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BOOK REVIEW: "Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy" by Peter Dicken

© 2008 by the Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG
Without daring to recognize alternative futures to
that likely to be created by neo-liberal capitalism, we
are destined to consume ourselves into an environ-
mental situation that mirrors the harsh, destructive
processes that created it’ (p. 195). Chapter 13 follows,
on the cultural faces of globalisation and multiple
identity formation that occur regionally, locally and
in an uneven manner, a contribution by Shresta and
Conway. They argue that economic and technological
development would lead to a transformation in people’s
traditional behaviour which brings modernisation. A
reconfiguration of cultural power relationships can
strengthen cultural identities which would in turn
alter global geopolitical and geo-economic landscapes
of tomorrow. Chapter 14 deals with the growing global
opposition to globalisation and refers to debates of
social justice and questions of societal and ecological
sustainability. This chapter, written by Conway, deals
with grassroots globalisation and focuses on the set
of human responses as a resistance the effects of globa-
lisation. Conway argues that ‘advances in grassroots
mobilisation via the internet – e-mail, websites, weblogs
and other online communications – promise the
kind of global intercommunication and information-
sharing necessary for large scale opposition and
popular activism to be well-prepared, well-organised
and transnationally influential’(p. 225). The final
summarising chapter by Conway and Heynen
‘Towards fair globalisation’ ends with more question
marks than solutions, posing the pressing question of
whether fair globalisation is possible.
After reading the whole volume I am still wonder-
ing whether we really needed this new volume on
Due to the particular organisation of the volume,
the contributions are rather different in scope. Some
of the contributions are more general overviews
of literature, while others provide more detailed
analyses. The result is a patchy collection of uneven
contributions to the main objective. In particular, the
conceptualisations and the terminology vary strongly
between chapters, creating an uneasy balance between
an introductory text and an edited volume of in
depth research. Even though the book is a critical col-
lection which aims to raise questions, it remains also
a question whether the geographical insights and the
assessments of globalisation’s multifaceted faces and
spaces offered are enough to give sufficient ground-
ing for the far-reaching debate which is initiated in
the last chapter. However, the book also claims to be
aimed primarily at (graduate) students, and the book
seems suitable for that purpose. It is enough of an
introduction to present a complex field to a non-
specialist reader, as well as offering challenging ideas
to get people thinking. Overall, the book can be a
useful teaching resource for introductory and post-
graduate level courses on globalisation.
, B. (2003), Is America an Imperial Power?
Current History
102, pp. 355–341.
, D., D.
, A.
& J.
eds. (1999),
Global Transformations
. Cambridge:
Polity Press.
, W. (2001), The Question of Hegemony.
Foreign Affairs
30, pp. 221–233.
, J.N. (2003),
Distant Proximities: Dynamics
beyond Globalization
. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press.
, J.A. (2005),
Globalization: A Critical
. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
University of Groningen Aleid E. Brouwer
Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the
World Economy.
PETER DICKEN, London 2007: Sage, xxiii + 599 pp.,
ISBN 978-1-4129-2955-4, paperback.
‘A seminal text for students, scholars, and policy
makers’ (W.E. Hallal), ‘A must for anyone interested
in globalisation’ (S.J.Kobrin), ‘Not just recommended
but essential’ (N. Thrift) – a review of any book
received so favourably by international academic
community already at the outset promises to be a
challenging task (quotes sourced from the back cover
Global Shift
5th edition). Even more so in the case
of the latest edition of Peter Dicken’s
Global Shift
when one cannot help but be intimidated by 20 years
of the project history and four previous successful
editions, each one wiser, fuller and more acclaimed
than the former ones.
In as much as comparisons with previous editions
are unavoidable, encouraged by the numerous
changes (in both content and form) and additions
characterising the book, we will try to limit them and
Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours
of the World Economy
as if it was a novel voice in the
globalisation discourse. Essentially, then, instead of
advocating the 5th edition’s superiority over its
predecessors, we assess its value added and its con-
tribution to the ongoing debate on globalisation.
Over the past two decades globalisation became a
favourite word of countless commentators, including
academics, of world economic, social, political and
environmental affairs on equally the right and left
ends of the ideological spectrum. Thus, it is axio-
matic that this plethora of interests and approaches
results in divergent, often conflicting, conclusions on
© 2008 by the Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG
the actual reasons for, drivers and consequences of,
and the future course of the process. Whereas the
fundamental nature of globalisation is broadly
agreed – it encompasses events and decisions taken
in one part of the world that have the potential to
significantly impact individuals and communities in
distant parts of the globe (Dunning 2000) – its extent
is largely contested. While some hyper-globalists ‘on
the right’ declare the unprecedented end of the
nation-states borders so far inhibiting the flows of
unlimited capital flows, the ones ‘on the left’ perceive
it as the worst of all evils contributing to ever growing
socio-spatial inequalities. Concurrently, the ‘sceptical
internationalists’ question the ‘newness’ of the current
circumstances claiming that the world economy has
been much more open in the half a century preced-
ing the First World War (pp. 5–7). It is this ongoing
debate introduced in the first part of the book that
serves as the background to the forthcoming discus-
sion of various dimensions of globalisation, its causes
and effects.
Like the earlier editions, the volume is divided into
clearly related but distinctive parts. The initial section
identifies ‘what’ is happening, the next one ‘why’ it is
happening, then the penultimate one deals with the
‘how’, and the final part examines the consequences
of the process. The main argument of the book
focuses around transnational corporations (TNCs)
and their key role in co-ordinating production net-
works and ‘therefore in shaping the new economy’
(p. 16). The apparent binder of the extensively illus-
trated and documented 19 chapters (212 figures,
35 tables) is the interplay between the (allegedly)
dominant position of TNCs and the developmental
prerogatives of nation-states’ authorities around the
The conflicting approaches to globalisation reap-
pear in various parts of the book making it an intrigu-
ing polemic with dominating one-sided views and
strengthening the author’s perception of globalisa-
tion as a complex multifactor, multilevel and multi-
directional set of phenomenon rather then a single,
harmonic process, namely, it is the state of constant
becoming rather then being. Such a dynamic, com-
prehensive and polychromatic approach presented
throughout the book is only one of its numerous
indisputable strengths. Further, the initial part pro-
vides grounding for the book’s subtitle and maps the
current contours of the world economy at all scales
from urban/local to regional/intra-continental, to
the global.
The second part offers insights into drivers and
conveyors of globalisation. Dicken presents technology
as a socially and institutionally embedded, demand
driven process. Exceptionally, the author chooses not
to discuss the ‘push factors’, which is in stark contrast
with a discursive nature of the book. Instead, in this
part the author explores the motivation behind firms’
internationalisation and accurately deconstructs the
transnational fragmentation of their activities. This is
complemented by the following sections discussing
nation-states’ responses to, and ways of shaping
globalisation, and unveiling the uneasy relationships
between states and TNCs constantly oscillating
between competition and collusion.
The third part in a clearly structured manner
applies earlier theoretical deliberations to explore
the peculiarities of selected branches in all three eco-
nomic sectors, albeit treated somewhat unequally
with the emphasis put on selection of ‘industry of
industries’ (p. 270) of their respective eras. Examining
the impact of innovations, the nature of production
circuits, consumption patterns, role of state’s policies
and TNCs’ strategies, Dicken fills in the earlier sketched
contours to produce a map of full value revealing the
regionalisation of TNCs’ global operations.
Part 4 provides accounts of global winners and
losers, but goes beyond the obvious arguments to
emphasise the local consequences of global pro-
cesses. The author demonstrates how the effects of
globalisation ‘are felt not at the global or the national
level but at the local scale: the communities within
which real people struggle to live out their daily lives.
It is at this scale that physical investment in economic
activities are actually put in place, restructured and
closed down’ (p. 438).
While each chapter, thanks to the scrupulous pre-
cision it is presented with, its actuality and accuracy,
is valuable in itself, focusing on only one section of
the book might provide the reader with somewhat
distorted view. To appreciate Dicken’s balanced
approach to global processes it is imperative to study
the entire volume which grants the holistic intellec-
tual experience.
Global Shift
is indeed a very timely contribution to
an increasingly slogan driven, often chaotic debate
about the comparably frenzied globalisation pheno-
menon. It is a unique text embedded in geographical
tradition but evidently drawing on the heritage of
other disciplines including international business
and management, political economy, development
studies and political science that, taken together,
systemise the variety of arguments and reasserts the
role of place in a supposedly placeless world. Further-
more, the book provides convincing moral-rational
argumentation as to why the future focus of inter-
national developmental regulations should be the
equity between various parts of the world and social
groups, understood not as levelling down but raising
The book benefits from a very broad resource base
to which Dicken directs the more enquiring minds
needing further explanations and indepth analysis of
particular issues that are introduced.
© 2008 by the Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG
The 5th edition does not disappoint, neverthe-
less several deficiencies require some attention. The
critique, however, needs to be put into a broader
context for its intended audience. And arguably this
is the presupposed group of addressees that requires
The author and the publisher indicate a variety of
divergent disciplines and professional groups whose
interests the book aims to satisfy. These range from
geography to international management and politi-
cal science, from introductory undergraduate years
to academics and policy-makers. Employing Dicken’s
discursive approach to form a slightly reshaped
metaphor – the book undoubtedly will benefit all
the named audiences, however to rather dissimilar
degrees. While for some (notably geography and
other social science undergraduates) it is unquestion-
ably compulsory reading that will encourage them to
approach globalisation and controversies around it
from all angles, for others (academics, researchers,
practitioners) it would rather offer a wealth of data
and enough reasons for arguments over the coming
decade, or at least till the next edition.
A couple of further points on the book’s substance
need to be mentioned. While the sectoral approach
spans across all sectors of economic activity, due to
its narrow focus the primary sector is perhaps least
scrupulously discussed. And while one can under-
stand that the chapter constitutes the most recent
innovation to the volume, it is still innovation in
making. Inclusion of other than high-value foodstuffs
would broaden the spatial coverage of the chapter
which fits in with the approach presented in the rest
of the book. More generally the sectoral overview
would benefit from inclusion of part on the industrial
activity which by its very nature conditions all other
actions. A chapter presenting the energy sector
would complement the existing debate and at the
same time fit into the discussion framework by
considering the interlinked issues of environmental
protection, state regulation, TNC operations, process
management, technological innovation and social
However, possibly the most disappointing feature
of the this edition is associated with its unquestionable
strength – the scrupulous analysis of big transnational
corporations. The focus on large TNCs and their
thorough discussion leaves no space for inclusion of
an increasingly internationally active and thus ever
more important distinctive sector of small and
medium sized enterprises and their international
One last technical point needs mentioning. While
preferred by editors and publishers, the notes located
at the end of the chapter and not at the bottom of
the page, are much less appreciated by the readers
forced into frequent page flicking. At least explana-
tory footnotes would be much more useful beneath
the text they refer to.
Despite these imperfections
Global Shift
remains a
powerful reading that in a systematic fashion brings
together opposing arguments and reliably debates
them. By the means of vast, up-to-date empirical
evidence it presents a logical argument which ‘unde-
monises’ globalisation, simultaneously successfully
avoiding its unquestionable glorification. It is not
possible to explore the plethora of different aspects
of globalisation in a single volume, nevertheless
Global shift
5th edition from among other books in
this area gets closest to this aim. We shall look forward
to this seminal chronicle update in few years time.
, J.H. (2000),
Regions, Globalisation, and the
Knowledge Economy: The Issues Stated
. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
University of Paisley Pawe
The Urban Politics Reader.
The Routledge Urban Reader Series. London and
New York 2007.
Along with the widely acknowledged new role of local
politics in the context of ‘Glocalisation’ more attention
is given to structures, processes, efficiency, and capacities
of local policies again. The recently published
Politics Reader
offers a carefully selected collection of
papers covering the full range of issues related to
urban politics. It is not only helpful for classes in
political science, but for all students of urban affairs.
The reader consists of six parts: The social and
economic context of urban politics, the roots of urban
politics, understanding urban power, the political
economy of cities and communities, the politics of
race, ethnicity, and gender, and finally cities, regions,
and nations. These headlines illustrate the basic idea
of the composition of this reader: it reflects the ten-
sions between the larger social, economic, and polit-
ical contexts and local decision-making processes, or
to put it differently: between structure and agency.
At the same time it offers an historical introduction
into what urban political researchers have done so far
and an introduction into the main themes of urban
development perspectives in the age of globalisation.
The editors try to avoid only providing classical read-
ings, and the possible presentation of trendy or ‘in
vogue’ approaches and theories.
... Briefly, the GPN model evaluates the role of groups of key actors, which include firms (their suppliers and customers), states, workers, and social movements with reference to three categories: embeddedness (societal, territorial, network, and material), power (corporate, institutional and collective), and value (creation, enhancement, capture, and destruction) (Dicken, 2011;Hess, 2004;Milanez, 2015a,2015b). ...
... The second category debated by the GPN framework is power. In a broad sense, it can be understood as an economic actor's capacity to influence the actions of others (Dicken, 2011;Gereffi, 1994;Henderson et al., 2002). Dicken (2011) claims that power relations within a GPN are unequal and depend mainly on accessing and controlling relevant assets (capital, technology, knowledge, natural resources, etc.). ...
... In a broad sense, it can be understood as an economic actor's capacity to influence the actions of others (Dicken, 2011;Gereffi, 1994;Henderson et al., 2002). Dicken (2011) claims that power relations within a GPN are unequal and depend mainly on accessing and controlling relevant assets (capital, technology, knowledge, natural resources, etc.). The GPN framework introduces a typology of power linked to specific actors: corporate, institutional, and collective power (Henderson et al., 2002). ...
We argue that the power exercised by transnational corporations is context-dependent and that corporate strategies are embedded in institutional settings and related to non-economic forms of action. We apply the Global Production Network framework, introducing the notion of corporate strategy. We focus on the mining sector, assessing Vale S/A’s capacity to influence political decisions. The research is based on a literature review, analysis of documents, and fieldwork in Itabira, Minas Gerais state (MG), Brazil. We found that relationships involving corporations, institutions and social movements are framed by embeddedness conditions, power capabilities, and continuous value capture, locking actors into a well-established discourse on development. In addition, we briefly apply this framework of analysis to link the case findings to the disaster that took place in Brumadinho (MG), in January 2019.
... Offshoring and outsourcing of production are conscious firm strategies to achieve comparative advantages (Blinder, 2006, Stentoft et al., 2016, such as lower labour costs and access to emerging markets (Lonsdale and Cox, 2000). These processes of locational switch, which more recently have seen companies from emerging economies such as China move their production activities to less developed Asian economies such as Vietnam (Sirkin, 2019), have been central to processes of economic globalization (Dicken, 2015). ...
... In the automotive industry, time-to-market is a key factor and a driver for the regionalization of the industry (Dicken, 2015). This was an important aspect in the decision to reshore Auto's production to Norway: 'The automotive industry demands that you globalize and are close to the market' (CEO, Auto). ...
Full-text available
The explorative paper investigates the drivers for the emerging trend of manufacturing reshoring from low-to high-cost locations. To date research on the reshoring phenomenon has been dominated by micro-level analyses of firms in supply chain management and reported in international business literature. To provide a better understanding of the reshoring phenomenon, the authors of the paper employ five key concepts from the global production network (GPN) framework in their analysis. With the multiscalar lens provided by the GPN framework, they find that the implementation of advanced manufacturing technologies is a driver for manufacturing reshoring, but only when matched with key regional assets such as automation knowledge and competence, key human capital, and region-specific manufacturing competence. Additionally, reshoring decisions are influenced by extra-regional factors such as changes in the global economy and market fluctuations. Furthermore, the paper provides a refined conceptualization of strategic coupling processes by including acts of disinvestments and reinvestments performed by actors within global production networks. Accordingly, the authors advocate a more nuanced understanding, defined as partial coupling processes, in contrast to the predominant understanding of coupling processes as ruptured. This refined conceptualization provides enhanced analytical purchase when studying the reshoring phenomenon, as it illuminates the complexity of firms' production and sourcing strategies and the resulting implications for the economic landscape.
... Alongside traditional geographical sites of modern capitalism, alternative places emerged; Singapore or Seoul, Sao Paulo and Mexico City. The former used to be crucial sites for national economies during 19 th and 20 th century, while the latter evolved into vast economies of urban scale, the places where global production takes place (Dicken, 2007). Smith (2002) identified this process as a rescaling of production to fit the metropolitan scale; a manifestation of a global shift. ...
... The first development means that global capital is not spatially fixed any more but its importance lies in networks and flows. Therefore, national economies cannot function as containers of capital (Dicken, 2007), while urban centers aspire to become stations in the course of global capital. The second development means that social reproduction of labor has a new role in the transformation of cities and moreover, in order to gain a competitive advantage over others, cities seek to attract talent and manage a balance between homegrown and foreign labor. ...
Full-text available
This thesis examines the gentrification of the Dutch neighborhood of Klarendal, seeking to fill in a gap in the literature regarding the connection of fashion and gentrification. Tapping into the tradition of Radical Geography and supply-related approaches of Gentrification Theory, it engages with the theoretical linkages between gentrification and fashion, aesthetics, culture, and ultimately, class relations. The analysis goes beyond the limited scope of a specific neighborhood much of relevant research has been trapped into, exploring the impact of multiple scales on the local level, while focusing on the process of gentrification. Situated in Arnhem, a mid-sized city town close to the border with Germany, Klarendal signifies the shifting identity of the city. Local government officials, counting on the international reputation of the ArtEZ Institute of the Arts, seek to shape spaces suitable to host the entrepreneurial activity of the academy’s graduates who would wish to stay and create in the city of Arnhem. The gentrification of Klarendal is a transition of crucial importance for the whole city, as the latter leaves its old industrial body behind and rebrands itself as a creative hub, on a mission to ameliorate brain drain and attract high-skilled labour and transnational capital. The thesis adopts a mixed-methods approach, drawing insight from a series of interviews with key informants (local officials, social workers, entrepreneurs, artists, longtime residents etc.), participatory observation, discourse analysis on numerous official documents, and statistical analysis of data series regarding businesses and workers (mainly) in the creative industries. We explore the role of fashion in urban space as an economic activity, a vehicle to livability, a status enhancer and a creativity stimulator. The reader will find interesting how gentrification escapes the limited landscapes of Klarendal and is implicitly implemented as a generalized urban policy, spearheading a wide city branding campaign. Aesthetics become a signifier of class, justifying displacement and gentrification; additionally, they surpass actual economic activity in importance, as it is found out that the output of creative industries lags behind.
... To date many researches has been made on sustainability (Battaglia et al., 2014;Bin Shen, 2014;Chan & Wong, 2012;Gardetti, 2013;Jayaraman, Singh, &Anandnarayan, 2012;Nagurney& Yu, 2012;Turker&Altuntas, 2014). Due to the fact that a Fashion supply chain is labour-intensive and sensitive to environment and society (Dicken, 2007), it is essential for fashion companies to cover all three aspects of the Triple Bottom Line within a sustainable supply chain (Li, Zhao, Shi, & Li, 2014). As a consequence, from an industrial point of view, there are many advantages for fashion companies in acting sustainable and to cover environmental, social and economic aspects (Bin Shen, 2014). ...
Full-text available
The fashion and textile industry is presently confronted to participate in the sustainability movement and society demands corporate social responsibility. Today, it is crucial for fashion companies to be able to measure, monitor and improve environmental and social performance, due to the fact that there is a heightened awareness of sustainable practices by stakeholders. The purpose of this study is to investigate fashion consumers on their sustainable perception of a fashion company. More specifically, the objective of this study is to highlight the fashion consumer`s awareness in regards to the sustainable practices of a fashion company by considering the brand and country image factors. An experimental research design was utilized for the study and the researcher surveyed 120 fashion students. The basis of the surveys within the experiment is the present sustainable practice of the fashion brand H&M. This research aims to understand, if and how fashion consumers are influenced by a fashion brand image or its souring practices, when it comes to evaluate the sustainable performance of a fashion company. Results show that participants have significantly different perceptions when considering the fashion brand image of H&M on the one hand and the sourcing countries of H&M on the other. The result of this research provides useful information about the actual state of affairs in sustainable knowledge of the consumer and the related power of a brand's image and its sourcing strategies.
... 2. GVC/GPNs and political settlements: weaving together parallel literatures 2.1. GVC/GPNs and the multi-scalar analysis of economic development Since the 1990s, economic globalization has contributed to the increasing fragmentation and spatial dispersion of production activities (Dicken, 2011). During that time, the GVC and GPN frameworks have evolved with the aim of moving beyond methodologically nationalist approaches of examining economic development. ...
Full-text available
The Global Value Chains/Global Production Networks (GVC/GPNs) literatures have become the predominant international political economy frameworks to understand the challenge of economic upgrading under 21st century globalization. However, until recently, this literature has overlooked the role of the state (outside its regulatory responsibilities) and the explanatory power of domestic political economy. Meanwhile, literature on developmental states, industrial policy and political settlements has generally taken a methodologically nationalist perspective to examine economic transformation in developing countries. This article uses insights from the political settlements literature to contribute to the growing agenda within the GVC/GPNs literature to examine how the role of the state and domestic politics shape upgrading pathways in developing countries. Using the example of the Rwandan government’s attempts to increase specialty coffee exports over the last two decades, the article shows how the public governance of the domestic value chain, combined with governance dynamics in the coffee GVC/GPN, has shaped upgrading pathways in Rwanda’s coffee sector. By developing a domestic political economy approach within the GVC/GPN tradition, this article contributes to the growing attention within international political economy to focus on how multi-scalar pressures are shaping the outcomes of economic policy in developing countries.
... However, other global factors also exist. For example, technological progress (such as new information-and communication technologies, transport technologies, etc.) has generally reduced transaction costs, and facilitated global production-and innovation networks also in early phases of cluster development (Dicken, 2015). Recent technological developments in robotics, automation, and artificial intelligence, however, make production less reliant on labour cost allowing other factors such as the qualification of the labour force to become relatively more important. ...
Industries and regional economies evolve as a result of the interplay between local and non-local factors. Increasing globalization of both production- and innovation activities implies a shift in the relevant scales of interaction from the local towards the global level. This paper is concerned with the implications of such scale shifts for the role of the region and for cluster-related regional policies. It examines what is left of the role of regional settings in fostering economic development when extra-regional drivers of change increase in importance. We investigate this crucial question with two in-depth case studies of the medical technologies sector, in which such scale shifts have been particularly pronounced. Our findings from empirical material collected in Scania/Sweden and Vienna/Austria illustrate the ways in which changes in national and supra-national regulatory frameworks have had a profound impact on the innovation activities of individual firms and the way to develop and launch new products, and subsequently on the regions in which they cluster. Such scale-shifts have, on the one hand, limited the potential for regional policy to shape the cluster’s path through support for supply-side factors. Yet some critical assets remain local but are increasingly difficult to access. By addressing such barriers to access, regional policy can still strongly affect the opportunities for innovation. Furthermore, in an increasingly open industry system, we see an expanded role for regional policy in supporting firms to access critical assets and sources of innovation found external to the region.
... In this context, knowledge, and its creation, could be considered as vital productive factor and, because of that, it has become central into the capitalist production processes (see [1]): the competitive advantage of firms and regions is based on the production of hight-values and nonubiquitous and complex knowledge (see [4]), configuring the knowledge as spatially close, difficult to create or to move outside its productive space. Some economic geographers (see [5] and [13]), have argued that the path-dependent nature of the economic evolution bars some regions into technological regimes, which coherce the regional capacity variation for mantaining that innovation level. ...
Conference Paper
Nowadays, in economic geography and cognitive fields, it has beseted with knowledge input and output measurement instead of assessing the quality of the knowledge produced. In this paper, we measure the knowledge complexity, mapping the distribution and the evolution of knowledge in the Italian regions through a neuronal network approach, based on non-linear clustering with the Self-Organing Map; and exploring in which way the spatial knowledge could be linked to complexity via a developed relatedness measurement, the Knowledge Complexity Index. Our measurement is based on the analysis of the patent data from the European Patent Office, restricted to the Italian context, between 2004 and 2012. We have found that the Italian knowledge complexity is not homogeneous distributed across Italy. The implementation of this new research line could be helpful for the Italian regional diversification because its implementation is still at an early stage at both nation and regional level and, at the same time, the reducing of the divergence between Regional Innovation Systems in Northern and Southern of Italy will continue to represent the major policy challenge.
Globalization as a buzz word is present in many publications, being scientific, journalistic or even literarily. This work defines the scope of globalization with regards to its meaning for businesses and within this scope, a measure is proposed to determine a firms’ degree of globalization. Starting with a review of scientific work, a multi-layered, modular approach is proposed built on three core aspects of globalization. By using a vector-based form, this index is able to provide both: a general measure for a company’s degree of globalization and a detailed evaluation of a company’s different states with regards to economical, spatial and regulatory aspects of globalization. The index developed is validated using a sample of four multi-national-companies (MNC). Results show, that firms, which are deemed global, only reach half of the overall possible degree of globalization.
Conference Paper
The paper discusses the environmental aspects of CEE-China relations, putting the subject in a broader, global context. It is contended that the potential environmental impact of 16+1, an emerging CEE-China cooperation platform, a component of the One Belt One Road strategic initiative framed within China’s “going out” policy, would strongly depend on China’s changing position in various global regimes, i.e. in a broader sense, how the world will be governed with a pivotal and special role assumed by China. Rooted in Western thought traditions, strategic programs of regional cooperation platforms in CEE – that are already in operation – incorporate strong environmental concerns. On the other hand, since the United States’ withdrawal from the Paris Agreement was announced in 2017, China has been indicating its strong intent to assume a leadership role in established systems of environmental governance, globally. The “Beijing Consensus”, considered to emphasise harmony in political, socio-economic and environmental areas, etc. is starting to be seen as an alternative to the “Washington Consensus”, which is focused on globalisation, free trade and democracy. The paper provides a comparative review of the environmental aspects of thought traditions that characterise China as well as the West. Along with prevailing long-termism in China’s economic and environmental policy, it is concluded that the 16+1 cooperation would be underlined by tangible environmental commitments.
America's predominance in the world has become the rallying cry of both liberals and conservatives in Washington. But this so-called New Wilsonianism is untenable: as history shows, a superpower inevitably invites opposition.
Is America an Imperial Power? Current History 102
  • B Cummings
Cummings, B. (2003), Is America an Imperial Power? Current History 102, pp. 355-341.
Sage, xxiii + 599 pp
  • Peter Dicken
PETER DICKEN, London 2007: Sage, xxiii + 599 pp., ISBN 978-1-4129-2955-4, paperback.