Solitons and Precision Neutrino Mass Spectroscopy

Physics Letters B (Impact Factor: 6.13). 01/2011; 699(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2011.03.058
Source: arXiv


We propose how to implement precision neutrino mass spectroscopy using
radiative neutrino pair emission (RNPE) from a macro-coherent decay of a new
form of target state, a large number of activated atoms interacting with static
condensate field. This method makes it possible to measure still undetermined
parameters of the neutrino mass matrix, two CP violating Majorana phases, the
unknown mixing angle and the smallest neutrino mass which could be of order a
few meV, determining at the same time the Majorana or Dirac nature of masses.
The twin process of paired superradiance (PSR) is also discussed.

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Available from: Motohiko Yoshimura, Jan 27, 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We develop for dipole-forbidden transition a dynamical theory of two-photon paired superradiance, or PSR for short. This is a cooperative process characterized by two photons back to back emitted with equal energies. By irradiation of trigger laser from two target ends, with its frequency tuned at the half energy between two levels, a macroscopically coherent state of medium and fields dynamically emerges as time evolves and large signal of amplified output occurs with a time delay. The basic semi-classical equations in 1+1 spacetime dimensions are derived for the field plus medium system to describe the spacetime evolution of the entire system, and numerically solved to demonstrate existence of both explosive and weak PSR phenomena in the presence of relaxation terms. The explosive PSR event terminates accompanying a sudden release of most energy stored in the target. Our numerical simulations are performed using a vibrational transition $X^1\Sigma_g^+ v=1 \rightarrow 0$ of para-H$_2$ molecule, and taking many different excited atom number densities and different initial coherences between the metastable and the ground states. In an example of number density close to $O[10^{21}]$cm$^{-3}$ and of high initial coherence, the explosive event terminates at several nano seconds after the trigger irradiation, when the phase relaxation time of $> O[10]$ ns is taken. After PSR events the system is expected to follow a steady state solution which is obtained by analytic means, and is made of many objects of field condensates endowed with a topological stability.
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    ABSTRACT: The process of collective de-excitation of atoms in a metastable level into emission mode of a single photon plus a neutrino pair, called radiative emission of neutrino pair (RENP), is sensitive to the absolute neutrino mass scale, to the neutrino mass hierarchy and to the nature (Dirac or Majorana) of massive neutrinos. We investigate how the indicated neutrino mass and mixing observables can be determined from the measurement of the corresponding continuous photon spectrum taking the example of a transition between specific levels of the Yb atom. The possibility of determining the nature of massive neutrinos and, if neutrinos are Majorana fermions, of obtaining information about the Majorana phases in the neutrino mixing matrix, is analyzed in the cases of normal hierarchical, inverted hierarchical and quasi-degenerate types of neutrino mass spectrum. We find, in particular, that the sensitivity to the nature of massive neutrinos depends critically on the atomic level energy difference relevant in the RENP.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Physics Letters B
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    ABSTRACT: We give a comprehensive account of our proposed experimental method of using atoms or molecules in order to measure parameters of neutrinos still undetermined; the absolute mass scale, the mass hierarchy pattern (normal or inverted), the neutrino mass type (Majorana or Dirac), and the CP violating phases including Majorana phases. There are advantages of atomic targets, due to the closeness of available atomic energies to anticipated neutrino masses, over nuclear target experiments. Disadvantage of using atomic targets, the smallness of rates, is overcome by the macro-coherent amplification mechanism. The atomic or molecular process we use is a cooperative deexcitation of a collective body of atoms in a metastable level |e> emitting a neutrino pair and a photon; |e> -> |g> + gamma + nu_i nu_j where nu_i's are neutrino mass eigenstates. The macro-coherence is developed by trigger laser irradiation. We discuss aspects of the macro-coherence development by setting up the master equation for the target quantum state and propagating electric field. With a choice of heavy target atom or molecule such as Xe or I_2 that has a large M1 x E1 matrix element between |e> and |g>, we show that one can determine three neutrino masses along with the mass hierarchy pattern by measuring the photon spectral shape. If one uses a target of available energy of a fraction of 1 eV, Majorana CP phases may be determined. Our master equation, when applied to E1 x E1 transition such as pH_2 vibrational transition Xv=1 -> 0, can describe explosive PSR events in which most of the energy stored in |e> is released within a few nanoseconds. The present paper is intended to be self-contained explaining some details related theoretical works in the past, and further reports new simulations and our ongoing experimental efforts of the project to realize the neutrino mass spectroscopy using atoms/molecules.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics
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