Molecular measurement of BCR-ABL transcript variations in chronic myeloid leukemia patients in cytogenetic remission

Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. .
BMC Blood Disorders 11/2010; 10(1):7. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2326-10-7
Source: PubMed


The monitoring of BCR-ABL transcript levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become important to assess minimal residual disease (MRD) and standard of care in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study, we performed a prospective, sequential analysis using RT-qPCR monitoring of BCR-ABL gene rearrangements in blood samples from 91 CML patients in chronic phase (CP) who achieved complete cytogenetic remission (CCyR) and major molecular remission (MMR) throughout imatinib treatment.
The absolute level of BCR-ABL transcript from peripheral blood was serially measured every 4 to 12 weeks by RT-qPCR. Only level variations > 0.5%, according to the international scale, was considered positive. Sequential cytogenetic analysis was also performed in bone marrow samples from all patients using standard protocols.
Based on sequential analysis of BCR-ABL transcripts, the 91 patients were divided into three categories: (A) 57 (62.6%) had no variation on sequential analysis; (B) 30 (32.9%) had a single positive variation result obtained in a single sample; and (C) 4 (4.39%) had variations of BCR-ABL transcripts in at least two consecutive samples. Of the 34 patients who had elevated levels of transcripts (group B and C), 19 (55.8%) had a < 1% of BCR-ABL/BCR ratio, 13 (38.2%) patients had a 1% to 10% increase and 2 patients had a >10% increase of RT-qPCR. The last two patients had lost a CCyR, and none of them showed mutations in the ABL gene. Transient cytogenetic alterations in Ph-negative cells were observed in five (5.5%) patients, and none of whom lost CCyR.
Despite an increase levels of BCR-ABL/BCR ratio variations by RT-qPCR, the majority of CML patients with MMR remained in CCyR. Thus, such single variations should neither be considered predictive of subsequent failure and nor an indication for altering imatinib dose or switching to second generation therapy. Changing of imatinib on the basis of BCR-ABL/BCR% sustained increase and mutational studies is a prudent approach for preserving other therapeutic options in imatinib-resistant patients.

Download full-text


Available from: Sabri Sanabani
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this retrospective study we evaluated the pretherapeutic mRNA expression of the hOCT1 (human organic cation transporter 1) gene in patients with chronic-phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who varied in terms of their response to imatinib (IM). hOCT1 mRNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Patients were classified as expressing either high (n = 44) or low hOCT1 mRNA (n = 44). The complete cytogenetic response rates observed at 6, 12 and 18 months were 47.7, 84.1 and 91%, respectively, in patients with high hOCT1 mRNA and 47.5, 81.8 and 86.3%, respectively, in patients with low hOCT1 transcripts. The major molecular response rates were not significantly different between patients with high and low hOCT1 mRNA after 6 months of therapy (22.7 vs. 9.1%; p = 0.07), but they were significantly different after 12 months (54.5 vs. 31.8%; p = 0.026) and 18 months (77.2 vs. 56.8%; p = 0.034). Complete molecular responses were observed in 5 patients with low and 17 patients with high hOCT1 mRNA (p = 0.003). The 5-year event-free and overall survival analyses revealed no significant differences between the groups. These data imply that knowledge of the pretherapeutic level of hOCT1 could be a useful marker to predict IM therapy outcome in treatment-naïve CP CML patients.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Acta Haematologica
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human parvovirus B19V (B19V) has been associated with various haematological disorders, but data on its prevalence in leukaemia are scarce. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil with leukaemia to determine the molecular frequency of B19 variants and characterize the viral genetic variability by partial and complete sequencing of the coding of non-structural protein 1 (NS1)/viral capsid proteins 1 and 2 (VP1/VP2). The presence of B19V infections was investigated by PCR amplification of the viral NS1 gene fragment and confirmed by sequencing analysis. The NS1/VP1/VP2 and partially larger gene fragments of the NS1-positive samples were determined by overlapping nested PCR and direct sequencing results. The B19V NS1 was detected in 40 (16%) of 249 bone marrow samples including 12/78 (15.4%) acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 25/155 (16.1%) acute myeloid leukaemia and 3/16 (18.7%) chronic myeloid leukaemia samples. Of the 40 participants, 25 (62.5%) were infected with genotype 1a and 15 (37.5%) with genotype 3b. The phylogenetic analysis of other regions revealed that 12/40 (30%) of the patients with leukaemia were co-infected with genotypes 1a and 3b. In addition, a new B19V intergenotypic recombinant (1a/3b) and an NS1 non-recombinant genotype 1a were detected in one patient. Our findings demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of B19V monoinfections and dual infections and provide, for the first time, evidence of inter-genotypic recombination in adults with leukaemia that may contribute to the genetic diversity of B19V and may also be a source of new emerging viral strains with future implications for diagnosis, therapy and efficient vaccine development.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Small clinical studies have found that patients with idealized response to imatinib can sustain long-lasting responses after treatment discontinuation, suggesting that these patients may be effectively "cured" of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment discontinuation is not presently considered routine practice and is not recommended outside the context of clinical research. Many questions remain regarding "cure" in CML: how "cure" is defined, what factors predict successful treatment discontinuation, and what management strategies are the most appropriate post-discontinuation, especially when molecular relapse occurs. This review addresses these issues and discusses the current knowledge regarding treatment discontinuation and a potential for "cure" of CML.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Leukemia research
Show more