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Got milk? The rapid rise of China's dairy sector and its future prospects

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Abstract

With the rapid growth in China’s dairy industry, a number of recent papers have addressed either the supply or the demand trends for dairy products in China. None, however, presents a systematic explanation for the recent growth in both the supply and demand for dairy products. The goal of this paper is to sketch a more comprehensive picture of China’s dairy sector and to assess the nature of the sector’s development in the coming decades. Drawing upon several empirical studies, we examine the trends in dairy product consumption to create a composite picture of the factors underlying the recent growth. We also empirically investigate the sources of production gains in milk supply and assess the relative importance of expanding herd size, changes in the nature of production, technological change, and improvements in efficiency to the overall growth of milk production.

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... China's dairy production has increased sharply since the mid 1990s in response to growing internal demand for dairy products, situating China among the world's top milk producers (Zhou et al., 2002;Fuller et al., 2006;Ma et al., 2012). This growth is the result of an increase in both the national dairy herd (composed of mostly Holstein cows; DAC, 2008) and milk production per cow. ...
... This growth is the result of an increase in both the national dairy herd (composed of mostly Holstein cows; DAC, 2008) and milk production per cow. The growth within the Chinese dairy industry has resulted in major structural changes, including an increase in herd size and decline in the number of very small farms (milking ≤10 cows; Fuller et al., 2006;Ma et al., 2012). ...
... Although small herds are still common in China (Fuller et al., 2006;Ma et al., 2012), the current study targeted large freestall herds, as the proportion of cows housed in this type of facility is expected to increase. Changes in management and housing practices are likely to result in a range of challenges for the Chinese dairy industry. ...
Article
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The objective was to investigate the association between herd-level management and facility design and the prevalence of lameness and hock injuries in high-producing dairy cows on commercial freestall farms in China. Housing and management measures, such as stall design, bedding type, and milking routine were collected for the high-producing pen in 34 farms in China. All cows in the pen were gait scored using a 5-point scale, and evaluated for hock injuries using a 3-point scale. Measures associated with the proportion of clinically (score ≥3) or severely (score ≥4) lame cows, and the proportion of cows having at least a minor hock injury (score ≥2) or severe injury (score = 3) at the univariable level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. The prevalence [mean ± SD (range)] of clinical and severe lameness were 31 ± 12 (7-51) and 10 ± 6% (0- 27%), respectively, and the prevalence of cows with at least a minor hock injury and with severe injuries was 40 ± 20 (6 - 95) and 5 ± 9% (0 - 50%), respectively. The prevalence of clinical lameness and severe lameness decreased with herd size (estimate = -0.35 ± 0.09% for a 100-cow increase for clinical lameness; estimate = 0.15 ± 0.06% for a 100-cow increase for severe lameness). Prevalence increased with barn age >9 yr (estimate = 12.73 ± 4.42% for clinical lameness; estimate = 5.79 ± 2.89% for severe lameness). These 2 variables combined explained 49% of the variation in clinical lameness and 30% of the variation in severe lameness. The prevalence of all hock injuries and severe hock injuries decreased with deep bedding (estimate = -20.90 ± 5.66% for all hock injuries; estimate = -3.65 ± 1.41% for severe hock injuries) and increased with barn age >9 yr (estimate = 16.68 ± 7.17% for all hock injuries; estimate = 6.95 ± 1.75% for severe injuries). These 2 variables explained 52 and 58% of the variation, respectively. In conclusion, large variation existed across farms in prevalence of lameness and hock injuries. Changes in housing and management may help control the prevalence of lameness and hock injuries in the emerging dairy industry in China.
... Urban population growth constituted approximately 60% of the impacts of increased food consumption from 1980 to 2010 (Hou et al., 2013). From 1987 to 1997, fluid milk consumption in urban area remained stagnant at an average of b5 kg per person per year, but grew annually with a double-digit rate from 1998 to 2006 (Fuller et al., 2006). Increased consumption has been a result of perception transformation from milk as a nutrition supplement, particularly for infants and the elderly, to a regular dietary component for the general population (Zhou et al., 2002;Fuller et al., 2006), in addition to increased income. ...
... From 1987 to 1997, fluid milk consumption in urban area remained stagnant at an average of b5 kg per person per year, but grew annually with a double-digit rate from 1998 to 2006 (Fuller et al., 2006). Increased consumption has been a result of perception transformation from milk as a nutrition supplement, particularly for infants and the elderly, to a regular dietary component for the general population (Zhou et al., 2002;Fuller et al., 2006), in addition to increased income. Furthermore, the current China's average milk consumption rate per person is still very low, only 1/3 of the global and 1/2 of the Japanese average level (FAO, 2017). ...
Article
The dairy industry in China was rapidly expanded and intensified from 1980 to 2010, engendering potential long-term impacts on the environment and natural resources. However, impacts of dairy intensification on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were unknown. This study was undertaken to examine these relations using the NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use (NUFER)-dairy model. Results showed that milk yield increased by 64% from 1980 to 2010 on average, and the use of concentrate feeds increased by 57% associated with a shift of production from traditional and grassland systems to collective and industrialized systems. At herd level, the N use efficiency (NUE; conversion of N inputs to products) doubled from 7 to 15%, and the P use efficiency (PUE) increased from 10 to 17%, primarily resulting from increased milk yield per cow. In contrast, at the system level, NUE showed a small increase (from 10 to 15%, associated with reduced gaseous losses) while PUE decreased from 46 to 30% due to a large increase in manure discharges. This is attributed to decoupling of feed and dairy production, as the proportion of manure N and P recycled to cropland decreased by 52% and 54%, respectively. Despite this, the average total N loss decreased from 63 to 48 g kg− 1 milk, and the average GHG emissions from 1.7 to 1.1 kg CO2 equivalent kg− 1 milk associated with increased per-cow productivity. However, average P loss increased from 1.4 to 2.8 g P kg− 1 milk due to higher discharge rate to wastewater and landfill in collective and industrialized systems. Anyhow, average N and P losses exceeded levels in developed countries. There were large regional variations in nutrient use efficiency, nutrient losses and GHG emissions in China, largely determined by the dairy production structure. Average N losses and GHG emissions per unit of milk showed a negative correlation with production intensification based on the proportion of farms in collective or industrialized systems, while average P losses per unit of milk in different regions showed a positive relationship with intensification. In conclusion, dairy intensification was associated with increased milk yield per cow and reduced average N losses and GHG emissions per unit of milk, but reduced system level PUE and manure recycling contributed to high levels of total N and P losses. Dairy production in China is likely to continue to be intensified as a result of rising milk demand, and significant improvements must be made in manure management to control N and P losses and GHG emissions.
... Rapid income growth gave China's urban residents access to refrigerators and pushed up the purchase of luxury items such as ice-cream. Income growth also started providing access to imported infant formula milk powder (Fuller, Huang, Ma, & Rozelle, 2006). In spite of increasing year-to-year production, dairy sales stagnated in 2008 after a milk contamination scandal. ...
... However, rapid household income growth also played a major role, as it allowed almost all urban residents to own a refrigerator. These changes in urban lifestyle along with the development of more sophisticated marketing channels (Fuller, Huang, Ma, & Rozelle, 2006) contributed to the increase in consumption of dairy products. However, in the autumn of 2008, it was discovered that milk suppliers were adding melamine, a colourless crystalline compound used to manufacture plastic resins, to artificially boost the protein readings of their milk (BBC, 2008). ...
Article
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Although China has a short history of dairy products consumption (Xiu & Klein, 2010), the landscape of China’s dairy industry has dramatically changed over the past two decades. From 1995 to 2015, per capita consumption of dairy products for urban residents increased from 4.6 kg to 30 kg. Rapid income growth gave China’s urban residents access to refrigerators and pushed up the purchase of luxury items such as ice-cream. Income growth also started providing access to imported infant formula milk powder (Fuller, Huang, Ma, & Rozelle, 2006). In spite of increasing year-to-year production, dairy sales stagnated in 2008 after a milk contamination scandal. Our study qualitatively explores consumers’ post-event perceptions of dairy products to explore the long-term effects of negative advertising and how this affects consumers’ long-term purchase intention. Our results from ten focus groups with different demographics indicate that the negative effects of food scares are reduced over time and, in spite of initial drops in sales, time itself heals drops in consumers’ demand. While demand for the product does not drop ad libitum, preferences seem to shift from local products to imported products, hampering the growth of local industries but favouring FDI.
... China showed that consumption of milk and dairy products is affected by economic, geographical and cultural factors (24). Low consumption of dairy products is mainly due to people's lack knowledge about the need to consume all food groups, and also affordability, whereas low-income people should be able to purchase dairy products without any problem. ...
... In the present study, a positive correlation was found between consumption of all food groups (except bread and cereals) and household income. Similarly, several studies have reported a positive relationship between food consumption and household income, so that consumption was higher in higher income families that spent more on better quality foods (22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31). ...
... China showed that consumption of milk and dairy products is affected by economic, geographical and cultural factors (24). Low consumption of dairy products is mainly due to people's lack knowledge about the need to consume all food groups, and also affordability, whereas low-income people should be able to purchase dairy products without any problem. ...
... In the present study, a positive correlation was found between consumption of all food groups (except bread and cereals) and household income. Similarly, several studies have reported a positive relationship between food consumption and household income, so that consumption was higher in higher income families that spent more on better quality foods (22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31). ...
Article
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State subsidies are paid to aid households, especially the vulnerable ones. This study was conducted to determine the effect of targeted subsidies on food consumption of households in the city of Kermanshah. This descriptive analytical study was conducted two years after implementing food subsidies elimination plan in 2013 on 250 households, randomly selected (multistage cluster sampling) from six districts in Kermanshah city. Data were collected using demographic and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and analyzed in SPSS-16 using linear regression, Spearman’s and Pearson’s correlation coefficients, Chi-square, Choprov and t-tests. A significant reduction was found in consumption of all nutrient groups including bread and cereals (P<0.001), protein and meat (P=0.01), dairy products (P=0.01), and fruits and vegetables (P<0.001) compared to previous two studies and before elimination of food subsidies. A more than three-fold reduction was observed in daily consumption of milk compared to before elimination of subsidies (P<0.001). Household income was positively and significantly related to consumption of nutrient groups (P<0.001). Elimination of food subsidies had led to a reduction in consumption of essential foods in households. Given the relationship between income and consumption, it is recommended that special supports be provided by the state to improve nutritional status of low-income and vulnerable households. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. All rights reserved.
... Kumar, Kumar et al. (2011) studying the impact of changes in both income and price have concluded that lower income groups would be more adversely affected by the increasing food inflation. With increased income, milk consumption amongst the lowest 10% income group in China increased by 100% between 1996 and 2003 (Fuller, Huang et al. 2006). Therefore, with increasing income levels in India, this growth trend in percentage of households consuming milk as well as per capita consumption is expected to continue increasing. ...
... price of SMP also rose from a level of around USD 1000 perMT to USD 2000 between 1980and 2006, growing at a CAGR of 1.2% and rose sharply to above USD 4,000 per MT in 2007(Kumar 2009). This indicates that there was a demand shock in the international milk market around 2006, resulting in price rise.India is the largest producer of milk accounting for 17% xxxii xxxiii of world milk production and is also the largest consumer of milk in the world. ...
Technical Report
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Continuous rise in food prices has been posing a serious policy challenge in India. Milk is a major contributor to the food price rise due to its high growth in demand in the domestic and international market with domestic supply not keeping pace. Mere market price signal is inadequate for the milk production system to respond. This is due to supply constraints including increasing cost of production. This situation is expected to continue with lower growth in milk producing adult female animal population. Therefore, policy measures need to be relooked at to study and strengthen the entire production eco-system in terms of technology, access to information, credit availability, improvement in risk cover mechanisms and access to markets to enhance profitability and reduce risk, to incentivise dairy animal rearing and milk production.
... Milk historically has not played a large role in Asian diets, especially in most East Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, and Malaysia. However, over the last half century, milk consumption has significantly increased in these countries as rapid economic growth and other social transformations occurred (Campo and Beghin 2006;Dong 2006;Fuller et al 2006;Lee et al 2006). In Indonesia, sustained income growth and rapid urbanization have caused a major shift in the growth of grain consumption from rice to wheat products, suggesting a significant movement from a traditional diet to a western-style one (Fabiosa 2006). ...
... Moreover, more than half of the students reported liking western-style fast foods, and as many as 72% would drink soft drinks more often if they could afford it. Fuller et al (2006) and Bai et al (2008) both find that consumers in Beijing, Shanghai, and Qingdao are increasingly consuming fluid milk with income growth. While these studies consider the effects of individual or household socioeconomic factors, they are either drawn on small samples or focus on a specific group of consumers. ...
Article
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Demand for nontraditional foods is on the rise in China. Data from household surveys and consumer food diaries in Beijing, Nanjing, and Chengdu are examined to measure the effects of demographics on consumption of nontraditional food products. We focus on bakery and dairy products, two categories of foods that are rarely consumed in traditional Chinese breakfasts. We find that income, time constraints, and education positively affect the inclusion of nontraditional foods in the breakfast meal. Our results suggest that younger consumers are leading the transition to new global consumption patterns that integrate nontraditional foods into urban Chinese breakfasts. The implications of these findings for wheat and milk production and processing industries are discussed. La demande d'aliments non traditionnels est en hausse en Chine. Dans la présente étude, nous avons examiné des données tirées d'enquêtes auprès des ménages et de journaux alimentaires quotidiens de consommateurs à Beijing, à Nanjing et à Chengdu afin d'évaluer les répercussions de la démographie sur la consommation de produits alimentaires non traditionnels. Nous nous sommes concentrés sur les produits de boulangerie-pâtisserie et les produits laitiers, deux catégories d'aliments qui font rarement partie du petit déjeuner chinois traditionnel. Nos résultats indiquent que le revenu, les contraintes de temps et le niveau de scolarité ont une influence positive sur l'inclusion d'aliments non traditionnels dans le petit déjeuner. Nos résultats permettent de penser que les jeunes consommateurs dirigent la transition vers de nouvelles habitudes de consommation qui intègrent des aliments non traditionnels dans le petit déjeuner des Chinois urbains. Nous traitons des répercussions de ces résultats sur la production de blé et de lait ainsi que sur les industries de transformation.
... The safety of food produced in China has received significant attention within and outside China over the past decade, especially the use of illegal food additives. Over half of Chinese food inspections failed in 2011 with 51 per cent of food shipments failing quality and safety inspections in Mainland China and 57 per cent of food packaging failing similar tests (Food Australia, 2012). Several studies have emerged in the wake of the recent food safety events including Ortega et al. (2012), Xiu and Klein (2010), and Brown et al. (2002). ...
... The nature of the China's downstream milk collection distribution system puts the industry at a high risk for safety and quality problems. Approximately 80 per cent of milk in China is collected either through a spot market or a co-operative chain (Fuller et al., 2006). The spot market chain is a traditional dairy supply chain where producers bring their product directly to a retail outlet and sell untreated and unpasteurized milk to consumers (Xiu and Klein, 2010). ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese food safety issues by analysing select incidents within he Chinese agricultural marketing system. Design/methodology/approach – A marketing utility framework is utilized to discuss some of the major food safety incidents in China and potential solutions are explored. Findings – The paper finds that food safety issues arise from problems of asymmetric information which leads to the profit seeking behaviour of agents distorting rather than enhancing the creation of one of the four types or marketing utility (time, form, place and possession). Additionally, structural causes found within the Chinese food marketing system have contributed to the food safety problems. Research limitations/implications – This is not an empirical research with numerical data. Originality/value – This study is one of the first to address Chinese food safety problems from an agricultural marketing utility perspective. Key anecdotes are used to support the claims made in this study.
... Such studies acknowledge that milk production has long been associated with economic development, nationalism and citizenship. Recent initiatives in India, China, Iran and Russia (Fuller et al., 2006) underline that the national volume of production is important because transporting unprocessed liquid milk is problematic; it spoils quickly and supply chains need to be relatively short. ...
Article
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This article investigates the growing market for cow’s milk sold directly from the farm, often known as 'raw milk'. Drawing on qualitative research with UK raw milk producers we add new insights to the sociology of food by demonstrating how knowledge about the ‘goodness’ and 'purity' of cow's milk arises and becomes powerful in producer and consumer groups. Our empirical findings highlight that for a small proportion of producers and consumers, raw milk helps to provide visual, gustatory and sensory points of contact. These contact points, we argue, address some of the contemporary concerns that have arisen over the source, content and ethics of milk by bringing together the means and ends of the food chain. Importantly within this process, cattle and farmyards help forge a powerful entanglement that sustains the commercial exchange. Our findings show that messages about 'goodness' and 'purity' in raw milk provide a timely counterpoint to the distancing and separation that characterises many modern food chains.
... There has been significant growth and intensification of global dairy production systems in the past 50 years, and the demand for dairy products is likely to continue to increase in the foreseeable future (Fuller et al., 2006;Britt et al., 2018). Globally, dairy consumption is expected to rise on average by 27% from 87kg to 119kg per person by 2067 driven largely by population growth and urbanisation (Britt et al., 2018). ...
Thesis
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This thesis describes the use of machine learning (ML) techniques applied to data gathered from GPS receivers attached to pasture-based dairy cows for the purpose of automatic behaviour identification. Automatically identifying the behaviour of cattle will allow livestock practitioners to make more informed decisions on their management. Furthermore, daily behaviour data can be utilised for earlier disease diagnosis. For example, if the feeding duration of a cow is below its expected target then managers can intervene. Individual animal data were previously unattainable, with cattle usually managed on a herd basis. This thesis begins with an introduction that summarises the ongoing research in the field of precision livestock farming (PLF) and how farmers are implementing some PLF systems for the management of livestock. The main PLF systems discussed are those that incorporate on-animal sensors for the detection and classification of key behaviours associated with production and health. The main body of the thesis is divided into three experimental chapters. Chapter 1 (published in the Journal of Dairy Science) describes the development of a behavioural model of pasture-based Holstein dairy cows using data collected from GPS receivers and processed using ML techniques. Chapter 2 (published in Computers and Electronics in Agriculture) discusses a further modification to the behavioural model which improves its ability to categorise behaviours. Finally, Chapter 3 describes the use of a data partitioning technique often used for timeseries analysis as an alternative method for the development of behaviour prediction models of dairy cows. Chapter 3 was published in the journal Biosystems Engineering. The thesis concludes with a discussion of each chapter in light of the wider research and highlights some necessary areas for further work.
... The new branded products are marketed through supermarkets and convenience store chains that benefit from consumer belief that supermarkets carry brands based on product quality and value. The consequence is loss of faith in local food systems (Fuller et al 2006) and hastened food system industrialization as more people abandon traditional foods and markets. However, the melamine milk scandal had such a large impact precisely because of the industrialization of the dairy sector. ...
Article
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Socioeconomic and structural changes in the global food system, driven by rapid urbanization in the Global South, shape the nature and scale of food safety problems as well as the strategies designed to cope with them. These changes create new challenges for ensuring food security, given that food safety is an essential dimension of food security. By reviewing existing studies, this paper summarizes three key types of contaminant (microbiological, chemical, and physical) that compromise food safety. With analyses of three cases (avian flu, genetic modification contamination, and melamine-tainted milk) in the Global South, the paper explores how food safety is being driven and shaped by socioeconomic restructuring, particularly market liberalization in the food sector. The paper then provides an overview of various initiatives being taken by consumers, grassroots organizations, governments, and the food industry to address food safety challenges. It calls for a more holistic understanding of food safety that connects food safety and urban public health, and recognizes food safety as a social and cultural issue connected with the food safety impacts of structural changes in food systems.
... Most literature tend to posit studies on the changes in the industry before and after the melamine contamination case. Extant studies before the melamine contamination incident in 2008 deal with expanding production, insufficient feed, and insufficient sanitation of milking ( Fullera et al. 2006, Kitakura et al. 2007. However, several studies since 2008 focus on the Chinese government's efforts on improving the quality of dairy products ( Wan et al. 2008, Pei et al. 2011, Qian et al. 2011, Dai 2014). ...
Article
Chinese dairy firms have grown rapidly in recent years. However, they often face issues related to the quality of their products. Assuming that Chinese dairy companies do not effectively use quality information, the present study elucidates the factors that hold back companies in their use of quality information. The study hypothesizes that (1) Chinese dairy firms are inefficient in evaluating the execution level of business process rules, and (2) these companies are unable to improve their business process for lack of effective utilization of quality information. The results are verified using the Nikkei database and through interviews with executives of Chinese dairy firms. The result of the first hypothesis revealed quality issues faced by a large Chinese dairy company. Similarly, the verification results of hypothesis (2) confirmed that the efforts of large companies were insufficient. Based on these study results, it was presumed that Chinese dairy firms are not mature enough to be able to effectively utilize quality information and that the factors hindering this maturity are that Chinese dairy firms are inefficient in evaluating the level of execution of business process rules and that these companies are unable to improve their business process for lack of effective utilization of quality information.
... Recently, the food consumption pattern in China has shifted from grains to higher-protein products such as dairy products, especially in urban areas. The dairy demand has exhibited significant growth and has ample space to increase [44]. However, there has been no significant growth of fresh milk consumption in recent years in urban areas of China. ...
Article
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Fresh milk represents a major type of dairy product in China, while it remains at a low level in terms of consumption. Consumers’ preferences are a crucial factor determining consumers’ attitudes and behavior towards fresh milk consumption. However, little is known about what drives consumers’ preferences for fresh milk. This study intends to fill this gap based on a survey with a sample of 1248 respondents in ten cities in China. The best–worst scaling (BWS) method was employed to measure the importance of different attributes that consumers consider when selecting fresh milk. The BWS result indicates that safety certification, shelf-life, and nutrition were ranked as the most important attributes of fresh milk, whereas origin, purchasing location, and package were found to be the least preferred attributes. Furthermore, the study also explored heterogeneities by dividing all samples into a developed area and a less developed area, and a latent class model (LCM) was then applied to classify consumers based on their preferences and demographics in these two areas, respectively. In developed areas, consumers were divided into “Safety First” and “Taste Sensitive”, and Gender and Age were significant determinants of class membership. In less developed areas, consumers were classified as “Quality Sensitive” and “Brand Sensitive”, while Education, Pregnancy, and Health condition were significant determinants of class membership. The findings might be useful for the government in terms of encouraging dairy companies to implement safety management certification, and suggest that companies should design differentiated strategies in different areas.
... The consumption of fish and seafood demonstrates a similar dynamic. There was an explosive growth in the consumption of milk-from 2000 to 2013, it increased by 3.5 times due to urbanization, income growth, and changing consumer habits as well as rapid development of the dairy industry and marketing channels [12]. ...
Article
The article analyzes the possibilities of Russian-Chinese cooperation in agriculture and focuses on the development of this sector in Siberia and the Far East. An assessment of Russia’s potential for exporting agricultural products to China is given. The main obstacles to Russian-Chinese agricultural cooperation are identified, and measures for overcoming these obstacles are proposed.
... Infant food, which includes infant formula, is the second most important EU agri-food export to China by value, and the category is expected to grow (EC, 2015). The demand for dairy products rose sharply between 1996 and 2006; from 8 kg to 25 kg per person (Lu & Zong, 2008), which included fresh milk and milk powder (Fuller, Huang, Ma, & Rozelle, 2006), as approximately 53% of Chinese babies are 'bottle-fed' (Gong & Jackson, 2012). The demand for infant formula is expected to increase in the future (Euromonitor, 2014), following the relaxation of the one-child policy in 2013, accompanied by a rising dependence on infant formula as more women participate in the workforce (Gong & Jackson, 2012), However, the presence of melamine in milk and infant formula was identified in 2008. ...
Article
A series of food safety incidents has led to low levels of trust in the safety of domestically produced Chinese infant milk formula. Concerned parents in China increasingly source ‘foreign-produced’ brands and use a range of authenticity cues as assurance of the safety and authenticity of infant formula products. However, the effectiveness of authenticity cues in providing assurance to Chinese consumers has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to analyse the importance of various authenticity cues for infant milk product choices. Latent class models were used to analyse responses to an online choice experiment with 350 consumers of European infant formula in three Chinese cities: Beijing, Guangzhou and Chengdu. The model included respondents’ preferences for different labels, authenticity cues and price along with perceptions, attitudes, and socio-demographic characteristics. We identified two consumer segments, with one preferring lower priced infant formula and the second choosing higher priced products. All authenticity cues, including price, appear to serve as indicators of food quality and safety, and all were found to be highly important information sources for the respondents when making purchase decisions. In general, Chinese consumers are prepared to pay a premium for authenticity assurance. Chinese policy makers and the infant formula industry should continue to improve quality control systems to increase consumers’ trust in food value chains. These control systems should comprise the whole food supply chain, from production to marketing, and should focus on building trust and communicating credibility.
... Rapid economic growth that has led China to be one of the super economic powers of the world, in turn, has caused a shift in the consumer food preferences from a grain-based vegetable diet to a more diverse meat and poultry-based diet, which has also elevated the risk of food safety (Shao et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2016). China is the global leader in production and consumption of pork and chicken (Fuller et al., 2006;Lam et al., 2013). Animal food sources are rich sources of nutrients and excellent medium for the growth and multiplication of the pathogens. ...
Article
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Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in food commodities in China have been reported in numerous publications over time. However, the results are scattered and varied. To calculate a robust point estimate with a higher statistical power, we applied meta-analytic approach for investigating the prevalence of common foodborne pathogens in major food items in China. Data, on prevalence of bacteria in various food commodities were extracted and analyzed from 361 (132 English and 229 Chinese) publications. Prevalence of eight most frequently reported pathogens on six broad food categories was used for pooled and subgroup meta-analysis by DerSimonian-Laird method in random-effects model. The estimated overall prevalence of pathogens in the foods was 8.5% (95% CI 8.2-8.7). The highest prevalence, irrespective of the pathogen type, was in the aquatic produce at 12.8% (12.0-13.5), while the least was in the vegetables at 3.0% (2.6-3.4). Among the pathogens, the most prevalent was Vibrio at 21.3% (19.6-23.1), whereas the least was pathogenic Escherichia coli at 4.3% (3.3-5.2). The major food pathogens in Chinese foods in decreasing order of prevalence were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Campylobacter, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Enterobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, and pathogenic E. coli. Presence of these organisms in foods equates the risk of microbiological food safety in China with other developed countries rather than the developing countries. This justifies the need of novel perspectives for formulating policies on microbiological food safety and risk mitigation.
... Dairy demand in China increased due to rapid income growth, changes in urban lifestyle, and the development of marketing channels. Multinational dairy firms will play an increasingly important role in China's dairy market (Fuller et al. 2006). Consumer confidence fell after the melamine incident, which gives an advantage to foreign dairy firms in selling dairy goods to China (Cheng et al. 2014). ...
Article
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China has strengthened dairy food safety management with both industrial and trade policies since the melamine incident of 2008. Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures constitute the majority of non-tariff measures (NTMs) for China's dairy imports. Both Trade Restrictiveness Indexes (TRIs) and Overall Trade Restrictiveness Indexes (OTRIs) pertaining to SPS measures are greater than tariff rates for China's dairy imports. The top ten countries that export dairy to China experienced different levels of market access barriers, depending on whether they export concentrated milk or cream. SPS related measures are essential for China to develop a safe dairy industry. Supplying China with safe and high quality dairy goods is the best method for dairy exporters to overcome barriers of China's SPS measures.
... In addition, Chinese people consume considerably less dairy compared with people from Western countries. 33 Thus, we set the minimum amount of dairy at 10 g/d. Therefore, DDS ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating a more diverse diet. ...
Article
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China has undergone a dramatic transition in food consumption in the past few decades. Diet composition has changed significantly because of an increase in food accessibility and lifestyle changes. To investigate dietary changes in China from the perspective of dietary diversity, we assessed the trend of dietary diversity in China by using the following 4 indicators: count index, dietary diversity score, entropy, and Simpson index. Data of 24,542 adults (age 18 y) were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011. Furthermore, the association between dietary diversity and the number of food facilities was in-vestigated using multivariable regression and local polynomial regression. Results indicate that dietary diversity increased over time and was unequally distributed among regions and families. Urban residents had a signifi-cantly more diverse diet compared with their rural counterparts (p<0.01). Moreover, dietary diversity was posi-tively associated with food accessibility (p<0.01), and it was affected by socioeconomic factors such as the family income, household size, gender, age, education, and region. Taken together, these data suggest that the increase in dietary diversity in China in the past decade can be partially attributed to the increase in food accessibility.
... The survey was developed during the 1970s as a tool to aid officials in setting farm prices, and it is still conducted annually. The data is widely used by analysts in China, and it was the basis for research by Fuller et al. (2006), Rae et al. (2006), and Wang and Li (2014). ...
Article
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China's emergence as a major importer of dairy products corresponds to rapid increases in its domestic milk prices. Allocating growth in China's milk prices from 2006 to 2014 to production cost categories shows that feed concentrates and fodder account for about half of the price increases. While labor productivity grew rapidly, there was only moderate growth in milk per cow and no improvement in milk output per unit of feed. Scarcity of feed resources, particularly forage, is likely to constrain growth of China's milk production and maintain the country's demand for dairy imports.
... Schluep Campo and Beghin (2006) indicated that rising income has been a major factor contributing to fluid milk consumption growth in Japan since the 1950s. The positive effect of income on milk consumption has also been found in Indonesia (Fabiosa 2005) and China (Bai et al., 2008;Fuller et al., 2006). Besides, urbanization stimulates the higher demand for liquid milk consumption as all the income groups in urban regions showed a higher probability of preference and increased amount of liquid milk consumption than the households in rural regions. ...
Article
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The present study aims at analysing the impact of household characteristics on the preference for and the amount of consumption of liquid milk. Food expenditure data, gathered by National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO), Government of India, was used for the analysis. Since around 25 % of the total respondents had been observed as the zero consumption of liquid milk, Heckman sample selection model was employed to estimate the impact of household characteristics on preference and consumption of liquid milk. The results of the study reveal that price of liquid milk, per capita income, home production of milk and presence of refrigerators in a household have a significant positive influence on both preference and consumption of liquid milk, whereas the practice of having food away from home has a negative impact on the consumption of liquid milk. Also, both amount of consumption and probability of consuming the liquid milk among Indian households differed considerably across income groups and location of residents. The results of the study are expected to be helpful to the policy makers, producers, processors and traders of milk and milk products.
... This disparity is the result of the rapid expansion of ChinaÕs dairy sector, with milk production doubling between 1990 and 2000 along with increasing incomes, especially in urban areas, making dairy widely available in megacities but still relatively scare throughout the rest of China (46). Advertising coupled with the incorporation of government recommendations for milk consumption in its dietary recommendations and the introduction of school milk in several large cities also have played a major role in the increased intake of milk and yogurt (47,48). Although the intake of crackers, sweet baked goods, candy, snacks, and SSBs remains low even in urban areas, it will be important in the future to monitor changes in these food groups. ...
Article
Background: Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Objectives: Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Methods: Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. Results: Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P < 0.05). In overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P < 0.05). The direction and magnitude of associations did not vary regardless of adjustment for total energy intake. Conclusions: Snacking in China, dominated by fruit consumption, is associated with decreased BMI in overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize.
... Per capita milk utilization is rising, however frequently from a low base (Fuller et al., 2007; USDA, 2007). There has been a noticeable change in dietary arrays all through Asia, as a result of higher wages and changing utilization configurations (Berry et al., 2006), prompting towards "western" foods including dairy items (Fuller et al., 2006; Pingali, 2007). Increasing consumer salary is likewise driving expanded utilization of fluid milk in China (3.2 to 8.8 kg per capita during 2002 and 2005), India, Russia and the Ukraine, and an expanding worldwide interest for top dairy items, especially cheese (International-Dairy-Federation, 2007b, a). ...
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The aim of this review to call attention towards the impacts of exchange liberalization on the dairy industry, and these impacts are vital concerning the monetary development of a country. The focus of this literature is on certain issues of proficiency and worldwide competitiveness of the dairy segment in an open economy environment. It identifies the sensational competition raise in the dairy sector affected by China's liberalization programs, via signing trade agreements with several countries across the globe, and the execution of the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements. It gives an outline of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture and its impacts on the dairy part. So we have concentrated on specific parts of dairy, particularly production, demand and trade policies to empower dairy holders under the worldwide competitiveness and indicators like the local asset cost proportion. China dairy production was 36 million tons during 2010, however alarmingly declined up to 26.52 million tons in 2014. The production declined had driven towards import from out of the country, in this manner strategies and agreements require certain facilitations to meet local dairy items demands in China. The impacts of duties by developed nations to lessen taxes, local support and export subsidies have been insignificant and unless these nations fundamentally diminish the exchange distorting endorsements to their dairy segment it will be troublesome for China to contend with the global market.
... Despite the large increase in milk consumption in China in the last decade, the average consumption of milk in China is low compared with that in Australia. In the period from 1996 to 2003, milk consumption of high-income earners increased by 300% but was still only about 18 L per person per year in China (Fuller et al., 2006). In 2008, the Chinese consumed about 22 L/yr (Liu, 2008). ...
Article
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Sixty percent of milk consumed in China has a long shelf life (UHT), presumably because milk with a short shelf life (pasteurized) is comparatively expensive. This in contrast to Australia, where 10% of consumed milk is UHT and the price between UHT and pasteurized milk is equivalent. Whether UHT is actually more liked than pasteurized milk by Chinese consumers is unknown. However, the potential positive halo around the expensive pasteurized milk might result in Chinese consumers liking milk more when it is labeled as “short shelf-life milk.” To test these hypotheses, Chinese (n = 48, 20 males, 28 females, 23 ± 7.2 yr) and Australian (n = 93, 11 males, 82 females, 24 ± 5.6 yr) consumers tasted and rated (9-point hedonic scale), in a randomized order, 3 × 30-mL samples of UHT milk (labeled as “long shelf-life milk,” “short shelf-life milk,” or “milk”) and 3 × 30-mL samples of pasteurized milk (also labeled as “long shelf-life milk,” “short shelf-life milk,” or “milk”). Australian participants' liking of milk was not influenced by labeling. Regardless of what the label stated, they always preferred the taste of pasteurized milk over the taste of UHT milk. This was different for Chinese participants, who preferred the taste of UHT milk over the taste of pasteurized milk, but in general had a higher liking for any milk that was labeled “short shelf-life milk.” Both Australian and Chinese were more positive about pasteurized than UHT milk. In conclusion, Chinese, but not Australian, consumers' liking of milk was guided by the positive expectations of pasteurized milk and the negative expectations of UHT milk. Further research is needed to investigate if the present findings can be extrapolated to a larger and more varied group of Chinese and Australian consumers.
... Moreover, a lot of food processing enterprises occurred some problems such as lack of marketing ethics, which made consumer rights infringed. Therefore, we must accelerate the transformation of food industry's development mode, making study on enterprise marketing strategy from the perspective of consumer's behavior (Sean, 2012;Fuller et al., 2006). ...
... Even before the 2008 milk scare, the market for dairy products, and for infant formula in particular, was stratified. In recent years, domestic milk production has grown rapidly-from roughly seven million tons in the mid-1990s to over 18 million tons in 2003, making China the world's seventh largest dairy producer, 43 but affluent urban consumers heavily favored imported and foreign-brand infant formula. A 2007 survey carried out in 14 major Chinese cities found that the three brands which consumers most commonly stated that they had purchased were all foreign. ...
Article
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Affluent Chinese consumers are increasingly opting out of the Chinese marketplace, drawing upon their social networks and superior economic resources to purchase foreign infant formula that they believe to be untainted by contact with China's suspect markets and untrustworthy distribution channels. Based on interview and media sources, we document these consumer practices and characterize them as highly privatized forms of gated consumption which reflect broader patterns of Chinese middle-class lifestyles. As a strategy for dealing with food-safety concerns and marketplace distrust, gated consumption is seemingly apolitical and individualized, yet at the same time exemplifies the fragility of the Chinese Party-state's promises of prosperity and material well-being.
... Food consumption patterns in China have evolved in the past decade due to expanded consumer disposable income, new desires for Western lifestyle, and heightened food safety concerns (Wang et al. 2008; Xu et al. 2010; Ortega et al., 2011; Xu et al. 2012). With a greater income to spend, the demand for healthful foods with added nutrition features has gone up progressively (Fuller et al. 2006; Wang et al. 2008). The demand for pistachios as a healthful snack food has arisen: as the world's sixth largest grower, China consumes most of its domestically produced pistachios. ...
Article
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Using 360 questionnaire data collected in Beijing, China, this study examines consumers’ acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP) for pistachios produced in China, California and Turkey. The impact of country of origin (COO), price, flavor, package size and package type was analyzed. A conditional logit model shows that consumers are willing to pay a statistically significant premium for California and Chinese pistachio, but the Turkish pistachio is less preferred. Using a mixed logit model to estimate the income effect, this study shows that wealthier consumers tend to purchase California pistachio. The marginal effect shows that every 1% increase in income will result in a 1.2% increase in the probability of purchasing California pistachio. However, the purchase of Chinese pistachio does not depend on income. Price and COO are the two most influential attributes and package size and type are the two least important attributes to change derived utility.
... Their average annual growth rate rose tremendously from 6.8% in 1991-2000 to 12.7% in 2001-2012. The fast growth of the production of dairy products is mainly driven by rapidly rising demand (Fuller 2006;Gale and Huang 2007). ...
Article
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China has experienced dramatic changes in food consumption patterns over the last three decades. However, there are different opinions regarding the future trends in consumption. By adopting the well-developed partial equilibrium model—China Agricultural Policy Simulation Model (CAPSiM), the demand for livestock products and the main feed crops over 2011-2030 is predicted and analyzed. It is found that China's per capita consumption of livestock products will continue to rise during this period, even though its growth rate will slow down gradually. Meanwhile, the expansion of livestock production will pose great challenges for feed supply in China. More accurately, China will be confronted with feed security rather than grain security in the future.
... For example, the expanded retail systems, involvement of foreign investments, and diary product advertising have prompted a rapid rise of China's dairy sector (Fuller et al., 2007). Diary consumption in urban China has grown annually at double-digit rates since 1995 (Fuller et al., 2006). In addition, the consumption of processed and prepared food-away-from-home has significantly increased in urban China (Ma et al., 2004Ma et al., , 2006). ...
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Purpose – The impact of dietary changes associated with urbanization is likely to increase the demand for land for food production. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of urban economic development on changes in food demand and associated land requirements for food production. Design/methodology/approach – Based on economic estimates from the Almost Ideal Demand System, feed conversion ratios, and crop yields, the authors forecast and compare future dietary patterns and land requirements for two types of urban diets in China. Findings – The results show that the expenditure elasticities of oil and fat, meat, eggs, aquatic products, dairy, and liquor for the diet of capital cities are greater than those for the diet of small- and medium-sized cities. The authors forecast that capital city residents will experience a more rapid rate of increase in per capita demand of meat, eggs, and aquatic products, which will lead to much higher per capita land requirements. Projections indicate that total per capita land demand for food production in capital cities will increase by 9.3 percent, from 1,402 to 1,533 m2 between 2010 and 2030, while total per capita land demand in small- and medium-sized cities will increase only by 5.3 percent, from 1,192 to 1,255 m2. Originality/value – The results imply that urban economic development can significantly affect the final outcomes of land requirements for food production. Urban economic development is expected to accelerate the rate of change toward an affluent diet, which can lead to much higher future land requirements.
... Kumar, Kumar et al. (2011) studying the impact of changes in both income and price have concluded that lower income groups would be more adversely affected by the increasing food inflation. With increased income, milk consumption amongst the lowest 10 percent income group in China increased by 100% between 1996 and 2003 (Fuller, Huang et al. 2006). Therefore, with increasing income levels in India, this trend in growth in percentage of households consuming milk as well as per capita consumption is expected continue increasing. ...
Technical Report
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Continuous rise in food prices has been posing a serious policy challenge in India. Milk is a major contributor to the food price rise due to its high growth in demand in the domestic and international market with domestic supply not keeping pace. Mere market price signal is inadequate for the milk production system to respond. This is due to supply constraints including increasing cost of production. This situation is expected to continue with lower growth in milk producing adult female animal population. Therefore, policy measures need to be relooked at to study and strengthen the entire production eco-system in terms of technology, access to information, credit availability, improvement in risk cover mechanisms and access to markets to enhance profitability and reduce risk, to incentivise dairy animal rearing and milk production.
... After abolishment of the milk quota there is a chance that international trade is increasing (Westhoek, 2006). That is mainly due to a rising demand of dairy products by Asian countries, because it is expected that the domestic demand will not be completely fulfilled by domestic production in these countries (Fuller, 2006). Also the degree of potential knowledge transfer is high as within the Netherlands and Europe dairy farming is a widespread agricultural activity. ...
... On the other hand, more consumers are choosing food on the basis of quality, safety, and other factors in addition to price, which rapidly boosts increasing demand for food away from home and processed food products (Min et al. 2004; Ma et al. 2006; Wang et al. 2008; Yu and Abler 2009; Zhang et al. 2010). China's consumer base for nontraditional products (e.g., dairy products and wine) also widened (Fuller, et al. 2006; Ma et al. 2006). China's rapidly growing middle class, which is approximately as large as the total population of the United States, and its changing tastes have created challenges in China's domestic agricultural production but also significant opportunities for food exporters from major trade partners in the world. ...
... China's role in international dairy markets has grown significantly in the last 15 years (Fuller et al., 2006), and domestic production is projected to continue to increase (Dong, 2006). This economic and production growth is the reason that China's dairy cattle population has increased in the recent past. ...
Article
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The Chinese Holstein cattle breed, an introduced breed in China, has been crossbred with native cattle breeds. We hypothesised that the Chinese Holstein local population in Beijing share haplotypes with native Asian cattle breeds, the result of a sudden population expansion in the recent past. We also hypothesised that crossbreeding and population expansion left traces that shaped the genetic makeup of the breed. Evaluation of this was performed by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis of Chinese Holstein cattle from Beijing (n = 41) and a comparison of them with the published mtDNA sequences (n = 293) of 14 Asian breeds with an emphasis on Chinese native cattle breeds. Three shared common haplotypes between Chinese Holstein cattle and native Asian cattle were found. Moreover, a high level of haplotype diversity in Chinese Holstein cattle (h = 0.9557) and low nucleotide diversity ( = 0.0052) was found, indicating a past population bottleneck followed by rapid population growth. These findings are supported by the significantly negative deviation of Tajima's D (-1.82085), the star-like pattern of dominant haplotypes and the pairwise mismatch distribution analysis, which showed a unimodal pattern.
... El segundo elemento de reflexión teórica de este trabajo se vincula con las transformaciones en el comercio internacional de productos alimentarios como consecuencia de las transformaciones en la institucionalidad internacional y, en concreto, en la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC), que tienden, a priori, a favorecer a algunos países latinoamericanos como sería el caso de Brasil, Argentina o Chile (Bureau y Matthews, 2006;Valdés y Foster, 2003). El lácteo es uno de los sectores con mayor crecimiento potencial de la demanda, entre otras cosas, por la expansión del consumo en países como China (Fuller et al., 2006) o India (Rakotoarisoa y Gulati, 2006). No obstante, todavía existen altos niveles de intervención nacional que los acuerdos de la OMC solo limitan parcialmente (Suzuki y Kaiser, 2005). ...
Article
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This article makes a historical analysis of the dairy value chain operation in Chile between 1975 and 2005. It uses information from different data sources, studies and reports on that period. Its aim is to demonstrate that the generation of a competitive sector, open to international competition, and even exporting, is not the result of the actions of free-market forces but the result of public policy, in a way that is both flexible and persistent in time. The methodology used is based on an analysis of the transformation of the dairy value chain production structure in Chile using the available economic data sources for the period mentioned above and applying the analytical categories of agri-food theory. The main results of this investigation show that the survival of milk production in Chile is due to the combination of a series of agronomic facts —such as the obstacles to the productive reconversion of a portion of the south of the country— and a set of policy decisions that went from originally dogmatic ideas to much more pragmatic and flexible approaches.
... Existing studies focus on either changes in vegetable production or the role of the newly emerged supermarket sector in urban food retail (Goldman, 2000;Hu et al., 2004;Wang et al., 2009;Zhang and Donaldson, 2008). On the other hand, studies that examine the transformation of China's agrifood system from a specific sector so far have only looked at animal-based foods (Brown et al., 2002;Fuller et al., 2006); the special characteristics of vegetables, however, as shown later, shape market dynamics in unique ways. ...
Article
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The state-monopolised system of vegetable retail in socialist urban China has transformed into a market-based system run by profit-driven actors. Publicly owned wet markets not only declined in number after the state relegated its construction to market forces, but were also thoroughly privatised, becoming venues of capital accumulation for the market operators now controlling these properties. Self-employed migrant families replaced salaried state employees in the labour force. Governments’ increased control over urban public space reduced the room for informal markets, exacerbating the scarcity of vegetable retail space. Fragmentation in the production and wholesale systems restricted modern supermarkets’ ability to establish streamlined supply chains and made them less competitive than wet markets. The transformation of urban vegetable retail documented here shows both the advance that capital has made in re-shaping China’s agrifood system and the constraints that China’s socialist institutions impose on it. Shanghai’s experience also shows that the relative competitiveness of various retail formats is shaped by the state’s intervention in building market infrastructure and institutions.
Book
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This book provides the first systematic and accessible text for students of hospitality and the culinary arts that directly addresses how more sustainable restaurants and commercial food services can be achieved. Food systems receive growing attention because they link various sustainability dimensions. Restaurants are at the heart of these developments, and their decisions to purchase regional foods, or to prepare menus that are healthier and less environmentally problematic, have great influence on food production processes. This book is systematically designed around understanding the inputs and outputs of the commercial kitchen as well as what happens in the restaurant from the perspective of operators, staff and the consumer. The book considers different management approaches and further looks at the role of restaurants, chefs and staff in the wider community and the positive contributions that commercial kitchens can make to promoting sustainable food ways. Case studies from all over the world illustrate the tools and techniques helping to meet environmental and economic bottom lines. This will be essential reading for all students of hospitality and the culinary arts. Available from: https://www.routledge.com/The-Sustainable-Chef-The-Environment-in-Culinary-Arts-Restaurants-and/Gossling-Hall/p/book/9781138733732
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In 2016 the Chinese infant formula company Feihe International signed a deal with the Canadian Dairy Commission (CDC) to process Canadian cows’ and goats’ milk for infant formula export to China. Our purpose in this paper is to understand how this deal – and the new Feihe formula factory located in Kingston, Canada – is underpinned by a series of multispecies entanglements across cow, human and goat mothers in China and Canada. To do so, we analyse official correspondence between the CDC, Feihe and City of Kingston; market reports for the dairy, goat and infant formula industries; and news articles about the Feihe infant formula plant. Conceptually, we develop an anti-colonial, multispecies entanglement framework to chart the violent inclusions, exclusions and typologizations that make milk and formula economies possible. We are specifically interested in how the Feihe–CDC deal (re)configures entanglements across species, nation, race, science and motherhood. To understand these relations, we heuristically imbricate two different sets of entanglements that underpin this deal: milk drinking, empire and genetic purity across race, breed and species; and motherhood, science and technology across humans, goats and cows. We use our threefold entanglement framework to better understand the violence of these imbrications and to work towards a multispecies feminist ethic in the infant formula industry.
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Price and income elasticities are estimated for six food categories and different types of dairy across low‐, medium‐, and high‐income groups using 7426 urban households in Guangdong province from 2007 to 2009. Results from the estimation of a multistage budgeting approach to deal with zero expenditure show that demand for milk and dairy items among low‐income groups is more sensitive to income and price fluctuations compared to medium‐ and high‐income families. Therefore, a program of large income or price subsidies for dairy items may be an effective policy solution to improve the nutrition of the poor households. [EconLit citations: P46, Q18, O12]. Highlights • ● Consumption characteristic by income groups: Few studies have considered the gap of dairy consumption among different income groups, as different public policies may exert an influence on different income groups. It is of great significance for shortening income gap between different groups and stimulating sustainable economic growth. • ● Sample selection bias: The author considers the zero expenditure, one common problem in consumption. Heien and Wessells' two‐stage procedure is adopted in the third stage to remove the possible selection bias by zero consumption. The two‐stage feature of different types of dairy consumption—whether dairy products are purchased and the quantity—is considered. Thus, households with zero expenditure cannot be deleted, or else it will narrow the scope of samples and result in sampling bias. • ● Model selection: Wald test is conducted to judge whether linear or nonlinear demand system model is adopted through the null hypothesis testing that the joint parameter of quadratic term of total demand of dairy products is equal to zero.
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We examine heterogeneous consumer preferences in Chinese milk markets. Using a discrete choice experiment, we examine how the brand, quality certification, traceability label and price influence consumers' milk choices. We identify four consumer segments using a latent class model: price conscious (9.8%), balanced thinking (19.8%), health conscious (57.5%), and environment conscious (12.9%) consumers. These four segments have distinct preferences: price conscious consumers prefer green certification; balanced thinking consumers have the highest willingness to pay for traceability labels; health conscious consumers have strong brand awareness; and environment conscious consumers prefer organic certification and traceability labels and use price as a quality signal. Such diversity of consumer preference can be explained by four psychological factors: price consciousness, food safety concerns, health consciousness and environmental concerns.
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en The article focuses on the main factors underlying the structural transformation of China’s economic model under Xi Jinping and its implications for Sino‐Russian economic cooperation and Russian merchandise exports. Russian exports to China are analyzed in the context of major changes in the volume and structure of China's aggregate demand. The results show that the rebalancing of the Chinese economy would bring some risks to Russia in the short and medium terms through putting downward pressure on its exports of natural resources (except for natural gas). At the same time, it would open new opportunities for industries producing resource‐intensive consumer goods and, therefore, gives Russia an opportunity for diversification of its economy in the longer term. In order to derive benefits from China’s transformation, Russia should shift the focus of its export policy from negotiating politically driven large projects toward more intensive promotion of consumer goods exports. Abstract zh 本文着重分析了习近平领导下中国经济模式结构转型的主要因素及其对中俄经济合作和俄罗斯贸易出口的影响。俄罗斯对华出口是在中国总需求的数量和结构发生重大变化的背景下进行分析的。结果表明,中国经济再平衡对俄罗斯自然资源(天然气除外)出口造成下行压力,在短期和中期内都会给俄罗斯带来一定的风险。与此同时,它将为生产资源密集型消费品的工业提供新的机会,从而为俄罗斯长期实现经济多样化带来机遇。为了从中国的转型中受益,俄罗斯应将其出口政策的重心从谈判政治性的大型项目转向更密集地促进消费品出口。 Abstract es El artículo se enfoca en los principales factores que yacen bajo la transformación estructural del modelo económico chino bajo Xi Jinping y sus implicaciones para la cooperación económica sino‐rusa y las exportaciones de mercancía rusas. Las exportaciones rusas a China se analizan en el contexto de cambios mayores en el volumen y estructura de la demanda total de China. Los resultados que el rebalanceo de la economía china traería algunos riesgos para Rusia a corto y medio plazo a través de la presión sobre sus exportaciones de recursos naturales (excepto gas natural). Al mismo tiempo, abriría nuevas oportunidades para las industrias que producen bienes de consumo que necesitan muchos recursos, y por eso le da a Rusia una oportunidad de diversificar su economía a largo plazo. Para poder sacar beneficios de la transformación de China, Rusia debería cambiar el enfoque de su política e exportación de la negociación de proyectos grandes con impulso político a una promoción más intensiva de exportaciones de bienes de consumo.
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Die slowenische Milchindustrie ist von Prozessen der Konsolidierung gekennzeichnet, die einen starken Rückgang kleiner Produzenten zur Folge haben. Vor diesem Hintergrund entwickeln slowenische Milchbauern besondere Strategien, um im Produktionsprozess bestehen zu können. Dieser Artikel stellt eben solche Strategien zur Ausdifferenzierung eigener, direkter Vertriebswege sowie Weiterverarbeitungsprozesse dar, die im Zuge volatiler Milchpreise und des Wegbrechens regulatorischer Mechanismen immer dringlicher auf die slowenischen Milchbauern Einfluss nehmen. Dazu wurden Veränderungen auf der Unternehmensebene der Produzenten in den Zusammenhang mit globalen Ereignissen wie Wirtschaftskrisen gestellt. Die zunehmende Konsolidierung des Einzelhandels und die Globalisierung in der Milchweiterverarbeitung konnten dabei als wichtige Antriebsmechanismen identifiziert werden, die zusammen mit dem Milchpreis die Produzenten dazu veranlassten, eigene, direkte Distributionsmuster zu schaffen. Zeitgenössische Ansätzeder Wertkettenanalysen wie beispielsweise die Global Value Chain und Global Production Networks bilden den theoretischen Rahmen dieser Forschung, die primär dazu dient, die Machtkonstellationen im slowenischen Milchsektor zu verstehen.
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Food safety becomes an important issue in fast developing economies when a large growing market is supplied by many small producers through a prolonged supply chain. China is facing such a serious problem with its growing dairy market seeing serious food safety scandals. In this paper, we examine a new organizational structure recently promoted by Chinese government, dairy complex, and its effects on farmers’ behaviors related to safe production and the effectiveness of such behavior on the raw milk safety, using a joint production function under risk theoretical framework. Results show that farmers’ production practices such as basic production environment and hygienic condition, disease prevention, and source and use of feed all contribute to the food safety of raw milk. Complex is an important factor contributing to farmers’ adoption of such safety production practices, together with the supervision by government, production scale, contracts with processors, and price of raw milk. We, thus, found that dairy complex as an organization structure can influence the safety of raw milk indirectly through its impacts on farmers’ production behaviors. Another important finding is that unsafe milk is a result of uncertainty when less strict production practice is used by risk lover producers, and the complexes work well for such farmers by pushing them to take more conservative safety measurements. This innovative production system can be a good measure for developing economies with similar small producer problems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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This paper seeks to compare the processes of supply network transformation in China resulting from the market entry of retail transnational corporations (TNCs) across two food products, fresh milk and edible oil. The analysis demonstrates significant variations in both retailer management practices and strategic responses by suppliers between the two products. These variations, in turn, are seen to derive from the inherent nature of the commodities concerned, the relative balance of supply and demand, and the pre-existing competitive and structural conditions in the different sectors before retail TNC entry. Overall, the paper calls for a nuanced and dynamic approach to retailer power and its impacts that recognises the complexity and unevenness of supply network restructuring in emerging markets.
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Milk production has played an integral role in the culture, landscape, and economy of Maine’s agriculture. Maine dairy farmers have faced numerous sustainability challenges to economic, environmental, and social aspects of their industry. Like many other complex social ecological systems, the Maine dairy industry faces a gap between scientific knowledge and actionable management or policy. A cultural dichotomy exists between conventional and organic farming. Shifting the focus from this binary, metrics such as social capital may play a key role in solving sustainability issues. Difficulties arise in the governance of complex social ecological systems when the scales of assessment, management, and policy do not match principal challenges. Despite efforts by many, Maine dairy challenges may be fueled by a state political system that is restricted by term limits and short legislative sessions. Piecemeal policy-making leads to assessment and policy outcomes that do not take the complexities of the system into consideration. In the case of the Maine dairy industry, using mental modeling and social network analysis: 1) we seek to explore a method that may improve understanding in cases of disintegration between sustainability policy and action; 2) we test whether social capital, measured using Maine dairy farmers’ information networks, spans perceived boundaries between conventional and organic management and between different farm sizes, and; 3) we investigate the scale problemscape for long-term success of the Maine dairy industry. We found no significant difference in the importance of the economic, environmental, or social factors that dairy farmers considered to be the most challenging to industry sustainability. Social capital, rather than farm management practice or size, is a critical variable for better understanding industry sustainability. We found gaps between the current industry policy structure and the management and assessment scales required to address sustainability challenges. The barriers to effective long-term management, assessment, and policy are numerous for the Maine dairy industry. Our findings suggest that solutions concentrating on only one sustainability factor are unlikely to work in the long-term. Solutions may lie in a more holistic evaluation process, and inclusion of social capital and scale assessments to effectively link science and policy.
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The relationship between genotypic diversity and productivity has not been adequately explored in perennial forage production systems despite strong theoretical and empirical evidence supporting diversity’s role in ecosystem functioning in other managed and unmanaged systems. We conducted a two-year field experiment with six cultivars of an agriculturally important forage grass, Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass). Dry matter production of L. perenne and the weed community that emerged from the soil seed bank were measured each year in treatments that ranged from cultivar monocultures to three- and six-way cultivar mixtures, all sown at a constant seeding rate. Mean L. perenne dry matter production increased with increasing cultivar diversity and was highest in mixtures that contained cultivars representing the greatest additive trait range (calculated on rankings of three traits: winter hardiness, heading date, and tolerance to grazing). Mixtures had greater yields than those predicted by the mean of their component monoculture yields, but there was evidence that highly productive cultivars may have dampened over-yielding in mixtures. Weed abundance was correlated with L. perenne dry matter, but not L. perenne cultivar diversity. These results suggest that multi-cultivar mixtures may have utility as an approach to ecologically intensifying perennial forage production. Additional research will be necessary to determine the mechanisms responsible for the over-yielding observed in this study and the generality of these findings.
Conference Paper
With it’s fundamental transformation over the last decades, the dairy industry is a prime example of China’s rapidly changing consumption and production systems. Following the 2008 melanin scandal, there have been particular efforts to achieve greater consolidation and concentration in the historically fragmented Chinese dairy production and distribution chain in order to improve the ‘safety’ of Chinese dairy products. This has given rise to highly integrated national dairy processors with an increasing influence across the Chinese dairy consumption and production system. Drawing upon new institutional theories (e.g. Greenwood et al., 2002; Battilana et al., 2009), notions of legitimacy (e.g. Suchman, 1995) and of the role of ‘focal’ organisations to stimulate (more sustainable) change (Huber, 2008), this paper explores the emergence of the national dairy processors as institutional entrepreneurs and discusses their mobilisation of allies and resources in order to create new legitimate orders within the Chinese dairy consumption and production system. Empirically, the paper is based on secondary literature review, documentary analysis and nearly 40 in-depth elite interviews with experts from across the Chinese dairy consumption and production system, including farming, processing, trading, retailing, governmental, non-governmental and third party certification organisations. Interview responses were analysed taking into account discourse analyst arguments about language being a medium within which prevailing power relations are articulated (and reproduced) (Balzer, 2004). Our findings contribute to the literature in two ways: by identifying the underlying factors facilitating the emergence of national processors as institutional entrepreneurs, and by detailing several vectors by which the national dairy processors have engaged in institutional entrepreneurship and contributed to institutional change in China’s dairy consumption and production system.
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The objective of this study is to explore the determinants of urban at-home consumption demand for powdered milk in Guangdong province from 2007 to 2009. A double-hurdle model is used in this analysis based on survey data. The data include 8188 household distributed in 15 cities and prefectures of Guangdong province. Major findings show that the income growth of urban household, an increase in the level of education of the householder, and the different age groups within the household all have positive effects on urban at-home consumption demand for powdered milk. The prices of powdered milk have negative effects on milk consumption. Families in the Pearl River Delta consume more powdered milk than families in the other regions. The powdered milk consumption has not been significantly affected by the 2008 Chinese melamine tainted milk scandal.
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China's melamine milk adulteration crisis highlights the challenges that arise as large well-capitalized companies procure raw materials from a diffused supply chain of scattered small farmers and milk collection stations. As milk prices climbed sharply in 2007 and companies branched out into new territories, intense competition for raw milk supplies strengthened incentives to water down and adulterate milk. Effective food safety measures must account for incentives, the distribution of market power in the supply chain and market dynamics.
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As China has over one-fifth of the world's consumers and an economy growing at 7-8 percent annually, the country's rising consumption of food has the potential to significantly impact world food demand. In past decades, policymakers in China were concerned primarily with supplying enough grain to meet basic nutritional needs of China's huge population. Now, however, the emphasis is shifting from quantity of food demanded to the changing composition of food demand. Strong income growth and rapid urbanization are diversifying the Chinese diet and creating demands for high-value and specialty food products. Population Growth Slowing With the world's largest population (nearly 1.3 billion in 2000), China plays an important role in world food demand. U.S. Census Bureau projections show that China may add another 100 million consumers between 2000 and 2010. In future decades, however, population growth will diminish due to the rapid decline in birth rates stemming from population control policies implemented by the government in the 1970s. The Census Bureau projects that China's popu- lation will peak near 1.5 billion and begin to decline between 2030 and 2040. As population growth slows, China's population will age rapidly. The need to support the growing retired population may increase savings rates but slow future growth in disposable income. In Japan, research has found that seniors consume more rice, fruits and vegetables, while younger generations consume more beef and beer (Regmi; Mori). Similar generational differences may also affect China's food consumption.
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The remarkable economic changes occurring within the People’s Republic of China since 1978 have resulted in striking alteration in food consumption patterns for urban Chinese residents. Higher incomes, busier life styles, greater choices in food retailers, the increasing availability of refrigeration, and the greater variety in food choice have all resulted in shifts of household consumption. This study, based on a convenience survey of urban households in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PRC finds that three distinct patterns of food shopping exist. The significance of these findings to the global agro-food system and the agricultural sector of China are examined.
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Since its economic reform, China has changed significantly as it makes its transition from a centrally-planned to a consumer-oriented economy and thus has gradually increased household income and changed consumption patterns in urban China. This study attempts to provide an in-depth understanding of heterogeneous consumer patterns in urban China by developing a multi-stage censored demand system using household data. Specifically, this study develops an economic model considering heterogeneous consumption patterns across households and commodity groupings and estimates econometric models of a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QAIDS) using household data. Three methodologies are integrated including constructing a multi-stage demand system, incorporating demographic variables using the 'ordinary budget share scaling and translation' (OBSSAT), and employing a two-step estimator to deal with zero consumption problems. This study covers three provinces in China, Shandong, Jiangsu, and Guangdong, and uses household data from 1998 provided by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). Based on the Chinese food guide pyramid, a three-level utility tree is constructed dividing 18 food items into five subgroups. An empirical analysis is conducted by estimating econometric models to examine the impact of the potential factors, e.g., income and demographic variables, on food demand. The results show the uniqueness of this study in three dimensions. First, using the OBSSAT helps answer the question of "how to break down the heterogeneous consumption patterns in urban China?" In addition, our findings also show that China should be treated as several markets instead of one. Second, the QAIDS has not previously been applied to the study of food demand in urban China. Our results show that the QAIDS is superior to the AIDS; however, the degree of importance for the quadratic term decreases as demographic and censoring effects are considered in a demand system. Finally, 18 food items are broken down into five food subgroups and are estimated by a multi-stage censored QAIDS. Including this large food bundle in a demand system provides us detailed information of the relationship among food items.
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This report documents data and other information gathered from a survey of urban households in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China. The survey was conducted as part of a research project aimed at understanding the evolution of dairy markets in Asia and the implications for dairy product trade. The survey data provide insights into the purchasing behavior and attitudes of urban consumers in China with respect to dairy products. The report describes the survey and collection process, summarizes selected data from the survey, and provides anecdotal information about the development of dairy production, processing, and product marketing in China.
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In this paper, we argue that China's per capita GNP has been grossly underestimated by the international agencies. Based on our comparison of the food consumption patterns in China and Taiwan and on other key development indicators, China's GNP should be adjusted upwards substantially, by a factor of about three. -from Authors
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The authors hypothesize that rural demand for foodstuffs in China amy be restricted in part by incomplete development of markets, in particular markets for meat. They model this relationship, and test it on 1993 Statistical Bureau data (supplemented by field surveys) for rural households in six counties of hebei Province. They find a multidimensional impact for their market development variable on food consumption behaviour. The results imply that if households purchased 100% of their foodstuffs on markets, rather than the current 38%, income elasticity for grain would fall from .85 to .51, and for meat would rise from .35 to .85. If market development rises with rising income, these results suggest that previous estimates of China's income elasticity for purchased foodstuffs are biased.
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The supermarket revolution is spreading faster in China than anywhere else in the world. Supermarket sales are growing by 30-40% per year, 2-3 times faster than in other developing regions. This development has been driven by factors shared by other developing countries as well as by China-specific policies. It presents opportunities for Chinese agricultural producers to diversify into activities with higher income prospects, and for procurement systems to move into dealing directly with farmers. However, supermarket managers face several unique challenges: average farm size is small and farmers are not well organised. Hence, the whole supply chain must be upgraded, and government agricultural policy and rural development programmes have an important role in this. Copyright Overseas Development Institute, 2004.
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Many Asian countries are expected to undergo structural transformations in their economies and rapid urbanization over the next 25 years. The changes in tastes and lifestyles engendered by urban living are likely to have significant influences on food demand. Changes in marketing systems and occupational changes, closely linked with increasing GNP per capita, also may influence the demand for food. In this paper, estimates presented for Taiwan demonstrate that structural changes in food demand (as distinguished from changes due to income and price effects) have been significant factors driving the rapid changes in dietary patterns seen in East Asia over the past three decades. Because most previous demand studies have ignored the possible influence of structural shifts which are highly correlated with increases in per capita income over time, the effects of income on food demand have been overestimated.
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Studies of total factor productivity (TFP) in livestock production are rare, but when available provide useful information especially in the context of developing countries such as China where livestock is becoming more important in the domestic agricultural economy. We estimate TFP for four major livestock products in China employing the stochastic frontier approach, and decompose productivity growth into its technical efficiency (TE) and technical progress components. Efforts are made to adjust and augment the available livestock statistics. The results show that growth in TFP and its components varied between the 1980s and the 1990s as well as over production structures. While there is evidence of considerable technical innovation in China's livestock sector, TE improvement has been relatively slow. Copyright 2006 American Agricultural Economics Association.
How will rising income affect the structure of food demand? In China’s Food and Agriculture: Issues for the 21st Century
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Hsu, H., Chern, W., Gale, F., 2001. How will rising income affect the structure of food demand? In China’s Food and Agriculture: Issues for the 21st Century, US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Agricultural Information Bulletin no. 775, pp. 10–13
A Study of Chinese Dairy Consumption
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Guide to China's Dairy Industry
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Three essays on China's livestock market. Unpublished dissertation
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Refrigeration and food demand in China: can refrigerator ownership help predict consumption of food products in China
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