distinction
of Aloe vera, A. arborescens, and A. chinensis gels [letter]. Planta Med
.1998; 64:277-278.
[18] Van Wyk BE, Van Rheede van Oudtshoorn MC, Smith GF. Geographical
variation in the major compounds of Aloe ferox leaf exudate. Planta Med
.1995; 61:250-253.
[19] Kapoor LD. CRC handbook of ayurvedic medicinal plants. Boca Raton: CRC
Press. 1990.
20] Ross IA. Medicinal plants of the world : chemical constituents, traditional,
and modern medicinal uses. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press. 1999; xi, 415.
[21] Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to
Herbal Medicine. Berlin: Springer, 1997; 306.
[22] Foster S. Aloe. Herbs for Health .1999; 59-60.
[23] Ni Y, Tizard, IR. Analytical methodology: the gel-analysis of aloe pulp and its
derivatives. In Aloes The Genus Aloe; Reynolds, T., Ed.; CRC Press: Boca
Raton. 2004; pp. 111-126
[24] Dagne E, Bisrat D, Viljoen A, Van Wyk, BE. Chemistry of Aloe species. Curr.
Org. Chem. 2000; 4:1055-1078.
[25] Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. Final report on the safety
assessment of Aloe andongensis extract, Aloe andongensis leaf juice, Aloe
arborescens leaf extract, Aloe arborescens leaf juice, Aloe arborescens leaf
protoplasts, Aloe barbadensis flower extract, Aloe barbadensis leaf, Aloe
barbadensis leaf extract, Aloe barbadensis leaf juice, Aloe barbadensis leaf
polysaccharides, Aloe barbadensis leaf water, Aloe ferox leaf extract, Aloe
ferox leaf juice and Aloe ferox leaf juice extract. Int. J. Toxicol. 2007; 26: 1-50
[26] Femenia A, Sanchez ES, Simal S, Rosello C. Compositional features of
polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) plant tissues.
Carbohydr. Polym. 1999; 39: 109-117.
[27] Choi S, Chung, MH. A review on the relationship between Aloe vera
components and their biologic effects. Semin. Integr. Med. 2003; 1: 53-62.
[28] Surjushe A, Vasani R, Saple DG. Aloe vera: A short review. Indian J Dermatol
.2008; 53:163-6.
[29] Hamman JH. Composition and application of aloe vera leaf gel. Molecules.
2008; 13:1599-1616.
[30] Klein AD, Penneys NS. Aloe vera. J Am Acad Dermatol .1988; 18:714-720.
[31] Henry R. An updated review of aloe vera. Cosmetics and toiletries. 1979;
94:42-50.
[32] Peng SY, Norman J, Curtin G, Corrier D, McDaniel HR, Busbee D. Decreased
mortality of Norman murine sarco ma in mic e treated wi th the
immunomodulator, Acemannan. Mol Biother .1991; 3:79-87.
[33] Yagi A, Harada N, Yamada H, Iwadare S, I. N. Antibradykinin active material
in Aloe saponaria. J Pharmaceut Sci. 1982; 71:1172-74.
[34] Schilcher H. Phytotherapy in paediatrics : handbook for physicians and
pharmacists : with reference to commission E monographs of the Federal
Department of Health in Germany : includes 100 commission monographs
and and 15 ESCOP monographs. Stuttgart: medpharm Scientific Publishers,
1997; 181.
Sharrif Moghaddasi M / Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(1): 466-471
471
6. References
[35] Bissett NG. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. Stuttgart: MedPharm
CRC Press, 1994:566.
[36] Parmar N. Evaluation of Aloe vera leaf exudate and gel for gastric and
duodenal anti-ulcer activity. Fitoterapia. 1986; 57.
[37] Freytag A. Suggested role of tarumatic acid in Aloe wound healing.
Pharmiz. 1954; 9: 705 (PUBMED) (INFORMATION).
[38] Kameyama S. 1979. Wound healing composition from Aloe arborescens
extracts. Jap. Patent. 785-6995.
[39] Chitra R Sajithal GB, Chandrakasan G. Influnece of alove vera on collagen
characteristics in healimg dermal wounds in rats. Mol Cell Biochem .1998;
181:71-6.
[40] Heggers J, Kucukcelebi A, Listengraten D, Stabenau J, Ko F, Broemeling LD, et
al., Benefical effect of alov on wound healing in an excisional wound model.
J. Altern Complement Med. 1996; 2:271-7.
[41]Ch itra P, Sajithal G, Chandrakasan G. Influenc e of alove on the
glycosaminoglycans in the matrix of healing dermal wounds in rats. J
Ethanopharmacol. 1998; 59:179-186.
[42] McDaniel H, COmbs C, HR M, Carpenter R, Kemp M, McAnalley B. An
increase in circulating monocyte/macrophages (M/M) is induced by oral
acemannan in HIV-1 patients. Am J Clin Pathol .1990; 94:516-517.
[43] McDaniel H, Carpenter R, Kemp M, Kahlon J, McAnalley B. Extended survival
and prognostic criteria for Acemannan (ACE-M) treated HIV Patients.
Antiviral Res Suppl .1990; 1:117.
[44] Shida T. Effect of aloe extract on peripheral phagocytosis in adult bronchial
asthma. Planta Medica .1985; 51:273-275.
[45] Ro JY, Lee B, Lkim JY, Chung Y, Chung MH, Lee SK, et al. Inhibitory mechanism
of aloe single component (Alprogen) on mediator release in guinea pig lung
mast cells activeted with specific anitgen-antibody rections. J Pharmacol
Exp ther .2000; 292:114-121.
[46] Peng SY, Norman J, Curtin G, Corrier D, Mc Daniel H, Busbee D. Decreased
mortal ity of No rman mur ine sarcoma in mice terated wi th the
immunomodulator, acemannon. Mol Biother. 1991; 3:79-87.
[47] Hart LA, Nibbering PH, van den Barselaar MT, van Dijik H, van den Burg AJ,
Labadie RP. Effects of low molecular constituents from aloe vera gel on
oxidative metabolism and cytotoxic and bactericidal acitivities of human
neutrophils. Ýnt J Immunopharmacol. 1990; 12:427-434.
[48] Kahlon JB, Kemp MC, Carpenter RH, McAnalley BH, McDaniel HR, Shannon
WM. Inhibition of AIDS virus replication by acemannan in vitro. Mol
Biother. 1991; 3:127-35.
[49] Kawai K, Beppu H, Shimpo K, et al. In vivo effects of Aloe arborescens Miller
var. natalensis Berger on experimental tinea pedis in guinea pig feet.
Phytotherapy Research. 1998; 12:178-82.
[50] Surjushe A, Vasani R, Saple DG. Aloe vera : A short review. Indian J Dermatol.
2008; 53:163-166.
[51] Kim HS, Lee BM. Inhibition of benzo (a) pyrene-DNA adduct formation by
aloe barbadensis Miller. Carcinogenesis. 1997; 18:771-776.
[52] Kim HS, Kacew S, Lee BM. In vitro chemopreventive effect of plant
polysaccharides (loe barbadensis Miller, Lentinus edodes, Gandoderm
lucidum, and Coriolus vesicolor). Carcinogenesis. 1999; 20:1637-1640.
[53] Fulton JE, Jr. The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with
stabilized aloe vera gelpolyethylene oxide dressing. J Dermatol Surg Oncol.
1990; 16:460-467.
[54] Garnick JJ, Singh B, Winkley G. Effectiveness of a medicament containing
silicon dioxide, aloe, and allantoin on aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surg Oral
Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod .1998; 86:550-556.
[55] Anonymous. Aloe vera product achieves a label claim for the relief of pain
associated with canker sores.Holistic Health News .1995; 8:8.
[56] Schmidt JM, Greenspoon JS. Aloe vera dermal wound gel is associated with a
delay in wound healing. Obstet Gynecol. 1991; 78:115-117.
[57] Thompson JE. Topical use of aloe vera derived allantoin gel in
otolaryngology. Ear Nose Throat J. 1991;70:119.
[58] Heck E, Head M. Aloe vera gel cream as a topical treatment for outpatient
burns. Burns .1981; 7:291-429.
[59]V isuthik oso l V, C howch uen B , S ukwan arat Y, S riurairata na S,
Boonpucknavig V. Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical
and histologic study. J Med Assoc Thai .1995; 78:403-409.
[60] Syed TA, Ahmad SA, Holt AH, Ahmad SH, Afzal M. Management of psoriasis
with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo-controlled, double-
blind study. Trop Med Int Health .1996; 1:505-509.
[61] West DP, Zhu YF. Evaluation of aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry
skin associated with occupational exposure. Am J Infect Control.
2003;31:40-2.
[62] Roberts DB, Travis EL. Acemannan-containing wound dressing gel reduces
radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys.
1995;32: 1047-1052.
[63] Sato Y, Ohta S, Shinoda M. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation
XXXI: Protective effects of Aloe arborescens on skin injury induced by x-
irradiation. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1990;110:876-884.
[64] Byeon S, Pelley R, Ullrich SE, Waller TA, Bucana CD, Strickland FM. Aloe
barbadensis extracts reduce the production of interleukin-10 after
exposure to ultraviolet radiation. J Invest Dermtol. 1988;110:811-887.
[65] Rajasekaran S, Ravi K, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S. Beneficial effects of
Aloe vera leaf gel extract on lipid profile status in rats with streptozotocin
diabetes. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 2006; 33, 232-237
[66] Boudreau MD, Beland, FA. An evaluation of the biological and toxicological
properties of Aloe Barbadensis (Miller), Aloe vera. J. Environ. Sci. Health C.
2006; 24, 103-154
Copyright 201 BioMedSciDirect Publications IJBMR -
All rights reserved.
1 ISSN: 0976:6685.
c
Sharrif Moghaddasi M / Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(1): 466-471
... Although leaves are the most used part of the plant, recently some studies have reported the bioactive roots [14] and flowers [15] of the plant. [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. ...
... Arachidonic acid, γ-linolenic acid, triglicerides, triterpenoid, gibberillin, lignins, potassium sorbate, salicylic acid, and uric acid [21][22][23][24][25] The Antimalarial Aloe Compounds ...
... leaves have two types of exudates, which include the latex and gel; latex, which is found between the plant's outer skin (rind) and the pulp, yellow-brownish, has a bitter taste due to 80 chemical constituents present, which are mostly phenolic in nature. [10][11][12] In addition, Aloe vera has moisturizing and antiaging agents such as mucopolysaccharides, which absorb into the skin binding moisture and therefore aiding in skin hydration, including other benefits such as antibacterial/antiviral activity, antiinflammatory effects, and wound healing. 10,11,13,14 Documented alternatives such as oil and cornstarch, used as coupling media for sonography, can have negative effects on the transducer, as well as are scarce and expensive. ...
... [10][11][12] In addition, Aloe vera has moisturizing and antiaging agents such as mucopolysaccharides, which absorb into the skin binding moisture and therefore aiding in skin hydration, including other benefits such as antibacterial/antiviral activity, antiinflammatory effects, and wound healing. 10,11,13,14 Documented alternatives such as oil and cornstarch, used as coupling media for sonography, can have negative effects on the transducer, as well as are scarce and expensive. 15,16 These challenges necessitate the need for an alternative coupling gel that will be relatively cheap, readily available, and not affect the patient's skin, hence the need for investigating the applicability of Aloe vera lotion for diagnostic medical sonography. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study assessed the use of Aloe vera lotion as an alternative coupling medium for ultrasound imaging. Materials and Methods A prospective analytical research design was adopted. A total of 50 subjects who consented were randomly recruited into the study from the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar and the Gijuwie Medical Diagnostics, Calabar. A total of 50 image pairs were obtained on scanning with Aloe vera lotion (Image A) and commercial ultrasound gel (Image B) for comparison. Image quality was assessed using anatomical details (AD) and visualization of hyperechoic structures (VHS) as criteria. Results A substantial agreement was seen among raters (A: k = 0.658, B = 0.691; P < .05) with acceptable level of consistency (Cronbach’s alpha scores of 0.701 and 0.825 for Aloe vera lotion and commercial gel, respectively) based on AD. Images recommended as acceptable by raters was 91.7% for Aloe vera lotion and 81.7% for commercial gel. Both methods demonstrated almost perfect agreement (kappa > 80; P < .05) with each other based on AD and VHS (Table 3). Conclusion Aloe vera lotion, which is locally available and relatively affordable, has the potential to be used as acoustic coupling medium in diagnostic sonography.
... It is the most common aloe variety and contains a wide diversity of bioactive compounds including terpenoids, lectins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, fatty acids, polysaccharides, sterols, tannins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals [8,11]. It has previously been reported to have antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects [8,12,13]. The antiviral activity of Aloe vera is due to its content of anthraquinones, flavonoids, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids, sterols, and polysaccharides [8,13]. ...
... The compounds extracted from different tissues of Aloe vera [8,11,12,[24][25][26] and Nyctanthes arbor-tristis [18][19][20][27][28][29][30] were selected from the literature and filtered using Lipinski's rule of five [31], their three-dimensional (3D) structures were downloaded from the PubChem database [32]. The SwissADME web tool [33] was used to calculate the properties of the selected compounds from their SMILES (simplified molecular-input line-entry system) strings. ...
Article
Full-text available
The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly worldwide, and new drug treatments for COVID-19 are urgently required. To find the potential inhibitors against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, we investigated the inhibitory potential of naturally occurring compounds from the plants Moringa oleifera, Aloe vera, and Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, using molecular docking, classical molecular mechanics optimizations, and ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations. Of the 35 compounds that we simulated, feralolide from Aloe vera exhibited the highest binding affinity against Mpro. Therefore, we proposed novel compounds based on the feralolide and investigated their binding properties to Mpro. The FMO results indicated that the introduction of a hydroxyl group into feralolide significantly enhances its binding affinity to Mpro. These results provide useful information for developing potent Mpro inhibitors. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11224-022-02021-y.
... Thus, it has adequate biocompatibility. [13] Advantages of Aloe vera are being readily available, less expensive, sticky in nature, no adverse effects and applicable with minimal equipment. It has been used as a lubricant during biomechanical preparation in root canal treatment and as a sedative dressing. ...
Chapter
Medicinal plants are achieving favour and have shown exponential growth throughout the globe due to fewer side effects in comparison to allopathic medications and innate pharmacological effects and being present naturally. Humans show intimate association with nature and always utilize the components of their surroundings to get medicines and foodstuffs. Around 50% of medications utilized by humans emanated from plant parts. For preliminary healthcare in developing countries, more than 80% of humans rely on herbal drugs. Worldwide, India has been the most extensive developer for herbs that have medicinal importance. So, there is a necessity to review this priceless herbal knowledge. This chapter will assist in furnishing the advantageous usage of herbs in various infections. It is a big challenge to conserve biodiversity because of the involvement of political difficulties and social demurs. There is a requirement to conserve these plant species and nurture their farming.
Article
Full-text available
Current work discusses the way of local and tribal people have used plants over the time to cure for their skin, hairs, face beauty and in physical aspect. In times of this industrialization, people prefer natural and herbal products for dryness, acne, anti-aging, hair and skin protection effects. This article presented a descriptive review on the plants used by local and tribal people of Chhattisgarh for their skin care, cosmetics purpose and describes how plants are currently used in personal care products. Plants such as Lawsonia inermis L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia ballerica (Gaertn.) Roxb., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Azadirachta indica A.Juss. and many other are used in cosmetic industry for various purposes. The purpose of doing this work is to collect and spread the knowledge about the plants nearby that are used for cosmetics.
Book
Full-text available
This book reviews the applications of polyphenols in cancer treatment. The initial chapter of the book classifies different polyphenols and discusses their biological and chemical properties. The subsequent chapters then explore the diverse role of polyphenols in modulating signal transduction pathways in cancer including, cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This book highlights the usefulness of polyphenol enriched seafood in modulating the anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ. The book also presents nanoformulation of polyphenol as a promising strategy for their enhanced bioavailability and targeted delivery. Lastly, the book examines the toxicity and safety evaluations of polyphenols as anticancer agents.
Chapter
Рhytосhemiсаls аs biоасtive соmроnents of plants shows promising results in curing many diseases. Therefore, the demand for these natural medicines increases day by day. Phytochemicals such as phenols and flavonoids seem to act in various ways to protect health. Protection of cells can be done through different types of means such as change of reactive oxygen species to non-radicle type by breaking sequencing of auto oxidative reactions commenced by reactive oxygen species and by lowering the oxygen saturation of diseased area. Many phytochemicals balance antioxidants and free radicals in our bodies. Some recent studies have shown that intake of synthetic antioxidants for a long duration may cause many health problems, like allergies, digestive problems, and according to few studies may also increase the chances of cancer.
Chapter
Despite the concerted efforts in pursuit of developing effective therapy, the human race has merely succeeded in its fight against cancer. The limited success in this battle against cancer may be attributed to the development of resistance to the available therapeutic regimens, frequent recurrence, metastasis, tumor heterogeneity, and immune evasion. The sub-populated cancer stem cells (CSCs) are often held responsible for cancer relapse, therapy resistance, and metastasis. The stemness and tumorigenicity of CSCs are regulated by various pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, hedgehog, PI3K-AKT, JAK-STAT, TGF-β, and notch signaling. Various therapeutic agents targeting CSCs are now being considered for the treatment of various malignancies. However, conventional therapies are associated with various side effects. Therefore, current therapeutic approaches are witnessing a paradigm shift towards natural compounds. To this end, dietary polyphenols are considered promising drug candidates for their both preventive as well as therapeutic properties. In this chapter, the non-flavonoid polyphenols are discussed in the context of their ability to target CSCs and their role in attenuation of fundamental pathways involved in the maintenance of CSCs such as Wnt/β-catenin, hedgehog, notch, and induction of programmed cell death pathways has been explored. The overview of this chapter will help the oncologist to devise more efficacious combinatorial therapies, utilizing naturally occurring non-flavonoid polyphenols and their derivatives along with chemotherapeutic drugs, which will offer the advantage of eliminating both the CSCs and other malignant cells in the heterogeneous tumor mass as a multipronged approach. The traditional knowledge of phytomedicines along with the current advancements of molecular and precision medicine and suitable delivery system hold a great promise to combat cancer and exterminate it from the root.
Article
Full-text available
The present study was carried out to synthesis silver nanoparticles by using Aloe Vera gel and evaluates antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo. The synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Ultra Violet Visible-spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Reduction of the Ag+ to Ag0 during exposure to the Aloe Vera gel extract was followed by color change of the solution from colorless, yellow to dark brown within 24 hours. It is observed that surface Plasmon resonance peaks of the maximum absorbance of silver-nanoparticles occur at 425 nm, indicating that AgNPs were produced. Later on, using agar well diffusion and tube dilution method against pathogenic methicillin resistance staphylococcus aureus, (MRSA). Pseudomonas. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, the antimicrobial properties of synthesised AgNPs were investigated. To confirm in-vivo antibacterial activity, after inducing complicated skin and soft tissue infection in mice by injecting S.aureus subcutaneously. 16µg/gm AgNPs were applied skin infected daily for three days. Silver nanoparticles were as succeeded to reduce the lesion volume in infected mice and reduce the acute inflammation symptoms as clindamycin, In conclusion, A new approach can be used to combat serious infections caused by MRSA by Aloe Vera AgNPs.
Book
Continuing the high standards set by the widely acclaimed first and second volumes of Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses, Ivan A. Ross now comprehensively documents in Volume 3 the medicinal value of 16 major plant species widely used around the world in medical formulations. The plants for this volume are Camellia sinenis, Cannabis sativa, Cocos nucifera, Coffea arabica, Daucus carota, Ferula assafoetida, Hordeum vulgare, Larrea tridentata, Nicotiana tabacum, Olea europaea, Oryza sativa, Plantago ovata, Saccharum officinarum, Serenoa repens, Sesamum indicum, and Zingiber officinale. The author's exhaustive summary of available scientific data for each plant provides detailed information on how the plant is used in different countries, describing its traditional therapeutic applications and what is known from its use in clinical trials. Additional material presented includes a botanical description with a color photo of each plant for identification, the common names used for the plant throughout the world, and a listing of the plant's known chemical constituents. A comprehensive bibliography cites the literature available from a wide range of disciplines. Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses, Volume 3, offers a unique collection of vital scientific information for pharmacologists, herbal medicine practitioners, drug developers, phytochemists, medicinal chemists, phytologists, toxicologists, and researchers who want to explore the many uses of plant materials for medicinal and related purposes. Its wealth of significant information will reveal little-known facts about these plants and open new horizons of application for the many novel drugs and drug candidates found in them.
Article
Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is a perennial succulent belonging to the Liliaceal family, and is called the healing plant or the silent healer. As a result of its use as folk medicine, it is claimed that aloe vera has wound and burn healing properties, and antiinflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Aloe vera is used in a variety of commercial products because of these therapeutic properties. It is being used as a whole extract, however, and the relationship between the components of the extract and its overall effect has not been clarified. A more precise understanding of the biologic activities of these is required to develop aloe vera as a pharmaceutical source. Many attempts have been made to isolate single, biologically active components, to examine their effects, and clarify their functional mechanism. This review focuses on the relationship between the isolated aloe vera components (ie, glycoproteins, anthraquinones, saccharides, low-molecular-weight substances) and their presumed pharmacologic activities.