Assessing posttraumatic cognitive processes: the Event Related Rumination Inventory

Department of Psychology and the Interdisciplinary Health Psychology Doctoral Program, University of North Carolina Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA.
Anxiety, stress, and coping (Impact Factor: 1.55). 11/2010; 24(2):137-56. DOI: 10.1080/10615806.2010.529901
Source: PubMed


Cognitive processes in the aftermath of experiencing a major life stressor play an important role in the impact of the event on the person. Intrusive thoughts about the event are likely to be associated with continued distress, while deliberate rumination, aimed at understanding and problem-solving, should be predictive of posttraumatic growth (PTG). The Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI), designed to measure these two styles of rumination, is described and validation information is provided. Using a college student sample screened for having experienced highly stressful life events, data were obtained (N=323) to conduct an exploratory factor analysis that supported the two factors of the ERRI. Separate confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on two additional samples (Ns=186 and 400) supported a two-factor model. The two ERRI factors were validated by comparison with related variables and by assessing their contributions to predicting distress and PTG in two samples (Ns=198 and 202) that had been combined to conduct the second CFA. Data indicate the ERRI has solid psychometric properties, captures variance not measured by stable differences in cognitive styles, and the separate factors are related to posttraumatic distress and growth as predicted by existing models of PTG.

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Available from: Arnie Cann, Jul 27, 2014
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    • "A Cronbach's alpha of .80 was considered. Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI;Cann et al., 2011). This 20-item questionnaire is composed of two factors; Intrusive rumination and Deliberate rumination, with 10 items each. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In this article, the evaluation of a structural model that seeks to identify predictors and mediators of posttraumatic growth (PTG) of people affected by a natural disaster is presented. Method: The sample was composed of 349 adult men and women who experienced the earthquake and tsunami on February 27, 2010 in Chile. A modeling with structural equations was used, contrasting two predictive models of PTG. The latent variables assessed were subjective severity, social sharing of emotion, intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, problem-focused coping and posttraumatic growth. Results: The best fit was obtained with the model that shows a direct influence of the subjective severity, problem-focused coping, and deliberate rumination in the presence of PTG. Problem-focused coping mediated the relation between subjective severity and social sharing with PTG. In turn, deliberate rumination mediated the relation of problem-focused coping and intrusive rumination with PTG. Conclusions: The results show the relevant role of cognitive processes such as deliberate rumination and behavioral processes such as problem-focused coping in the presence of PTG.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Psicothema
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    • "Though conceptually congruent with rumination, we were unable to find any empirical data on the convergent validity of this instrument with respect to the RRS. Two other scales of life event-or trauma-related rumination have emerged from the PTSD literature: the Revised Impact of Events Scale- Intrusion subscale (IES-I: Weiss, 2007) and, more recently, the Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI: Cann et al., 2011). The IES-I comprises eight items that measure the severity of recurrent, egodystonic ideation in response to stressors (e.g., " I thought about it when I didn't meant to " ; " other things kept making me think about it " ). "
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the association between sleep and repetitive thought in the form of rumination and worry has proliferated in the past decade. This chapter reviews the literature with the aim of consolidating key findings, identifying underresearched areas, and suggesting new directions for future research. We also discuss assessment measures for relevant constructs, as well as pertinent clinical implications. To avoid redundancy with Harvey’s (2005) excellent prior review, we pay special attention to new and emerging research topics such as rumination and sleep; nearly all research on sleep and rumination has emerged since 2003. We also critically consider evidence for the similarities and differences between rumination and worry, especially in terms of their effects on sleep. Similarly, while Harvey focused her review on repetitive thought in insomnia disorder, we adopt a transdiagnostic approach emphasizing the relationship between repetitive thought and sleep disturbance outside diagnostic constraints.
    Full-text · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    • "Lastly, we also examined the role of cognitive processing. In line with a posttraumatic growth model (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004), research has found that deliberate rumination (purposeful thoughts focused on the struggle of the event) facilitates posttraumatic growth whereas intrusive rumination (negative and unwanted thoughts) does not; intrusive rumination, in fact, increases posttraumatic stress (Cann et al., 2011). Therefore, considering the nature of PGI, we expected that people with high PGI will experience posttraumatic growth through deliberate rumination, and experience less stress by engaging in less intrusive rumination. "
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    ABSTRACT: The current study examined the role of Personal Growth Initiative (PGI) in predicting posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress, and the extent to which rumination styles explain these relations among 286 college students. As predicted, results showed that the cognitive component of PGI negatively predicted posttraumatic stress. Also, there was a significant positive indirect effect of behavioral PGI on posttraumatic growth through deliberate rumination. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was also significant positive indirect effects of behavioral PGI on posttraumatic stress through intrusive and deliberate rumination. The current study creates new insights on the application of PGI in trauma research.
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