Article

Assessing posttraumatic cognitive processes: the Event Related Rumination Inventory

Department of Psychology and the Interdisciplinary Health Psychology Doctoral Program, University of North Carolina Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA.
Anxiety, stress, and coping (Impact Factor: 1.55). 11/2010; 24(2):137-56. DOI: 10.1080/10615806.2010.529901
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cognitive processes in the aftermath of experiencing a major life stressor play an important role in the impact of the event on the person. Intrusive thoughts about the event are likely to be associated with continued distress, while deliberate rumination, aimed at understanding and problem-solving, should be predictive of posttraumatic growth (PTG). The Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI), designed to measure these two styles of rumination, is described and validation information is provided. Using a college student sample screened for having experienced highly stressful life events, data were obtained (N=323) to conduct an exploratory factor analysis that supported the two factors of the ERRI. Separate confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on two additional samples (Ns=186 and 400) supported a two-factor model. The two ERRI factors were validated by comparison with related variables and by assessing their contributions to predicting distress and PTG in two samples (Ns=198 and 202) that had been combined to conduct the second CFA. Data indicate the ERRI has solid psychometric properties, captures variance not measured by stable differences in cognitive styles, and the separate factors are related to posttraumatic distress and growth as predicted by existing models of PTG.

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Available from: Arnie Cann, Jul 27, 2014
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    • "A Cronbach's alpha of .80 was considered. Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI;Cann et al., 2011). This 20-item questionnaire is composed of two factors; Intrusive rumination and Deliberate rumination, with 10 items each. "
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    • "Though conceptually congruent with rumination, we were unable to find any empirical data on the convergent validity of this instrument with respect to the RRS. Two other scales of life event-or trauma-related rumination have emerged from the PTSD literature: the Revised Impact of Events Scale- Intrusion subscale (IES-I: Weiss, 2007) and, more recently, the Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI: Cann et al., 2011). The IES-I comprises eight items that measure the severity of recurrent, egodystonic ideation in response to stressors (e.g., " I thought about it when I didn't meant to " ; " other things kept making me think about it " ). "
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    • "Lastly, we also examined the role of cognitive processing. In line with a posttraumatic growth model (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004), research has found that deliberate rumination (purposeful thoughts focused on the struggle of the event) facilitates posttraumatic growth whereas intrusive rumination (negative and unwanted thoughts) does not; intrusive rumination, in fact, increases posttraumatic stress (Cann et al., 2011). Therefore, considering the nature of PGI, we expected that people with high PGI will experience posttraumatic growth through deliberate rumination, and experience less stress by engaging in less intrusive rumination. "
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