Article

Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards

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Abstract

Objective. County-level socioeconomic and demographic data were used to construct an index of social vulnerability to environmental hazards, called the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for the United States based on 1990 data. Methods. Using a factor analytic approach, 42 variables were reduced to 11 independent factors that accounted for about 76 percent of the variance. These factors were placed in an additive model to compute a summary score-the Social Vulnerability Index. Results. There are some distinct spatial patterns in the SoVI, with the most vulnerable counties clustered in metropolitan counties in the east, south Texas, and the Mississippi Delta region. Conclusion. Those factors that contribute to the overall score often are different for each county, underscoring the interactive nature of social vulnerability-some components increase vulnerability; others moderate the effects.

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... To help emergency response planners identify and map the communities in vulnerable situations that will most likely need support before, during and after a hazardous event, various social vulnerability analysis models have been created. The most popular of them are inductive social vulnerability models based on factor analysis (Cutter et al., 2003;Flanagan et al., 2011). These models tend to collapse the versatility of factors into a single numerical. ...
... | 3 vulnerability assessments and disaster planning, and these exclusionary mechanisms cumulate in their effects and amplify the effects of crises (Cutter et al., 2003). The understanding that disasters foremost affect the people local to the disaster event has contributed to growing recognition of the need to involve community members in disaster resilience decision-making (Gaillard & Mercer, 2013). ...
... Among the inductive social vulnerability models (Cutter et al., 2003) composite measures follow the progression from theory to index construction via latent variable methods and factor analysis. In deductive models composed of thematic pillars, indicators are conceptually organized into themes, for example, socioeconomic status, disability, minority status and housing and transportation (Flanagan et al., 2011). ...
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While social vulnerability assessments should play a crucial part in disaster management, there is a lack of assessment tools that retain sensitivity to the situation‐specific dynamics of vulnerabilities emerging in particular hazard scenarios. We developed a novel scenario‐based vulnerability assessment framework together with practitioners in crisis management and assessed the suitability of its components in three past crises and their scenario‐based derivations: a large‐scale power outage, the COVID‐19 pandemic, and a cyber‐attack. Rather than deterministically concluding about vulnerability based on prefixed factors, the framework guides relevant stakeholders to systematically think through categories of vulnerability pertinent to a scenario. We used a table‐top exercise, interviews, and focus groups to demonstrate how the framework broadens the crisis managers’ understanding of the scope of factors that may cause vulnerability, the related sources of information and enables to identify individuals burdened by certain vulnerability mixes. The new framework could be applied to different types of crises to enhance preparedness, demand‐driven relief and rescue during critical events.
... The second exposure variable is the ratio of people working in the informal sectors. These people will only earn income from work at a certain time [12], [26]. When the disaster strikes, they will be more likely to be exposed to those disasters and more at risk of losing their livelihoods [27]. ...
... Wealthy households made it possible to recover quickly from disasters as they could satisfy their basic needs. Hence, they were easily accessible to essential services, such as health and education [12]. This study then found certain areas with moderate to very high wealthy households. ...
... Damage is great in substantial buildings, with partial collapse. Buildings shifted off foundations) [12]. PGA in each village with magnitude 6.0-7.9 ...
... This study focused on social vulnerability (SV), which is defined as the propensity of individuals, communities, and systems to be harmed by hazardous processes, based on their social and demographic characteristics and territorial context (Cutter et al. 2003;Mendes 2009;Yoon 2012;Chen et al. 2013;Tavares et al. 2018;Mendes et al. 2019;Ogie and Pradhan 2019) and their ability to cope with and recover from the negative impacts of hazardous processes (Eidsvig et al. 2014). ...
... (1) Test a normalization methodology that provides temporally comparable input data for SV assessment; (2) Calculate comparable SV scores and SV drivers, using the same variables in three temporal frames, by applying a principal component analysis (PCA) to a single dataset, following the social vulnerability index (SoVI) approach (Cutter et al. 2003); (3) Analyze the spatiotemporal changes in SV between 1991 and 2011; and (4) Discuss the advantages and constraints of the methodology. ...
... The available initial set of 24 variables is representative of dimensions (see Table 1) usually considered in social vulnerability studies (Cutter et al. 2003;Chen et al. 2013;Rufat et al. 2015;Fatemi et al. 2017;Roder et al. 2017;Dintwa et al. 2019;Mendes et al. 2019). Fekete (2019a) highlighted the need for more research on the validation and justification of the variables used in the social vulnerability assessments with a scientific rationale. ...
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Social vulnerability, as one of the risk components, partially explains the magnitude of the impacts observed after a disaster. In this study, a spatiotemporally comparable assessment of social vulnerability and its drivers was conducted in Portugal, at the civil parish level, for three census frames. The first challenging step consisted of the selection of meaningful and consistent variables over time. Data were normalized using the Adjusted Mazziotta-Pareto Index (AMPI) to obtain comparable adimensional-normalized values. A joint principal component analysis (PCA) was applied, resulting in a robust set of variables, interpretable from the point of view of their self-grouping around vulnerability drivers. A separate PCA for each census was also conducted, which proved to be useful in analyzing changes in the composition and type of drivers, although only the joint PCA allows the monitoring of spatiotemporal changes in social vulnerability scores and drivers from 1991 to 2011. A general improvement in social vulnerability was observed for Portugal. The two main drivers are the economic condition (PC1), and aging and depopulation (PC2). The remaining drivers highlighted are uprooting and internal mobility, and daily commuting. Census data proved their value in the territorial, social, and demographic characterization of the country, to support medium- and long-term disaster risk reduction measures.
... Often, the higher the spatial resolution, the more meaningful the results can be to inform decision-makers. The current most widely used social vulnerability indices use scale-sensitive algorithms and were initially established at a county or census tract level Cutter et al., 2003;Flanagan et al., 2011). Most testbeds are developed at a county or city-scale, and thus only being able to evaluate social vulnerability once for the entire study area does not enable investigations of how differences in social vulnerability across the geographic area of interest may in uence disaster impacts and outcomes. ...
... Race and ethnicity have often been considered social vulnerability drivers due to long-standing systemic discrimination and racism leading to limited access to resources of all kinds, as well as lower income, and cultural and language barriers. Minority groups are more likely to occupy houses that are located in hazardous locations, and less likely to have connections to decision-makers and political capital (Cutter et al., 2003;Dunning & Durden, 2011;Flanagan et al., 2011;Laska & Morrow, 2006;Myers et al., 2008;National Research Council, 2006). However, different racial and ethnic identities among minority populations may even differently experience exposure to disasters. ...
... Low and very low income households have historically been excluded from accessing federal recovery resources as a result of overlooking policies that require them to demonstrate that damage is in no part due to deferred maintenance (Daniel et al., 2022;Hamideh & Rongerude, 2018). Low and very low income households are also more likely to live in substandard housing in a higher-risk location and may lack resources such as having a vehicle to evacuate in an emergency (Cutter et al., 2003;Dunning & Durden, 2011;Flanagan et al., 2011). In addition, the risk of post-disaster unemployment is greater for lower-wage workers (Laska & Morrow, 2006). ...
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Incorporating social systems and phenomena into virtual community resilience testbeds is uncommon but becoming increasingly important. Social vulnerability indices are a convenient way to account for differential experiences and starting conditions of the population in resilience assessments. This paper proposes a scalable index, termed Social Vulnerability Score (SVS), to serve the purpose of testbed development. The SVS overcomes two important limitations of existing indices: it is constructed using an approach that does not decrease in validity with changing spatial resolution, and it only needs to be calculated for the geographic area of interest, instead of for the entire county thereby significantly reducing computational effort for testbed developers and users. The proposed SVS aggregates the ratio of a set of demographics from U.S. Census datasets at the desired location against their national average values. The resulting scores are mapped into five levels, called zones, ranging from very low vulnerability (zone 1) to very high (zone 5). The validity of the SVS was investigated through a regression analysis of flood outcomes in Lumberton, North Carolina caused by Hurricane Matthew in 2016. The resulting correlations between the SVS zones and post-disaster outcomes of household dislocation and home repair times match the social vulnerability theory. The paper concludes with a comparison between the SVS and two existing social vulnerability indices at the census tract level for the State of Kansas.
... The most widely used methodology for measuring vulnerability is creation of an index from several variables and indicators [26,[34][35][36][37][38][39][40]. An issue with this approach is the subjectivity of indicator selection as well as assessment of their relative importance [41], as some indicators may introduce greater vulnerability than others [42,43]. ...
... Cronbach's alpha (α) was used to measure data reliability [80]. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was then used to cluster and identify the main factors explaining the variance [37,81]. Since all of the variables were categorical, binary and ordinal, the non-parametric tests used were the Chi-square (X 2 ) to identify statistically significant relationships (p < 0.05) and the Goodman-Kruskal Gamma (G) to measure the strength of this dependence, if any [82]. ...
... Cutter et al. [37] Rufat et al. [86] Rincón et al. [85] Thomas et al. [91] greater degree than for personal preparedness, the perception of not having the financial resources to adopt preparedness measures is evident. The higher the internal locus of control, the more preparedness measures the respondent will adopt and, conversely, greater confidence in the authorities leads to less personal preparedness. ...
Article
This paper explores the risk approach, considering both the physical and human dimensions of the phenomenon in order to produce a more realistic and spatial analysis of risk. Exposure and vulnerability were combined and evaluated multidimensionally, considering individual, socio-economic, and structural (building-related) aspects. These risk factors were then integrated in a multi-criteria analysis in order to produce a comprehensive risk index that could be visualized at the building scale. The relative importance of the indicators was determined through a participatory process involving local and national experts on civil security and flooding. Particular attention was paid to individual vulnerability, including perception and preparedness for flood risk, which were explored directly with local people using a questionnaire. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the responses allowed for a better understanding of the perception and preparedness of populations exposed to flooding. These data should help to improve risk communication between the authorities concerned and the populations at risk, as well as encouraging implementation of appropriate measures and a bottom-up participatory management approach. The integration of data in a geographic information system enables the visualization and spatialization of risk, but also each of its components.
... The concept of vulnerability, largely adopted in natural hazard studies, has different connotations depending on the research perspective and context (Cutter 1996;Martín and Paneque 2022). A wide range of hazard-related studies perceives that vulnerability is a social condition, reflecting the social resistance or resilience of people or places to a certain natural hazard (e.g. ...
... f vulnerability also reflects place inequitythe areal characteristics and built environment of neighbourhoods where the compactivity of urban space may influence the viral transmission (Cutter and Finch 2008;Frigerio et al. 2016); the related indicators usually include the density of population and buildings, housing types, and transportation (e.g . Cutter 1996;US CDC 2018). Regarding the approaches used to measure vulnerability, the principal component analysis serves as a data-driven approach easy to implement and reproduce, which has been widely employed in the classic Cutter's measuring framework in many countries (e.g. Chen et al. 2013;de Loyola Hummell, Cutter, and & Emrich 2016;Holand, L ...
... It requires a wide range of indicators prepared for computation (e.g. 41 indicators used by Cutter 1996). Another approach is the indexing approach based on a certain set of indicators that are selected by local experience and contextual knowledge. ...
Article
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Measuring vulnerability to COVID-19 and healthcare accessibility at the fine-grained level serves as the foundation for spatially explicit health planning and policy making in response to future public health crises. However, the evaluation of vulnerability and healthcare accessibility is insufficient in Japan – a nation with high population density and super-aging challenges. Drawing on the 2022 census data, transport network, medical and digital cadastral data, land use maps, and points of interest data, our study extends the concept of vulnerability in the context of COVID-19 and constructs the first fine-grained measure of vulnerability and healthcare accessibility in Tokyo Metropolis, Japan – the most populated metropolitan region in the world. We delineate the vulnerable neighbourhoods with low healthcare access and further evaluate the disparity in healthcare access and built environment of areas at different levels of vulnerability. Our outcome datasets and findings provide nuanced and timely evidence to government and health authorities to have a holistic and latest understanding of social vulnerability to COVID-19 and healthcare access at a fine-grained level. Our analytical framework can be employed in different geographic contexts, guiding through place-based health planning and policy making in the post-COVID era and beyond.
... We highlight below the salient community resilience and social vulnerability indices, as also summarized in Fig. 1. These indices are the Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards (SoVI) (Cutter et al., 2003), Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) (Flanagan et al., 2011), Baseline Resilience Indicators for Communities (BRIC) (Cutter et al., 2010), Community Disaster Resilience Index (CDRI) (Peacock et al., 2010), and the Resilience Capacity Index (RCI) (Foster, 2012). These resilience and vulnerability indices have been widely assessed and benchmarked in the literature (Bakkensen et al., 2017), and are used for case studies and within toolkits for various agencies (Kapucu et al., 2013;OEPR, 2013;Evans et al., 2014;Lam et al., 2016). ...
... The Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards (SoVI) (Cutter et al., 2003) was introduced as a prototypical framework to examine and detect characteristics that increase a community vulnerability to natural hazards. The index utilized 11 social factors, such as age, race, and occupation, to quantify the social capital of counties within the United States, and to detect areas where disaster mitigation capacities are lacking. ...
... The approach is not mechanistic and relies on a large number of attributes (i.e., components), probably due to the complexity of human interactions and decisions. Numerous indices were developed based on this approach, such as the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) (Flanagan et al., 2011), the Social Vulnerability for Environmental Impact Index (SoVI) (Cutter et al., 2003), and the Baseline Resilience Indicator for Communities (BRIC) (Cutter et al., 2010). Many of the other existing indices are qualitative; however, they are still useful as they provide a means for involving communities. ...
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The resilience of communities has emerged as a major goal in policy and practice. Cities, states, and counties within the United States and around the world are passing laws requiring the incorporation of climate-related hazard vulnerability assessments within their master plan updates for resilience planning and design. The resilience of communities under present and future scenarios is thus becoming a cornerstone of decision making and actions. Decisions that would enhance resilience, however, span multiple sectors and involve various stakeholders. Quantifying community resilience is a key step in order to describe the preparedness level of communities, and subsequently locating non-resilient areas to further enhance their capacity to endure disasters. Two main approaches are currently being pursued to evaluate resilience. The first approach is the “community resilience” developed mainly by social scientists and planners, and it captures social resilience using numerous pre-disaster attributes to describe the functioning of a community. This approach subsumes that pre-disaster attributes can predict the community resilience to a disaster. The second approach is adopted for infrastructure resilience, mostly used by engineers, and it focuses on robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness, and rapidity. This approach is appropriate for systems that are operated by highly skilled personnel and where the actions are of engineering type. In this paper, we provide an overview of the two approaches, and we leverage their limitations to propose a hybrid approach that combines community and infrastructure capitals into an Area Resilience metric, called ARez. ARez captures the role/impact of both infrastructure and community and combines five sectors: energy, public health, natural ecosystem, socio-economic, and transportation. We present a proof-of-concept for the ARez metric, showing its practicality and applicability as a direct measure for resilience, over various time scales.
... After normalization, weights were assigned to these indicators. Weighting was done by principal component analysis (PCA) (Cutter et al., 2003) and it helps to determine whether one factor has more influence on vulnerability (Cutter et al., 2003). The loadings from the first component of PCA were used as weights for the indicators, performed in a STATA software environment. ...
... After normalization, weights were assigned to these indicators. Weighting was done by principal component analysis (PCA) (Cutter et al., 2003) and it helps to determine whether one factor has more influence on vulnerability (Cutter et al., 2003). The loadings from the first component of PCA were used as weights for the indicators, performed in a STATA software environment. ...
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There are many risks for local people related to resettlement schemes and compensation measures caused by different development projects. In Buseruka sub-county, Hoima district in Western Uganda, land was expropriated for an oil refinery project. A vulnerability assessment was conducted for this scheme. Households could choose between cash compensation as a resettlement measure, or a relocation to an established site with a house and some agricultural land and other inputs. A household survey was carried out involving 187 household heads and various key person interviews. An analysis of overall vulnerability among the resettled households was based on indices constructed from carefully selected indicators for exposure, sensitivity and the adaptive capacity. A principal Component Analysis was used in assigning weights to indicators of the vulnerability of resettled households. Affected households could choose between cash compensation or land /house. In addition we looked at effects of the measures on the host population receiving the relocated households. Cash compensated households were most vulnerable in relocation areas compared to both host community households and to formally resettled households with a house or land respectively. Cash compensation was found to be surrounded by much controversy which challenges the commonly held notion that cash can easily facilitate or restore the livelihoods of displaced people. There is thus a need to critically analyse how or to what extent different resettlement mechanisms restore livelihoods of project affected people and prevent household vulnerability. The findings in this study indicate that cash compensation may not reduce socio-economic vulnerability of affected persons in areas where land is the most important livelihood asset.
... Based on the "reduced risk" process, the current approach that is used in several investigations combines hazard and vulnerability aspects (Mileti, 1999;Cutter et al., 2000Cutter et al., , 2003Borga et al., 2011;Guigo et al., 2002;Blaikie et al., 2014). ...
... In this study, we have opted for the vulnerability concept combining physical, social, and economic components. It means the influence of the degree to which a person, community, or system is threatened by a dangerous event, as well as their ability to mitigate and recover from the event (Mileti, 1999;Cutter et al., 2000;Cutter, 2002;Cutter et al., 2003;ISDR, 2004, Adger et al., 2009Blaikie et al., 2014;Hewitt, 2014;UNDRR, 2019). All conceptions of vulnerability have in common the intrinsic characteristic of a system or an element exposed to the risk (Quenault, 2015a,b;Cardona, 2004;Wisner, 2002). ...
Article
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The concept of vulnerability is now embedded into multiple disaster-related disciplinary theories and is currently incorporated in various ways concerning disaster risk management. The Souss basin has witnessed many intensive extreme flooding events during the last two decades because it is located in a semi-arid to arid climate. The area is quite vulnerable, and negative impacts have gotten increasingly alarming. The susceptibility to this risk is accentuated not only by the shorter intense rainfall but also by the rapid population growth, uncontrolled land use, anthropogenic actions, and recent environmental fluctuations. These factors affect both the potential hazards and general vulnerability. In this study and given the current context, we developed a methodology to assess social vulnerability towards flooding in the area based on 26 socioeconomic indicators from the database of the Last general census of population and housing (GPHC) in 2014. These indicators aim to describe the spatial variability of the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) using principal component analysis (CPA) and GIS. Thus, the SoVI, with values ranging from 0 to 4, is a powerful tool for better quantifying social vulnerability and highlighting the potential impact on urban and rural communities. The result shows that few urban areas have a low average vulnerability index (1.76–2.33) while most rural areas have a higher average of SoVI ranging from 3.56 to 4 in this area. Therefore, it will serve as a basis for evacuation plans to anticipate and prevent flooding risks. This statement indicates that social-economic indicators enhancement is advisable in this area.
... Secara umum, rumah tangga yang menyewa tempat tinggal karena sifatnya yang sementara dan tidak memiliki cukup finansial. Dalam kasus yang ekstrem, rumah tangga tersebut tidak memiliki pilihan tempat tinggal yang layak huni dengan harga rendah, sehingga menjadi lebih rentan secara sosial (Cutter et al., 2003;Hummell et al., 2016). Meningkatnya jumlah rumah tangga yang terjerumus kedalam kemiskinan ekstrem akan memberikan beban terhadap pengentasan kemiskinan dan pembangunan di masa mendatang. ...
... Artinya, rumah tangga yang tidak menyewa rumah tempat tinggal memiliki kecenderungan untuk berstatus miskin ekstrem sebesar 3,9 kali (1/0,252) lebih besar dibanding rumah tangga yang menyewa rumah dengan asumsi variabel lainnya konstan. Keputusan untuk menyewa tempat tinggal sangat dipengaruhi oleh kemampuan finansial, sehingga rumah tangga yang tidak memiliki pilihan tempat tinggal layak huni dengan harga rendah cenderung lebih rentan secara sosial (Cutter et al., 2003). Hummell et al (2016) menempatkan kemiskinan ekstrem sebagai salah satu faktor pembentuk Indeks Kerentanan Sosial, sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa terdapat hubungan antara karakeristik rumah tangga rentan secara sosial dengan status kemiskinan. ...
Article
Jawa Timur merupakan provinsi dengan jumlah penduduk miskin terbesar di Indonesia. Tercatat pada Maret 2020, jumlah penduduk miskin Jawa Timur sebesar 4,109 juta jiwa dengan persentase sebesar 11,09 persen. Selain itu, Jawa Timur terpilih dalam 7 provinsi prioritas dalam upaya pengentasan kemiskinan ekstrem. Kemiskinan ekstrem adalah keadaan dimana tingkat kesejahteraan masyarakat berada di bawah garis kemiskinan ekstrem yaitu USD 1,9 PPP. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi karakteristik dan faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi kemiskinan ekstrem pada rumah tangga miskin di Jawa Timur pada tahun 2020. Metode analisis yang digunakan yaitu regresi logistik biner dengan kategori miskin dan miskin ekstrem. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pemberian Bantuan Pangan Non Tunai (BPNT) cenderung diarahkan pada rumah tangga miskin ekstrem. Karakteristik rumah tangga miskin ekstrem cenderung tidak menyewa tempat tinggal. Selain itu, rumah tangga miskin ekstrem cenderung memiliki keluarga lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan rumah tangga miskin. Hasil tersebut dapat memberikan gambaran pemerintah daerah dalam mengentaskan kemiskinan ekstrem hingga nihil pada tahun 2024 melalui pengoptimalan pemberian bantuan khususnya BPNT.
... As this method is regarded as an inherent state and characteristic of the system, it can be regarded as a benchmark for providing resilience construction, so the resilience measured under this path is usually called "baseline resilience". State-based resilience evaluation and measurement is especially suitable for urban and rural planning and disaster management, and provides comprehensive risk management strategies and urban construction standards for improving disaster prevention capabilities [23]; it provides quantitative support for the comparison of spatial heterogeneity and development differences among different cities, communities, land use types and aid recipients [24][25][26], and provides reference for the adjustment of relevant urban policies after the disaster. ...
... It is the representative of the index system evaluation method under the state-based toughness evaluation path. It identifies 49 indicators as individual evaluation factors from six aspects of society, economy, system, infrastructure, ecology, and social functions, as well as analyzes and measures the community resilience level of 3108 counties in the United States, and discusses the minimum construction standards that should be met in the process of improving urban resilience [23]. ...
Article
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After the prevailing of the COVID-19 pandemic, urban communities around the world took initiatives to bring their cities back to life. In this research, 45 indicators and 55 elements were selected to make comparisons between urban communities in Lanzhou, China and Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina from five dimensions of social resilience, economic resilience, institutional resilience, infrastructural resilience, and community capital resilience. At the same time, the ArcGIS platform tool was used for spatial interpolation analysis. In this paper, the inverse distance weighting (IDW) method was used to carry out the spatial analysis of the perceived resilience of the two cities. Due to the heterogeneity of the neighborhood physical environment, operation and management mode, individual attribute characteristics, and internal relations, the resilience of the two urban communities showed disparity in different dimensions. Overall, the communities with good urban property management services, high-income owners, and the convenient transportation have stronger resilience in the face of pandemic. On the contrary, scattered communities, which are scattered in the inner cities, lack effective management, and based on unstable employment, people become the most affected by the epidemic with the lowest resilience power. The importance of social capital, represented by community understanding, identity, and mutual help and cooperation between neighbors, is highlighted in the resilience assessment of the two cities, respectively, in the East and West, indicating that to build more resilient cities, in addition to improving government management and increasing investment in urban infrastructure, building the residents’ sense of belonging, identity, and enduring community culture is even more important in the construction of resilient cities.
... The sensitivity and adaptive capacity of an area are dependent on a range of factors, including demographic and socioeconomic ones [30,39,[67][68][69]. Socioeconomic disparities are linked to the differential capacity to react, cope and recover from such natural disasters [67,70]. ...
... Mobility constraints hamper the ability to evacuate [35,67,69] Low education % population with less than a secondary school diploma (low-level education) ...
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With increasing urban expansion and population growth, coastal urban areas will be increasingly affected by climate change impacts such as extreme storm events, sea level rise and coastal flooding. To address coastal inundation risk for impact studies, integrated approaches accounting for flood hazard modelling, exposure and vulnerability of human and environmental systems are crucial. In this study, we model the impacts of sea level rise on coastal inundation depth for County Dublin, the most extensively urbanized area in Ireland, for the current period and for 2100 under two Representative Concentration Pathways RCP 4.5 and 8.5. A risk-centred approach has been considered by linking the information on coastal flood-prone areas to the exposure of the urban environment, in terms of potential future land cover changes, and to the socioeconomic vulnerability of the population. The results suggest significant challenges for Dublin city and the surrounding coastal areas, with an increase of around 26% and 67% in the number of administrative units considered at very high risk by the end of the century under a RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively. This study aims to contribute to existing coastal inundation research undertaken for Ireland by (i) providing a first-level screening of flooding hazards in the study area, (ii) demonstrating how land cover changes and socioeconomic vulnerability can contribute to the level of experienced risk and (iii) informing local authorities and at-risk communities so as to support them in the development of plans for adaptation and resilience.
... Unemployment and natural population growth rates are indicators of social stress and stability. Moreover, population density directly affects the speed and severity of urban disaster responses (Cutter et al., 2003). ...
... Soochow, Wuxi, and Changzhou all have similar IR profiles. The social public service system is challenged by an overly dense population, reducing the resources allocated per capita (Saja et al., 2018), increasing social inequality, and making it more difficult to coordinate disaster responses (Cutter et al., 2003 (Chen & Quan, 2021). This is because this research pays more attention to population size, urban growth, and resource allocation. ...
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Urban agglomeration, a highly evolved spatial form of integrated cities, has developed more rapidly with the growing interconnections among the cities. While benefiting from its invigorating prosperity, cities also confront palpable risks. Urban resilience and regional synergy are currently enduring more serious challenges. However, compelling research on urban agglomeration resilience is insufficiently conducted. This study proposes a four-dimensional evaluation index system (economic, political, social, and infrastructure) with a prone emphasis on political resilience, making up for the previous deficiency in interrogating political dimension. A basis for revealing the spatiotemporal evolution of the urban agglomeration resilience in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration (YRD) is provided. Research results indicate that: (1) Urban resilience in YRD has increased significantly and continues to grow, with regional differences narrowing; (2) the YRD's resilience suggests a polycentric cluster distribution with resilience declining from the centre cities to surrounding ones; (3) the urban resilience gradually decreased from the east to the west, from the coast to the interior; and (4) cities with high economic and political resilience may be inferior in other two aspects, necessitating complementary capabilities amongst the cities. Understanding the spatiotemporal evolution of resilience is expected to further induce resilience development and urban synergy.
... Third, there are important social equity concerns in the provision of disaster contracts. A long history of disaster science scholarship demonstrates that already-marginalized populations are disproportionately affected by disasters, and federal funds could be more effectively to address these needs (Cutter et al., 2003;Thomas et al., 2013). Yet, these vulnerable communities remain underserved by emergency management agencies (Drakes et al., 2021;Gooden et al., 2009;Louis-Charles et al., n.d.), and if public funds are overly focused toward corporate interests as a result of lobbying efforts, this has important normative implications for emergency management in the United States. ...
... Further, we expect that the majority of lobbying relates to issues aligned with the interests of corporations and trade associations including legislation and disaster-related spending rather than on addressing social vulnerability or equity. Although marginalized populations are especially affected by disasters (Cutter et al., 2003;Thomas et al., 2013), these groups remain underserved by emergency managers in all phases of disaster management (Drakes et al., 2021;Gooden et al., 2009;Louis-Charles et al., n.d.), and we expect that this is reflected in the descriptions of lobbying reports. Building on this research, we expect to find that words associated with social vulnerability and equity are reported less frequently than words associated with legislation and disaster-related spending. ...
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Recent scholarship has explored the impact of interest groups on policy in the United States. However, little remains known about lobbying efforts and their effects in emergency management. Through analysis of a large data set of declared political activities from 1999 to 2020, we describe lobbying efforts in disaster planning and emergencies. Our findings suggest that lobbying efforts and expenditure are positively associated with appropriations (but not disaster incidence or severity), that corporations and trade associations are the organizations most involved in lobbying and that many of these efforts appear to be aimed at impacting legislation and the procurement of public funds for recovery efforts. We also find that only a minuscule number of lobbying efforts are related to socially vulnerable populations or social equity concerns. Collectively, these insights raise important questions about this process, demonstrating the need for further research to better understand lobbying and emergency management in the United States across all phases of the disaster life cycle.
... The literature distinguishes between the taxonomic and the situational approach for measuring social vulnerability (Cutter et al. 2003;Kuhlicke et al. 2011). The taxonomic approach calculates social vulnerability on the basis of individual indicators, which are often presented spatially using maps (Fischer and Frazier 2018). ...
... People with diverse income streams recover faster from disturbance-induced losses in the management of ecosystems High dependence on income from ecosystem management increases vulnerability Connections in the local community: for example, membership of associations, family members in the vicinity, trust in the local community People with a strong social network are better informed and can rely on support from the local community to cope with damage related to disturbances A strong social network reduces vulnerability Family structure: for example, family size Large families often have lower resources available per capita, and thus reduced ability to compensate losses related to disturbances A large family increases social vulnerability negatively with social vulnerability, that is, poor groups are more affected by disturbance and disaster than rich ones (Cutter et al. 2003;Fischer and Frazier 2018). The situational approach, in contrast, is based on the actual experiences of people rather than statistical data. ...
Chapter
Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Disturbances can have multiple, often negative, effects on ecosystem services. Primary production is temporarily reduced by disturbances, while water and nutrient cycles are stimulated by disturbances. Consequently, the production of plant biomass (wood, animal fodder) may be temporarily decreased. In the context of climate regulation, disturbances reduce carbon storage (warming effect) but simultaneously increase albedo (cooling effect). Furthermore, disturbances reduce the protection function of forests against natural hazards. The way disturbances affect cultural services, such as the recreational function of ecosystems, depends on the subjective perception of people.KeywordsFire Wind Bark beetles Drought Supporting services Provisioning services Regulating services Cultural services
... For PCA, a targeted rotation and the criterion that more than 75 per cent of the total variance should be explained by the derived components were used to extract significant loadings, thereby constructing PCs as proxies for resilience with most similar structures across various levels on a spatial scale. Once the component loadings were derived, adjustments were made to their directionality with respect to their known influence on resilience, based on the empirical literature on factors that increase or decrease disaster resilience (Cutter et al. 2003). Consequently, the dominant indicator(s) of each PC remained almost the same on both the district and sub-district levels. ...
... The research of the social vulnerability problems is currently very relevant as it has substantially developed a range of classical theories, formed the fundamentally new theoretical ground in terms of the quality of life, and replaced the theory of social security. The quality of life is an important factor and indicator of the population's social vulnerability in terms of its resistance to various dangers (Bergstrand et al., 2015), including environmental (Cutter et al., 2003), social exclusion (Mulska et al., 2022), and hardships of rural life (Van Niekerk & Van Niekerk, 2009;Vasyltsiv et al., 2021). ...
... We built one index using a Principal Component Analysis for each year to reduce a large number of variables into a few dimensions following a method proposed by Hummel et al (2016). We selected only the PCs with an eigenvalue greater than 1 (Cutter et al., 2003) and then we changed the cardinality of each PC depending on whether the variables that compose the PC contribute positively or negatively to food security (Supplementary Table 2). The final food security index for each year was calculated as the sum of the individual scores of each PC for each municipality based on Hummel et al (2016). ...
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Global food demand is expected to increase in the next decades pushing agricultural expansion and deforestation. However, food production in agricultural lands is just one dimension of food security, to which forest goods and services also contribute. In this paper, we aimed to explore the relationship between forest cover and food security. We hypothesised that food security is improved by both human-made and green infrastructure combined. To test this relationship, we explore the relationships between forest cover and a multidimensional index of food security that included both socioeconomic and natural variables taken from Brazilian official databases for 1,141 municipalities of the Brazilian Caatinga (a seasonally tropical dry forest). The index was formed by 12 principal components axes (12 PCs) and we found that financial poverty (PC 1) and economic inequality (PC 2) were the main determinants of food insecurity in Caatinga. We found that lowest food security values were found in two contrasting contexts: one is represented by poor and unequal municipalities with high forest cover while the other refers to poor and less unequal municipalities but with little forest cover. Municipalities with intermediate levels of forest cover had slightly higher food security, a consistent pattern across time (2006 and 2017). Win-win scenarios where both forest cover and food security increased with time were almost as common as lose-lose situations (25% and 22% respectively). This suggests a sort of balance between forests and human-made land uses and reinforces that natural capital contributes to food security. Zero-hunger is a main issue for sustainable development goals and our results adds to the notion that both sustainable use of forests and socioeconomic improvements must coexist rather than being treated as antagonistic policies.
... A novelty presented in this work is accounting for segments with populations that are vulnerable to water loss given their social class, household composition, sensitive population, minority, housing tenure, and quality of life (see Borden et al. [33], Cutter et al. [34]). The third objective function, therefore, accounts for the social vulnerability of populations associated with each segment . ...
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Isolation valves are critical for the reliable functioning of water distribution networks (WDNs). However, it is challenging for utilities to prioritize valve rehabilitation and replacement given it is often unclear if certain valves are operable in a given WDN. This study uses the Gomory–Hu tree of the segment-valve representation (or dual representation) of WDNs to obtain the logical implications of inoperable valves (i.e., which segments should be isolated and merged unnecessarily due to valve inoperability). Multi-objective optimization is then used to identify the critical valves based on selected attributes (e.g., social vulnerability, flow volume) of segments that would be unnecessarily isolated as a result. This study developed three multi-objective formulations: first, deterministic; second, accounting for uncertainty; and third, accounting for both uncertainty and the likelihood of failure of pipes within segments. Identified critical valves are compared between the three developed formulations and a method considering only a single objective. Results demonstrated that multi-objective optimization provided additional information which can be used to discern valve importance for utilities in comparison with using a single objective. Further, though there was overlap between the results from the three formulations, the third formulation provided the most insight without overwhelming decision-makers with a large number of identified valves.
... The conditions present within Los Laureles Canyon serve as the triggers for specific tools when groups of applicable conditions exist and are categorized into social, ecological, and urban issues. Social conditions are comprised of issues of marginality, vulnerability, and capacity (Cutter et al. 2003). The issues associated with urbanization and informal development relate to social and ecological attributes of the community through the loss of green space, changes in the environment, and possibly changes in living conditions. ...
Article
As impacts from climate change continue to present risks for global stability, synthesis of strategies for intervention at the community and societal level may be effective for mitigating current and future impacts. This report summarizes efforts to integrate social risk reduction and ecological resistance planning on a local scale for the San Diego-Tijuana border region. There are several environmental issues afflicting the binational region related to informal development that climate change can exacerbate, such as flooding, erosion, and pollution in the form of wastewater and trash. This project involved the assemblage of collaborative planning instruments and tools for effective management, identification, and access to common spatial assets to increase the amount and dissemination of social and ecological knowledge to develop appropriate community responses to climate change consequences. The tools have been compiled into climate adaptation strategy ‘toolkits’ and have been used to execute educational workshops to develop community-wide ecological fluency and forge social-ecological resilience.The deployment of the tools aims to support cross-border planning and outreach in the Los Laureles Canyon, a series of informal neighborhoods situated in western Tijuana. Implementation has commenced in Miramar, an established community station, and will begin in the community stations within Divina and Alacrán in Summer 2022. The toolkits will be put to the test with the expectation that additional contributions will be required to advance the collaborative strategies utilized for risk abatement. The toolkits are designed to help create the conditions to promote engagement between the community and researchers to establish horizontal information exchanges, in which insight is gained on the community’s perspective. Future work will involve additional research to evaluate community responses and incorporate refinements to ensure subsequent deployments incite productive and meaningful change.
... Some approaches for measuring social vulnerability, define indicators by the spatial level, function, data basis, level of aggregation. Cutter et al., (2003) use the hazards-of-place: those characteristics of communities and the built environment, such as the level of urbanization, growth rates, and economic vitality that contribute to the social vulnerability of places. Model of vulnerability examines the components of social vulnerability; include the individual characteristics of people like age, race, health, income, type of dwelling unit and employment. ...
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Extreme geomorphological and hydrometeorological events cause landslides (gravitational processes) in vulnerable and marginalized communities, where the risk and effects of a natural disaster reduce responsiveness to environmental adversities. In the state of Hidalgo (Mexico) exists dangers as slope instability and processes of massive removal of soil, but in some municipalities of the Sierra Otomí-Tepehua (SOT) does not exist a municipal instrument that provides information on high-risk localities. This study evaluated landslide risk in 220 localities located in three municipalities of the Sierra Otomí-Tepehua region (SOT) using information from the 2020 national census. A geospatial analysis was built in localities with landslide risk, further social vulnerability was evaluated in 33 localities located on hillsides, and the Social Vulnerability Index of Housing (IVSV) was determined. 109 localities with a high and very high level of social vulnerability were identified due to the physical condition of the dwellings located in areas with landslide risk. Finally, risk map of landslides was developed through multi-criteria analysis to focus on mitigate and prevent disasters in the most vulnerable localities of the SOT.
... The exposure indicator is commonly related to characteristics of a population and physical properties to predict the vulnerability. These characteristics include the socio-economic demographic data, such as age structure, gender, disability condition, household composition and residential distribution [22], [23], [32]- [36]. Most of the information is retrieved from the national census. ...
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Sabah is located in the northeast region of East Malaysia and recognized as the most active seismic area in Malaysia. The scalability and frequency of earthquakes are growing due to the existence of both local and distant ground motions from active faults, with more than 67 earthquake occurrences with light to moderate magnitude (Mw larger than 3.5) recorded since the 1900. On the other hand, the skewed socio-economic development process associated with the rapid population growth and changes in the family structure, inequality issues, and the lack of adaptation measures would intensify the vulnerability of the earthquakes. Key elements linked to socio-economic vulnerability need to be addressed in order to reduce the risk of earthquake. Based on previous studies, we identified vulnerabilities from a multi-dimensional perspective consisting of exposure, resilience and capacity across districts. Subsequently, a holistic indicator system with 18 variables was constructed to assess the potential earthquake vulnerability in Sabah, Malaysia. The accumulated data will present an earthquake vulnerability classification using the Geographical Information System (GIS) approach. Finally, the earthquake risk was derived by integrating the earthquake vulnerability map with earthquake hazard map proposed by the Department of Mineral and Geoscience (JMG) Malaysia. The results of the analysis revealed that the highest level of earthquake risk, which accounts for 15.5 %, were concentrated in the eastern part of the Sabah region; the high-risk areas account for 7.7 %; the moderate-risk areas account for 11.3 %; and the low to very low risk areas account for 65.4 %. Accordingly, it is expected that the derived earthquake vulnerability and risk map will allow the policymakers and response teams to improve the earthquake disaster mitigation and management in Sabah.
... In order to quantify the social vulnerability of the exposed population, the calibration of an index is the most frequently used method. The platform has integrated a social vulnerability index explained in Chamorro et al (2020), which is based on the Social Vulnerability Index first proposed by Cutter (1996). The topological relevance is based on the betweenness centrality, which is represented in equation 6. Altough, the social vulnerability and the topological analysis are integrated only at the network level. ...
... However, this definition is being reviewed because the frequency of these events is increasing due to climate change, highlighting the tremendous impact these events have on the lives and activities of human beings, with consequences that tend to get rapidly out of control. Human beings and material entities can cause radical changes (Guggenheim 2014) in exposure and vulnerability factors that are critical in determining the effects of catastrophes (Drury and Olson 1998;Adger 2006;Walker and Cooper 2011;Cutter 2012). ...
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The purpose of this article is to analyze disaster risk governance through assemblage theory, identifying how—during the altered political context of a military regime with a centralized disaster risk management as in the case of Chile in 1985—new actors emerge during the disaster response phase as a de/reterritorialization effect that is influenced by their agencies and relationships, disfiguring the edges of the assemblage. Based on this conceptualization, it is possible to investigate the interactions between the different actors, their power relations, and their reconfigurations in the governance exercise. For this purpose, we reviewed the response phase of the 1985 San Antonio earthquake that affected the central zone of Chile, where strategic functions, institutions, and forms of power are concentrated. To describe and visualize the actors during the response phase in the disaster risk governance framework, a map of actors was developed that identifies the existing relationships and their different weights. The central scale proved to be dominant and occupied a political space that was transfigured by its overrepresentation—enforced by allies such as the banking system and business associations—enhancing a neoliberal agenda. The leaps in scale from the central scale to the local scale cancel agency of the last, destabilizing its capacity to deal with the effects of the earthquake and isolating it from the decision-making processes. Consequently, delays in providing aid demonstrate that authoritarian governments do not provide better management in the disaster response phase.
... Cutter et al. (2003) evidenciam a perspectiva conjuntiva centrada no estudo da vulnerabilidade e do risco. Apesar de aparentemente simples, esse modelo de análise revela as relações diretas e indiretas entre o risco, as respostas e ajustamentos da população atingida (ações de mitigação) e a vulnerabilidade do lugar. ...
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Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar o estado da arte referente às categorias de "vulnerabilidade", "risco" e "resiliência" a partir de um enfoque geográfico. Mesmo com um corpo teórico ainda em desenvolvimento, a reflexão sobre esses termos é fundamental para incrementar o debate acadêmico e tornar mais precisa e viável a operacionalização desses conceitos. Atualmente, em razão da maior visibilidade dos problemas ambientais e de suas consequências, os conceitos de "vulnerabilidade", "risco" e "resiliência" estão sendo aplicados sem a devida compreensão a respeito de sua respectiva complexidade teórica, afetando negativamente as ações de planejamento, que devem estar pautadas em pesquisas científicas que contribuam para a solução de problemas sociais e ambientais.
... The above equation considers both maximum and minimum values in the expression and ensures vulnerability values lie within [0, 1] interval and is also nonnegative. After normalizing each indicator, following (Balica and Wright 2010;Bahinipati 2014;Cutter et al. 2003;Kantamaneni et al. 2020;Eakin and Bojórquez-Tapia 2008) an equal weight was assigned to each indicator. The quantification of flood vulnerability was carried out by developing sub-indices on a domain basis and a composite FVI by following the methodology proposed by Balica (2007), as explained in Eq. (3). ...
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A quantified index of disaster vulnerability can help policymakers identify the most vulnerable regions for priority interventions. Many studies have assessed vulnerability to floods across different geographical and ecological regions around the globe. Odisha is a state in India prone to frequent floods, but few studies have assessed flood vulnerability in terms of a quantified composite vulnerability index in respect of Odisha. The present study attempts to develop flood vulnerability sub-indices and a composite Flood Vulnerability Index to analyse the intensity of flood vulnerability in Odisha across six coastal districts. The index is constructed by incorporating three factors (exposure, susceptibility, and resilience) with respect to four domains i.e. social, economic, physical, and environmental of disaster vulnerability. The proxy variable for each factor is identified through both inductive and deductive approaches, and a composite index is constructed as a geometric mean of sub-indices. The results show that Kendrapara district is more vulnerable to flood impacts in social and physical domains due to its high exposure and sensitivity and comparatively low adaptive capacity. With regard to economic domain, Bhadrak district is substantially more vulnerable, while Cuttack is least vulnerable. On the other hand, Puri and Baleshwar districts are found most and least vulnerable in respect of the environmental domain. Both exposure and sensitivity indicators are the key driving factors of intensifying vulnerability in each domain of the districts concerned. Based on a composite vulnerability index, Kendrapara and Cuttack districts turned out to be most and least vulnerable to floods among the coastal districts of Odisha. It is evident from the analysis that the intensity of vulnerability of a community depends more on the state of social, economic, physical and environmental conditions than the mere magnitude or frequency of floods. These findings can help policymakers prioritise limited resource allocation to districts and domains.
... Vulnerability assessments are commonplace in mitigation plans for risk and hazards [8,33] . These assessments for health are especially important to address disparities in risk of infection and severity of impacts [34] . Early research on the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic show that some aspects of social vulnerability used to understand those that are most at risk during natural hazards [16,35,36] also correlate with COVID-19 infection [37,38] . ...
... A growing number of countries across the world have been affected by oods due to dense population, inappropriate land use planning and climate change (Cardona, 2004 A review of literature conducted by Membele et al. (2022a) shows that there has been a shift in the way ood vulnerability is considered in developing countries. Flood vulnerability is widely been considered to be integrated because it combines both physical and social vulnerability (Cutter et al., 2003;Ehsan et al., 2022;Paul & Routray, 2010). Integrated ood vulnerability is important because it takes a holistic and interdisciplinary approach crucial in facilitating a complete assessment of ood vulnerability (Barroca et al., 2006). ...
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In developing countries, informal settlements are mainly located in floodplains and wetlands, hence, they are frequently affected by floods. The objective of this study is to demonstrate a methodological approach that integrates the community members’ local and indigenous knowledge and GIS-based Multi-Criteria Decision Making using the Analytic Network Process (ANP) in mapping flood vulnerability in an informal settlement. The study was conducted in Quarry Road West informal settlement located in Durban, South Africa. A mixed-method approach that involved a household survey (n = 359), interviews with key informants (n = 10) and focus group discussions (n = 2) were used in this study. The results of this study showed that there is a spatial differentiation of flood vulnerability in the study area. Households along the Palmiet River were highly vulnerable to flooding. A section of the settlement called Mcondo 1 was also highly vulnerable to flooding while maMsuthu had low flood vulnerability. The sensitivity analysis results showed that changing the indicator weights, correspondingly, affected the output of the flood vulnerability map. Therefore, this study can serve as a guide for decision-makers on how to elicit adequate community participation and comprehensively integrate local and indigenous knowledge with Geographical Information System in mapping flood vulnerability in informal settlements.
... Other reviews are available, covering a wide range of topics, from the conceptual origin and models of vulnerability (Timmerman 1981;Füssel and Klein 2006;Füssel 2007;Fellmann 2012;Giupponi and Biscaro 2015), to the relationships and integration of vulnerability with resilience (Adger 2006;Gallopín 2006), adaptation (Adger 2006;Gallopín 2006), and risk (Jurgilevich et al. 2017;Sharma and Ravindranath 2019). Some reviews have focused on indicators of vulnerability and their role in the science-policy interface (Hinkel 2011;Tonmoy et al. 2014;Nguyen et al. 2016), as well as on the Foden et al. (2019) sectoral and geographical applications of vulnerability assessments [e.g., social (Cutter 2003;Nguyen et al. 2017), livelihood (Hahn et al. 2009), urban (Filho et al. 2018) and coastal (Nguyen et al. 2016) regions, groundwater (Aslam et al. 2018), biodiversity (Foden et al. 2019;Pacifici et al. 2015), agriculture (Crane et al. 2017;Fellmann 2012), and forestry (FAO 2018)]. ...
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In the Third and Fourth Assessment Reports (TAR and AR4, respectively) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), vulnerability is conceived as a function of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. However, in its Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX) and Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), the IPCC redefined and separated exposure, and it reconceptualized vulnerability to be a function of sensitivity and capacity to cope and adapt. In this review, we found that the IPCC’s revised vulnerability concept has not been well adopted and that researchers’ preference, possible misinterpretation, possible confusion, and possible unawareness are among the possible technical and practical reasons. Among the issues that need further clarification from the IPCC is whether or not such a reconceptualization of vulnerability in the SREX/AR5 necessarily implies nullification of the TAR/AR4 vulnerability concept as far as the IPCC is concerned.
... There is a substantial and growing body of empirical evidence that has documented environmental injustices related to land, air and freshwater [4][5][6]16,17]. Much less attention, however, has been paid to environmental justice issues in the marine and coastal environment [18][19][20][21]. ...
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Environmental justice refers broadly to the distribution of environmental benefits and burdens, and the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people in environmental decision-making and legal frameworks. The field of environmental justice initially developed out of a concern for the disproportionate distribution and impacts of environmental pollution and hazardous waste disposal on groups that have been historically and structurally marginalized, including Black populations and socio-economically disadvantaged communities. More recent environmental justice scholarship has expanded geographically and focused on a broader set of environmental hazards and harms, such as climate change impacts, biodiversity and habitat loss, and ecosystem service declines. Yet, the impacts and distribution of environmental hazards and harms in the marine environment on coastal populations has received less attention in the environmental justice literature. This narrative review paper starts to address this gap through a focus on five main areas of environmental injustice in the ocean: 1) pollution and toxic wastes, 2) plastics and marine debris, 3) climate change, 4) ecosystem, biodiversity and ecosystem service degradation, and 5) fisheries declines. For each, we characterize the issue and root drivers, then examine social and distributional impacts. In the discussion, we explore how these environmental injustices are converging and interacting, cumulative, differentiated, and geographically distributed, and briefly examine solutions and future research directions. In conclusion, we call for greater and more explicit attention to environmental justice in ocean research and policy.
Article
CONTEXT Climate change is expected to adversely affect agricultural production, particularly in Iran where the agricultural sector forms the backbone of the economy. This is true for the agriculture sector of the southwest region of Iran which is largely rain-fed and dominated by smallholder farmers with minimal livelihood alternatives. Although several studies have been conducted on climate change, little has been done on the adaptive capacity of farmers within farming systems, especially in Iran. OBJECTIVE The main objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptive capacity of four common farming systems (i.e., family farming system, cooperative farming system, commercialized farming system, and agro-enterprise farming system) in Fars province, southwestern Iran. METHODS A seven-step approach was used to normalize, weigh, and aggregate 102 individual indicators within a composite adaptive capacity index that is dimensionless, ranging from 0 to 1, and 1 is the optimal value. The required data were collected using a cross-sectional survey from 1472 farmers within the four mentioned farming systems. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The results showed that the highest value was recorded by agro-enterprise for knowledge, perception and awareness, transport and physical accessibility, and institution and economic resources. Agro-enterprise scored higher in terms of awareness and action, which shows that these farming systems have a higher capacity for adaptation to the threat posed by climate diversity. Farmers in this farming system benefit from high formal education, high perceptions about the threat and risk of climate change, the occurrence of climatic events, causes for the change in climatic parameters, and awareness of climate change impacts. SIGNIFICANCE This paper recommends resilience-building interventions in the study area, which target individuals with low adaptive capacities, especially farmers. The results can also assist agricultural policymakers to recognize which components and determinants of adaptive capacity should be prioritized to mitigate the threat of climate change to farming systems.
Article
Jakarta, known as the capital city of Indonesia and the national economic activity center, is also known as the market for floods. Moreover, the regions of Jakarta become vulnerable, especially the slum areas and this COVID-19 pandemic. This study proposes implementing Fuzzy Geographically Weighted Clustering (FGWC) with Chaotic Flower Pollination Algorithm (CFPA) in urban vulnerability analysis of Jakarta at the subdistrict level. Moreover, this study also implements the named entity recognition (NER) from local news media to extract the history of floods in Jakarta during 2019–2020 to support the urban vulnerability. This study found that the CFPA can improve the performance of FGWC. Subsequently, the clustering results showed that each cluster has its urban vulnerability problem. Most regions outside central Jakarta have more vulnerability problems, particularly in population dynamics, floods history, and slum areas. On the other hand, the news analysis showed that the most frequent flood happened between October and February. Therefore, the government and society must collaborates to overcome the urban vulnerability problems and mitigates the floods to increase the regional resilience of Jakarta.
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La vulnerabilidad socioeconómica de las ciudades asentadas frente al Golfo de México es un tema que requiere atención de primer orden dado los efectos del cambio climático que las está impactando, tanto a las actividades económicas y los asentamientos humanos, como a los ecosistemas costeros (estuarios y manglares) ubicados sobre la línea de costa. De ahí la importancia de la investigación ya que el comportamiento aleatorio del cambio climático, ligado al incremento de desastres, trasciende de cierta forma en el desarrollo sustentable de las localidades costeras del Golfo de México. Por lo que esta investigación se ha fijado como objetivo exponer los impactos sociales, económicos y culturales que puede sufrir el municipio de Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, bajo cualquier escenario donde el nivel del mar incremente de súbito 5 metros su nivel. La guía metodológica fue de carácter interdisciplinario, misma que consistió por una parte en ubicar y tipificar la distribución territorial de los grupos vulnerables que se encuentran actualmente dentro de la zona de peligro y por otra, en cualificar mediante recorridos de campo, las singularidades de los mismos. Algunos de los resultados más significativos son: si el municipio de Coatzacoalcos sufriera una inundación de cinco metros sobre el nivel del mar, 15% de su territorio quedaría anegado, es decir, 48 km2 de su territorio municipal presentarían cierto grado de vulnerabilidad socioeconómica al incremento del nivel del mar. Con base en ello, se propone fomentar exponencialmente la política de prevención de desastres dirigida a las personas más vulnerables.
Chapter
This chapter provides a historical and geographical overview of the use of geospatial tools and technologies to address pandemics in general, COVID-19 specifically, and longer-term adaptation to extreme events. Situating such events in place and time emphasizes the importance of these tools and how they shape the stories we tell. What is meant by “the geographies of the pandemic?” How have maps and geography contributed to understanding the pandemic and what have we learned from past events? A key theme of the pandemic is the exposure of inequality around the world not only exacerbated by the virus but also compounded by the government and social responses. This has exposed vulnerable populations (who are they?) and the landscape of inequity (where are they?), revealing how geography and geospatial technologies can contribute to future solutions and adaptations.
Article
Flooding damage is increasing due to abnormal climates. In particular, in the case of coastal cities, it is necessary to simultaneously consider inundation caused by marine disasters such as storm surge and tsunami as well as inundation due to urbanization. In order to respond to disasters in coastal cities, flood prediction must be preceded. In Korea, the intensity of disasters has been classified by frequency, and flood hazard maps have been produced accordingly. The map is generally derived through numerical simulation, which is based on a scenario, so there is a lot of uncertainty, and it is difficult to predict a disaster for which a scenario has not been established. Because the target range of the coast is wide, the calculation speed of numerical simulation is slow, and a considerable amount of time is required for inundation prediction. It is practically difficult to predict a disaster such as torrential rain in a short period of time. Therefore, in this paper, by using the SIND model, a scientific interpolation model proposed by Kim et al. (2018), the ability to predict the inundation of coastal cities was reviewed and the method of using the model was presented. The SIND model is a short-term prediction model of urban inundation for a desired scenario within the range by using a pre-established inundation forecast map, and can be used for short-term inundation prediction such as torrential rain. To examine the applicability, the accuracy of the flood hazard map derived from the SIND model for coastal cities was analyzed. As a result, it was confirmed that the shape similarity suggested by Kim et al. (2019) was about 0.7 or higher, and it was judged to be appropriate in terms of shape similarity. If the shape similarity technique used for model validation is improved to suit the urban flooding characteristics, the use of the SIND model is expected to increase.
Article
Background Earthquake is one of the most destructive catastrophes in Bangladesh and the evaluation of vulnerability is a prerequisite for the earthquake risk estimation. As a result, determining vulnerability is essential for lowering the future fatalities. The fundamental challenge in estimating the seismic vulnerability is to have a systematic understanding of all potential earthquake related losses. With this objective, the current study deals with evaluating the seismic vulnerability of Sylhet district of Bangladesh. Method A multi-criteria decision-making approach such as the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) has been used in this study to estimate the earthquake vulnerability. For the assessment of three scenarios namely social, structural and physical distance vulnerabilities, several criteria have been chosen in order to fully identify the risk of earthquake. Findings The study uncovers the vulnerable areas of Sylhet district. It is revealed that in terms of social vulnerability, 9% area of Sylhet district is under very high, 55% high, 15% moderate, 17% low, and 4% is under very low vulnerable zone. Structural vulnerability represents that 9% of the district area is under the very high vulnerability category, 48% high, 31% moderate, 4% low, and 8% falls under the very low category zone, whereas physical distance vulnerability comes up with a result that 23%, 38%, 23%, 7%, and 9% of the total area fall into very high, high, moderate, low, and very low categories, respectively. Interpretation The current work on seismic vulnerability assessment might be useful in reducing the risk and minimizing the losses due to earthquake.
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The main objective of this work is to present a reflection on the vulnerability and risks inherent in the coastal zone of the state of Amapá. It is the result of several experiences in the execution of research and monitoring, and planning actions to improve knowledge of the coastal zone in the context of its environmental changes, vulnerabilities and risks. It is intended to reflect on the vulnerabilities and the impact of climate change on ecosystems, populations and infrastructure in the Amazon coastal area, in particular on the State of Amapa located in the Amazon river mouth.
Chapter
Vulnerability is defined as the insecurity, precariousness, and defencelessness in which children are immersed, because of asymmetric social relations with adults, which are still maintained in the actions of families and organizations. Vulnerability is situational, it is conditioned by the context in which it develops, and can be caused or exacerbated by personal, social, political, economic, environmental, and situations groups. (Mackenzie et al., 2013, pp. 7–8). Justice for children is about safeguarding their well-being, and the functioning and capabilities that matter to justice, as well as thresholds for them, should be selected with reference to that (Schweiger & Graf, 2015). This chapter presents a theoretical reflection on the concepts of vulnerability, social vulnerability and social exclusion and then analyze these terms in the context of South America. Next, it is dedicated to analyzing social justice for children and the responses of adults -in the sphere of the family, organizations, and public policies- in the face of the social vulnerability of children during the COVID-19 pandemic. In line with the capability approach, the text supports the idea that a society that does not respect the rights of children, or does not maintain their well-being, cannot be considered a just society, and raises the need to consolidate universal social protection systems that are sensitive to the rights of children and guarantee the allowance per child, in South America.KeywordChildrenVulnerabilitySocial VulnerabilitySocial ExclusionSocial JusticeSocial Protection SystemCapability Approach
Article
Due to increasing population pressure and urbanization, as well as global climate change impacts, many coastal river deltas are experiencing increased exposure, vulnerability and risks linked to natural hazards. Mapping the vulnerability and risk profiles of deltas is critical for developing preparedness, mitigation and adaptation policies and strategies. Current vulnerability and risk assessments focus predominantly on social factors, and typically, do not systematically incorporate a social-ecological systems perspective, which can lead to incomplete assessments. We argue that ecosystem services, which link both ecosystem functions and human well-being, can be used to better characterize the mutual dependencies between society and the environment within risk assessment frameworks. Thus, building on existing vulnerability and risk assessment frameworks, we propose a revised indicator-based framework for social-ecological systems of coastal delta environments, supported by a list of ecosystem service indicators that were identified using a systematic literature review. This improved framework is an effective tool to address the vulnerability and risk in coastal deltas, enabling the assessment of multi-hazard risks to social-ecological systems within and across coastal deltas and allows more targeted development of management measures and policies aimed at reducing risks from natural hazards.
Article
Due to climate change, urban city centres face severe cyclonic events over the years in the Indian subcontinent. The local and national government and professionals, including disaster management scientists, climate change researchers, and meteorologists, are at the forefront of examining and tackling the issues of urban cyclones. Therefore, the study attempts to assess the vulnerability of urban slum households in India's first smart city Bhubaneswar due to cyclonic events. Primary data have been collected by using a structured questionnaire from two slums, namely “Phd Sahi” and “Kedar Palli” with a sample size of 200 households. The vulnerability is assessed in the context of five elements: social, economic, physical, institutional, and awareness, and their respective yardsticks have been chosen through previous literature and based on the condition of the slum. The study has developed five individual vulnerability indices considering 38 vulnerability indicators mentioned above with a multidimensional vulnerability index. Results show that the slum population is more vulnerable to cyclones based on economic, physical, and awareness vulnerability while less vulnerable in terms of social and institutional. Therefore, the paper advocates some policy suggestions that the state planning should aim at achieving overall economic, physical with infrastructural development to ensure the safety of these marginalized urban communities under participatory slum up-gradation program. Both state and central government should work together to frame policies that will lead to more awareness among the poor slum population, which can, on the other hand, reduce the disaster risks of a cyclone.
Thesis
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My dissertation studies the cultural responses of Chinese society to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Based on Geertz's idea of "webs of significance" and Giddens' idea of "ontological security," I construe "culture" as a system of meaning and order by which the individual and society could maintain sense of security, control, and continuity. A catastrophic event might challenge or threaten this system, and create an "unsettled time" (Swidler) that poses problems to solve, difficulties to confront, as well as opportunities of reshaping moral order and power relation. My aim is to uncover the variation of meaning-making among different social agents; as well as the relationship between meaning-making on the one hand, and social action, agency, and practice on the other hand. The data gathered from multiple sources suggests that the Chinese society responded to the earthquake by mobilizing huge institutional, cultural, and material resources, which altogether created a "culture boom." I focus on the existential issues triggered by the disaster, including decisions about life and death, the meaning-making about the disaster, and the meaning-making about life and death. On these topics, I dialogue with literature of culture and action, literature of suffering and theodicy, and the sociology of death. I provide a systematic picture about the diverse responses of Chinese society to those issues. I also look at the linkage between existential issues and social actions in daily life. Several structural, institutional factors and cultural resources are found involved in these topics. However, there is also a huge room of ambivalence and uncertainty.
Article
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I estimate the loss-reducing effect of local public investments against natural hazards with new measures of damages, weather risk, and spending for a panel of 904 US coastal counties in 2000-2020. I distinguish federally- and county-funded projects and rely on a quasi-experimental strategy, matching counties by economic development, population, and weather risk. Risk predictions come from the Random Forest learning algorithm, using granular data on resident vulnerability and severe weather frequency. Public spending on adaptation is effective – the average high-spending county avoids a significant portion of losses – and efficient – $1 prevents up to $3 in losses over 20 years. The evidence suggests that federal spending is focused on high-risk areas, while local spending is effectively implemented in medium-risk counties. Finally, I show that fractionalization among residents about the priority of climate-change policy can be a limiting factor in adaptation spending. Total spending is significantly lower in areas with high diversity in policy preferences, and more so when opinions are equally split.
Article
While disasters affect all members of society, studies show that racial and ethnic minorities evacuate at lower rates and are disproportionately affected by disasters. Despite the fact that Bangladesh is prone to cyclones, very few studies assess cyclone vulnerability. Assessing a household's vulnerability is seen as a critical step toward mitigating the negative consequences of disaster risks. This research was done among the Rakhains group in Bangladesh's Barguna District, an area prone to cyclones. This study aims to determine the vulnerability of Rakhain's households to cyclones. A door-to-door survey of 110 households was conducted in two Unions of Taltali Upazila, Barguna District. A total of 27 indicators were employed to assess their vulnerability. Results revealed that physical (0.52 ± 0.13) and composite vulnerability index (0.45 ± 0.12) were significantly higher in Sonakta Union than in Barabagi Union. Due to storm surges, they experienced inequality (57.27%) and extensive damage to houses and transportation facilities (63.64%). However, they had evacuation practices due to the cyclone emergency period. Most of them were satisfied (87.27%) with the transportation facility towards the cyclone shelter, whereas more than half were dissatisfied with the cyclone shelter's hygiene condition. National and international organizations should have a comprehensive disaster risk reduction strategy that includes everyone regardless of race, location, and ethnicity.
Chapter
Risk describes the impact of uncertainties on objectives. Disturbances are important risk factors for ecosystem management because they can negatively affect the provisioning of ecosystem services and their occurrence and extent cannot be predicted with high accuracy. Risk management is the coordinated activity of managing and controlling risks. The three central elements of risk management are risk identification, risk assessment, and risk treatment. Disturbance risks can be quantified, for example, by estimating predisposition and by scenario analyses. Risk assessment includes both economic and social components (e.g. social vulnerability). The general possibilities to treat risks are to accept them, to reduce them, or to collectivize them.KeywordsEcosystem managementPredisposition assessmentRisk assessmentRisk identificationRisk managementRisk treatmentScenario analysisSocial vulnerabilityUncertainties
Article
Storms globally account for the highest loss of life among weather-related natural hazards. This study examines the relationship between components of housing vulnerability and typhoon related mortality in the Philippines at a municipal level between 2005 and 2015 using a Hurdle Negative Binomial (HNB) model. We find that in municipalities with greater prevalence of extreme substandard housing, unimproved household water sources, crowdedness, lower housing density, and less secure tenure, people are more likely to die from typhoons when controlling for typhoon proximity and wind speed as well as coastal proximity. We recommend targeted investments in safer housing in municipalities of Region VIII, Region XI and the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (BARMM) where correlations between housing vulnerability and disaster mortality are the highest. This research provides new knowledge of the link between housing and mortality in disasters, offering one of the first national scale assessments to quantify the contributions of safer housing in reducing loss of life in disasters.
Article
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Findings The increase in the availability of GPS-based movement data has enabled the exploration of mobility patterns in urban transportation networks. Understanding the relationship between social vulnerability and transportation flows from big data during natural disasters is crucial for utilities and policymakers for decision-making purposes, such as evacuation and restoration planning. In this study, we explore the geographic variation of changes in trip times of taxi trips in New York City (NYC) before and after Hurricane Sandy (2012) using GPS trajectory data in relation to the underlying socioeconomic distribution of impacted populations using localized regression technique with GWR. The findings reveal how the spatial patterns of trip change times with respect to SVI, income levels and population density in NYC.
Thesis
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Every nation has some identity attributes that make it distinct from other nations, of which settlement pattern is the most important one. There are studies on essential components of a viable settlement and also there are studies on the evolution pattern of settlements in this region. But, no studies were found that explains the “generic pattern” of any particular settlement typology. It is observed in the Bengal delta that every time a settlement begins to evolve, it follows the same common principles, giving rise to a certain pattern. To identify that pattern of Bengal settlements, the present coastline, which is the active delta and represents the thousands of years old geo-climatic context of this region, has been analysed. The objective of this study is to identify the generic settlement pattern in the Bengal Delta. The sub-objectives are to find out the phenomenon behind the evolution of a particular settlement pattern in the Bengal Delta in response to traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and finally to validate the settlement pattern as the generic one which can be used as a basis for future planning and design at any scale and level. The research has been conducted through a triangulation of literature review, phenomenological approach and qualitative data analysis. The analogical context is identified through the historic phenomenological interpretation of available literature. The historic settlement pattern is reconstructed for the phenomenological study in the present context to verify the prevalence frequency and intensity of the historic pattern. This research essentially attempted to connect methodically, the various threads and fill up the gaps to identify the order that prevails in the settlement pattern of the Bengal Delta, thereby testing the hypothesis, that “Bengal Delta has a generic settlement pattern”. From the three stratified zones, 22 case study settlements were selected at random for the field survey, KII and FGD. On analysing all the data, historic interpretation of the settlement patterns and logically identifying the phenomenon behind the development, a ‘generic settlement pattern’ is revealed. Theoretically bracketed settlement components, their growth pattern and character is further scrutinized in the analogous historic Bengal delta context to ‘confirm’ that they are tied up in a single thread and further validated in both rural and urban context. The generic settlement module is found to vary between (1 km to 1½ km) x (1 km to 1½ km) with a population ranging from 30-100 homesteads. Depending on the context, scale, and level of development, this module takes on various shapes through logical transformation, mutation, adaptations or resiliencies. The elements of a settlement are connected both physically and psychologically. The generic settlement pattern as identified comprises of four parts i.e. homogeneous part, central part, circulatory part and community interaction part. The communication route gives the settlement inter and intra-accessibility with the community facilities and organize the whole settlement spontaneously with TEK and gives shape to the settlement. Settlements in Bengal Delta employ the wisdom, knowledge, and practices handed down from generation to generation. There is an order both in the internal system and external outline of the settlements. The pattern that is identified is generic in nature because it is found to be the basis of all the organic settlements at various scales and levels in Bangladesh (which is a part of the Bengal Delta) unless it is modified by some external forces. The studies in the Bengal Delta context found some common denominator that provides the basis of a ‘generic pattern’ persisting and prevailing in all levels and scales when evolved by TEK organically. Transplanted ideas not rooted in the context, particularly during the colonial era, has brought about some changes in the settlement pattern that cause chaos. For sustainability purposes ‘transformation’ instead of ‘transplantation’ is identified to be the right approach for settlement planning. The generic settlement pattern that is identified for Bengal Delta can be used as a basic framework for any future settlement planning and design in this region for its sustainability.
Book
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Disasters by Design provides an alternative and sustainable way to view, study, and manage hazards in the United States that would result in disaster-resilient communities, higher environmental quality, inter- and intragenerational equity, economic sustainability, and improved quality of life. This volume provides an overview of what is known about natural hazards, disasters, recovery, and mitigation, how research findings have been translated into policies and programs; and a sustainable hazard mitigation research agenda. Also provided is an examination of past disaster losses and hazards management over the past 20 years, including factors--demographic, climate, social--that influence loss. This volume summarizes and sets the stage for the more detailed books in the series.
Article
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Geographic studies of environmental racism have focused on the spatial relationships between environmental hazards and community demographics in order to determine if inequity exists. Conspicuously absent within this literature, however, is any substantive discussion of racism. This paper seeks to address this shortcoming in two ways. I first investigate how racism is understood and expressed in the literature. I argue that although racism is rarely explicitly discussed, a normative conceptualization of racism informs the research. Not only is this prevailing conception overly narrow and restrictive, it also denies the spatiality of racism. Consequently, my second goal is to demonstrate how various forms of racism contribute to environmental racism. In addition to conventional understandings of racism, I emphasize white privilege, a highly structural and spatial form of racism. Using Los Angeles as a case study, I examine how whites have secured relatively cleaner environments by moving away from older industrial cores via suburbanization. I suggest that the historical processes of suburbanization and decentralization are instances of white privilege and have contributed to contemporary patterns of environmental racism. Thus, in addition to interpreting racism as discriminatory facility siting and malicious intent, I also examine a less conscious but hegemonic form of racism, white privilege. Such an approach not only allows us to appreciate the range of racisms that shape the urban landscape, but also illuminates the functional relationships between places—in particular between industrial zones and residential suburbs, and how their development reflects and reproduces a particular racist formation.
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Federal disaster assistance is one component of U.S. policy for coping with damaging floods. The president ultimately determines whether or not federal relief is provided to states and local communities following a disaster. Yet, guidelines governing the president's discretion are vague and the total federal cost of disaster assistance is extremely difficult to determine. This study analyzes flood-related presidential disaster declarations from 1965 to 1997. It compares the annual number of flood-related declarations to measures of precipitation and flood damage, finding that presidents have differed significantly in disaster declaration policy. Annual differences in declarations during seven presidential administrations do not cor-respond to the president's political party affiliation. In addition, a state's ability to pay has not been a major consideration in presidential decisions about whether a disaster warrants federal assistance. However, pres-idential decisions are related to whether or not the president is running for reelection. Declarations are also related to changes in legislative and administrative policy. This paper discusses the significance of these findings in the context of national policies governing floods and other disasters.
Article
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We present a method for systematically identifying neighbourhoods that may face transportation di Yculties during an evacuation. A classi® cation of this nature o Vers a unique approach to assessing community vulnerability in regions subject to fast-moving hazards of uncertain spatial impact (e.g., urban ® restorms and toxic spills on highways). The approach is founded on an integer programming (IP) model called the critical cluster model (CCM). An heuristic algorithm is described which is capable of producing e Ycient, high-quality solu- tions to this model in a GIS context. The paper concludes with an application of the method to Santa Barbara, California.
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Through five systematic, large-scale mail surveys conducted since 1993, the Disaster Research Center (DRC) has obtained data on hazard awareness, preparedness, disaster impacts, and short- and long-term recovery among 5,000 private-sector firms in communities across the United States (Memphis/Shelby County, Tennessee, Des Moines, Iowa, Los Angeles, California, Santa Cruz County, California, and South Dade County, Florida). This paper summarizes findings from those studies in three major areas: factors influencing business disaster preparedness; disaster-related sources of business disruption and financial loss; and factors that affect the ability of businesses to recover following major disaster events. Implications of the research for business contingency planning and business disaster management are discussed.
Article
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Disaster vulnerability is socially constructed, i.e., it arises out of the social and economic circumstances of everyday living. Most often discussed from the perspective of developing nations, this article extends the argument using American demographic trends. Examples from recent disasters, Hurricane Andrew in particular, illustrate how certain categories of people, such as the poor, the elderly, women-headed households and recent residents, are at greater risk throughout the disaster response process. Knowledge of where these groups are concentrated within communities and the general nature of their circumstances is an important step towards effective emergency management. Emergency planners, policy-makers and responding organisations are encouraged to identify and locate high-risk sectors on Community Vulnerability Maps, integrating this information into GIS systems where feasible. Effective disaster management calls for aggressively involving these neighbourhoods and groups at all levels of planning and response, as well as mitigation efforts that address the root causes of vulnerability.
Article
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Disaster researchers are accumulating clear evidence that, as a group, women are likely to respond, experience, and be affected by disasters in ways which are qualitatively different. At the same time, it is important to recognize and document women's diversity. Clearly, not all women experience disasters uniformly. For example, a White, middle-class professional woman in an American town will be affected differently by disaster than will a sub-Saharan women in seclusion or a disabled Brazilian elder. Privilege is relative to one's location in a given set of social, economic, political, and religious circumstances, of which gender is only 1 major factor. However, understanding how gender relates to the complex interplay of power, resources, privilege, and stratification will increase the effectiveness of emergency and disaster management efforts.
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The Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) has been proposed by collaboration of the World Economic Forum, Geneva, Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia University, and Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, New Haven as a measure of the overall state of the environment. This paper argues that the basic design of the ESI leaves much to be desired. It has conceptual problems in its visualization of environmental degradation and sustainability. The choice of variables as well as the statistical methodology of compiling the index is also found to be wanting. The paper then proposes an alternative methodology using Principal Components Analysis and argues that this is an improvement upon the ESI methodology. Given the likely use of aggregate environmental indexes in future environmental management, the critique advanced in this paper is of considerable significance.
Article
Critical environmental regions - concepts, distinctions and issues Amazonia the Aral Sea basin the Nepal middle mountains the Ukambani region of Kenya the Llano Estacado of the American Southern High Plains the Basin of Mexico the North Sea the Ordos Plateau of China the eastern Sunderland region of South-East Asia comparisons and conclusions.
Article
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Book
Preface Gender? Why Women?: An Introduction to Women and Disaster by Elaine Enarson and Betty Hearn Morrow Perspectives on Gender and Disaster The Neglect of Gender in Disaster Work: An Overview of the Literature by Alice Fothergill Gender Inequality, Vulnerability, and Disaster: Issues in Theory and Research by Robert Bolin, Martina Jackson, and Allison Crist The Perspective of Gender: A Missing Element in Disaster Response by Joe Scanlon Social Construction of Gendered Vulnerability Eve and Adam among the Embers: Gender Pattern after the Oakland Berkeley Firestorm by Susanna M. Hoffman A Comparative Perspective on Household, Gender, and Kinship in Relation to Disaster by Raymond Wiest "Men Must Work and Women Must Weep": Examining Gender Stereotypes in Disasters by Maureen Fordham and Anne-Michelle Ketteridge Women and Post-Disaster Stress by Jane C. Ollenburger and Graham A. Tobin Balancing Vulnerability and Capacity: Women and Children during Philippine Disasters by Zenaida G. Delica Domestic Violence after Disaster by Jennifer Wilson, Brenda D. Phillips, and David M. Neal Case Studies of Women Responding to Disaster Gender, Disaster, and Empowerment: A Case Study from Pakistan by Farzana Bari Women in Bushfire Country by Helen Cox "Floods, They're a Damned Nuisance": Women's Flood Experiences in Rural Australia by C. Christine Finlay Disaster Prone: Reflections of a Female Permanent Disaster Volunteer by Carrie Barnecut Women's Disaster Vulnerability and Response to the Colima Earthquake by Carolina Serrat Vinas Gender Differentiation and Aftershock Warning Response by Paul W. O'Brien and Patricia Atchison Reflections from a Teacher and Survivor by Diane Gail Colina Women Will Rebuild Miami: A Case Study of Feminist Response to Disaster by Elaine Enarson and Betty Hearn Morrow Women in Emergency Management: An Australian Perspective by Doone Robertson Women's Roles in Natural Disaster Preparation and Aid: A Central American View by Letizia Toscani The Role of Women in Health-Related Aspects of Emergency Management: A Caribbean Perspective by Gloria E. Noel Conclusion: New Directions Toward a Gendered Disaster Science--Policy, Practice, and Research by Elaine Enarson and Betty Hearn Morrow References Index
Article
Natural disasters are a growing threat to human populations, particularly to vulnerable groups such as the elderly. A review of the literature on how the elderly respond in disasters indicates there are patterns of vulnerability in the social, psychological, and physiological dimensions. Research studies from sociology, psychology, and medicine, examining disaster loss and harm as it relates to age, form the basis for the differential vulnerability reviewed within this paper. Differential vulnerability between elderly and nonelderly disaster victims is summarized and discussed in the following areas: actual loss versus relative need, the perception of loss, service stigma and threats to independence, psychological vulnerability, and morbidity and mortality. Minimizing the disaster vulnerability of the elderly requires a solid understanding of the specific needs and traits of the elderly population, and identification of the risk factors that lead to their vulnerability. Effective disaster policies and programs will specifically target the elderly population, establish strong connections between the elderly and available resources, and evaluate the efforts to ensure that vulnerabilities are being modified.
Article
Losses from environmental hazards have escalated in the past decade, prompting a reorientation of emergency management systems away from simple postevent response. There is a noticeable change in policy, with more emphasis on loss reduction through mitigation, preparedness, and recovery programs. Effective mitigation of losses from hazards requires hazard identification, an assessment of all the hazards likely to affect a given place, and risk-reduction measures that are compatible across a multitude of hazards. The degree to which populations are vulnerable to hazards, however, is not solely dependent upon proximity to the source of the threat or the physical nature of the hazard –social factors also play a significant role in determining vulnerability. This paper presents a method for assessing vulnerability in spatial terms using both biophysical and social indicators. A geographic information system was utilized to establish areas of vulnerability based upon twelve environmental threats and eight social characteristics for our study area, Georgetown County, South Carolina. Our results suggest that the most biophysically vulnerable places do not always spatially intersect with the most vulnerable populations. This is an important finding because it reflects the likely ‘social costs’ of hazards on the region. While economic losses might be large in areas of high biophysical risk, the resident population also may have greater safety nets (insurance, additional financial resources) to absorb and recover from the loss quickly. Conversely, it would take only a moderate hazard event to disrupt the well-being of the majority of county residents (who are more socially vulnerable, but perhaps do not reside in the highest areas of biophysical risks) and retard their longer-term recovery from disasters. This paper advances our theoretical and conceptual understanding of the spatial dimensions of vulnerability. It further highlights the merger of conceptualizations of human environment relationships with geographical techniques in understanding contemporary public policy issues.
Book
This book is a complete report card on the environment of all fifty states. Using two hundred indicators to rank each state, the book examines areas of concern to all Americans, including: air pollution, water pollution, energy and transportation, hazardous wastes, community and work-place, health, farms and forests, and many more. This book compares, the environmental policies and programs of every state. it is in effect a scorecard on how successful each state has been in maintaining its environmental health.
Article
This paper reviews the development of the field of social indicators from its origins in the 1960s to the present. Three classes of social indicators are identified: normative welfare indicators, which focus on direct measures of welfare and are subject to the interpretation that if they change in the right direction while other things remain equal things have gotten better or people are better off; satisfaction indicators, which measure psychological satisfaction, happiness, and life fulfillment by using survey research instruments that ascertain the subjective reality in which people live; and the most inclusive category, descriptive social indicators, which are indexes of social conditions (i.e. contexts of human existence) and changes therein for various segments of a population. Correspondingly, two conceptions of how social indicators are to be interpreted and used are discussed: One, which emphasizes the policy-analytic uses of social indicators, presumes that the proper relationship of social indi...