Article

Does Diversity Erode Social Cohesion? Social Capital and Race in British Neighborhoods

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Abstract

The debate on causes and consequences of social capital has recently been complemented by an investigation into factors that erode it. Various scholars concluded that diversity, and racial heterogeneity in particular, is damaging for the sense of community, interpersonal trust and formal and informal interactions. However, most of this research does not adequately account for the negative effect of a community's low socio-economic status on neighbourhood interactions and attitudes. This article is to date the first empirical examination of the impact of racial context on various dimensions of social capital in British neighbourhoods. Findings show that low neighbourhood status is the key element undermining all dimensions of social capital, while the eroding effect of racial diversity is limited.

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... Additionally, quantitative research pays little attention to informal action because of a lack of data. Surveys may ask questions about 'informal sociability' or 'informal help provision' (Letki, 2008) but these are often worded differently in various surveys, making them challenging to compare over time and place. Omitting informal action is also problematic from a social capital perspective as it remains invisible in administrative data. ...
... Research about the relationship between area diversity and social capital in different countries has pointed in different directions, with the effect of diversity found to differ between minority and majority groups and to be generally small in magnitude (Fieldhouse and Cutts, 2010;Kesler and Bloemraad, 2010;Heath and Demireva, 2014). Once socioeconomic deprivation has been accounted for at the neighbourhood level, the negative relationship between diversity and social capital largely disappears (Laurence and Heath, 2008;Letki, 2008;Laurence, 2011;Sturgis et al, 2011), raising questions about the meaningfulness of such categorisations. Civil society in superdiverse areas therefore remains a 'black box' in quantitative studies, with little known about its nature, role and activities or the wider local and demographic context. ...
... Using membership as a proxy for levels of civic action also overlooks the importance of informal volunteering. Letki (2008) demonstrates that there is no correlation between formal organisational membership and informal sociability at the neighbourhood level, which suggests that the association between formal and informal civil society activity should not be taken for granted. Administrative data record the address of registered organisations but not where the organisation is active, so measures of density do not equate to the locations of actions. ...
Article
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This article analyses challenges for civil society research in superdiverse areas and proposes ways to overcome them. Key components of previous studies are problematised, such as the lack of attention to demographic complexity, the focus on formally registered organisations at the expense of informal ‘below the radar’ initiatives, the over-reliance on analyses using administrative data and building on dichotomous categorisations of social capital. The article calls for scholars to develop methodologies and theory that enable research across the full range of civil society activity. We argue for a holistic approach to researching civil society through comparative and mixed-methods designs that facilitate research about the nature of civil society action, its forms, patterns and experiences. The concept of ‘superdiversity’ is useful to reflect evolving demographic complexity, given age, gender, nationality, religion and immigration status, and divergent experiences of rights and the labour market.
... Generally speaking, social capital is defined as "features of social organizations, such as networks, norms and trust that facilitate action and cooperation for mutual benefit" (Putnam, 1993b). Therefore, the trust of the members in each other, the level of level of trust in comparison to lower-classes (see Alesina and La Ferrara, 2000;Letki, 2008). However contrary to expectation, as shown in Figure 83% for their co-ethnics. ...
... In addition, a significant number of studies also underline the importance of economic prosperity and education level which is also effective to determine the level of social capital and civic engagement. According to Letki (2008), "solidarity is undermined by poverty, but the blame is placed on diversity, as a result of the fact that diversity and poverty are strongly associated". As conflict and ethnic competition theory suggest that poverty and education also affect actual and perceived threat among disadvantaged groups in society. ...
... So, given the coexistence of economic disparities and ethnic diversity discerned in developed countries, it is hard to differentiate income inequality from the impact of ethnic diversity on the production of social capital. In the UK, Letki (2008) explored whether the main problem is ethnic diversity or whether it is poverty that undermines social solidarity and trust. The findings demonstrated that ethnic diversity has a direct negative effect on trust and informal help, but she interpreted this as a pseudo-effect, and suggested that the vital issue is poverty. ...
Thesis
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This study investigates the relationship between the low level of social capital and ethnic diversity in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Its aim is to understand the underlying reasons for the low level of social capital and its relation to the ethnic diversity, focusing on the problems of ethnic Malay, Chinese and Indian Malaysians in building and maintaining social connections with each other. According to the results of the World Values Survey (2014) and the Asian Barometer Survey (2016), distrust among Malaysians is common, while shared values and norms are rare, and they are not eager to actively participate in civic life. The research problem was investigated in three parts. In the first part, the dynamics of building social capital and meaningful contact between nonethnics – namely, bridging social capital of the participants – were examined. The second part investigated inter-ethnic problems at the individual level causing a low level of social capital in Malaysia. In the last part, by focusing on the societal level, the impact of government implementations and state policies on non-ethnic relationships and building social capital was analysed. For this research, qualitative methodology was preferred, and 21 in-depth interviews were conducted. Each ethnic group was represented by seven participants. All participants belonged to the middle class, from the three main ethnic groups – Chinese, Indian and Malay – and were professionals living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The primary reason for choosing Kuala Lumpur as the research area was its multi-ethnic and multi-religious nature. In this regard, the city offers a unique sample characteristic across Malaysia. Key research findings point, firstly, to the fact that the Indian participants were the most willing to trust and make contact with other Malaysians compared with the Chinese and Malay participants, which demonstrates that if the ethnic group size is relatively smaller than out-groups, group members have more opportunity to interact with out-group members. Meaningful contact is also crucial in the creation of trust relationships and bonds between non-ethnics. Secondly, even though meaningful intergroup contact can create positive feelings between non-ethnics, a lack of acceptance or tolerance, less exposure to other cultures, and misunderstandings or a lack of understanding between non-ethnics undermined the beneficial impacts of intergroup contacts, social trust and social capital. Lastly, it was found at the societal level that the feeling of discrimination, ethnicity-based political system, nationalist discourse promoting fear of other races, and the high in-group solidarity of the Chinese reinforced bonding social capital and eradicated intergroup trust while promoting the perceived threat of non-ethnics towards each other.
... Two of the most common index measures are the ethnic fractionalisation index (also known by a variety of other names including the Blau and Simpson Indexes and is the complement of the Herfindahl Index) and Shannon's entropy index (also known by other names including the Teachman Index). As well as describing the diversity of places (Lee & Hughes, 2015;Patsiurko et al., 2012), indexes have been used to detect relationships between diversity and variables such as social and economic variables (Gesthuizen et al., 2008;Laurence, 2011;Letki, 2008;Posner, 2004;Putnam, 2007;Stolle et al., 2008). Index measures have shortcomings, however, particularly in their application to superdiversity. ...
... Contrary to recent political narratives (Ley, 2007), ongoing immigration-albeit, interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic-ensures that both multiculturalism and social cohesion are continual and always unfinished policy challenges. Since Putnam (2007), evidence on the relationship between diversity and cohesion globally and Australia has been mixed (e.g., Bécares et al., 2011;Gesthuizen et al., 2008;Laurence, 2011;Letki, 2008;McKenna et al., 2018;Schaeffer, 2013;Sturgis et al., 2014;Twigg et al., 2010). ...
... Nevertheless, robust evidence of adverse associations between socioeconomic disadvantage and social cohesion (e.g., Bécares et al., 2011;Laurence, 2011;Letki, 2008;Twigg et al., 2010), some evidence of adverse associations with demographic change (Hooghe et al. 2009) and the theorised pre-conditions for intergroup contact and harmony (Pettigrew, 1998), suggest that the intersection of disadvantage and ethnic turnover may place Australia's diverse communities at risk of conflict and fragmentation. Policy frameworks and instruments in Australia place appropriate primacy on local communities and placebased strategies (Social Research Centre, 2021), though must be buttressed by the production of greater local-level data and information on how communities and ethnic groups coexist and manage substantial population churn and turnover. ...
Article
Superdiversity has become a popular concept to describe the cumulative impact of successive waves of migration in high immigration nations. How superdiversity impacts on local communities is less well understood. In this study, detailed ethnicity data are collected and harmonised for local communities from the Australian 2006, 2011 and 2016 Censuses. Local communities are organised into categories using an existing typology. The ethnic, economic and demographic diversity of communities are assessed, and their subsequent population dynamics are analysed. The results indicate that most minority populations in Australia live in highly mixed or majority dominated communities rather than in segmented clusters. Recent immigrants disproportionately arrive in already diverse communities, which, in addition to internal migration flows, are helping to substantially alter the ethnic composition of the local population. Important information is therefore revealed on the patterns and dynamics of local communities that are helping to shift and reproduce their populations.
... Putnam's (2007) study was followed by testing of the relationships between aspects of racial and ethnic diversity and social capital in other contexts and geographic locations. For example, the results of several subsequent studies at different geographical scales of analysis have also found a negative association between racial diversity, ethnic diversity, and aspects of social capital (Letki, 2008;Mennis, Dayanim, & Grunwald, 2013;Paarlberg, Hoyman, & McCall, 2018;Sampson, Morenoff, & Earls, 1999). It is also increasingly common for racial diversity and ethnic diversity to be treated as separate indicators, given they represent different concepts. ...
... Moreover, in a study of U.S. counties, Paarlberg et al. (2018) found a negative relationship between racial diversity and structural dimensions of social capital (e.g., number of associations, voting behavior). As Letki (2008) observed, however, it is concerning that many of the conclusions made in prior studies about the negative impact of racial or ethnic diversity on aspects of social capital did not consider the effect of socioeconomic status. Given theoretical frameworks such as intersectionality or social stratification which emphasize the combined effects of various demographic attributes like race, ethnicity, and income (Crenshaw, 1991;Markides, Liang, & Jackson, 1990;Osborne, 2015), it is plausible that aspects socio-economic diversity would also be relevant predictors (or even co-variates to racial or ethnic diversity) of social capital. ...
... Given theoretical frameworks such as intersectionality or social stratification which emphasize the combined effects of various demographic attributes like race, ethnicity, and income (Crenshaw, 1991;Markides, Liang, & Jackson, 1990;Osborne, 2015), it is plausible that aspects socio-economic diversity would also be relevant predictors (or even co-variates to racial or ethnic diversity) of social capital. Subsequent research has confirmed this contention, finding that economic inequality and income diversity are negatively associated with social capital, as conceptualized through structural dimensions and social trust (Paarlberg et al., 2018;Portes & Vickstrom, 2011), and sometimes exhibit stronger relationships with social capital than either racial or ethnic diversity (Letki, 2008;Schmid et al., 2009, pp. 177-197). ...
Article
Social capital provides important health, economic, and community benefits. While there are several types of social capital, that which is characterized by connections between diverse individuals from different social groups is thought to be particularly valuable. Despite the fact that both socio-demographic diversity and social capital exhibit significant spatial variation across the United States, there remains a lack of research investigating the relationships between these variables at the county level. This study utilized geographically weighted regression to explore the potential non-stationarity of the relationships between racial, ethnic, and income di-versity and social capital. Results indicate spatial non-stationary with regard to all three types of diversity, with statistical significance, strength of association, and direction of the relationships varying notably across the United States. These findings underscore the need for more attention to local variation in the relationships be-tween forms of diversity and social capital. The local spatial modeling strategies used here offer a different perspective on these relationships.
... Míg egyes kutatók a társadalmi kohézióval egyenértékűnek tartják és szinte szinonimájaként értelmezik a társadalmi tőke fogalmát (például Kawachi et al. 1997), addig mások a társadalmi tőkét a kohézió kiemelt fontosságú összetevőjeként jelölik meg (Nemes Nagy 2017). A sokszínűséggel kapcsolatos vizsgálatok nagy részére az utóbbi megközelítés jellemző, és a társadalmi tőkét használják a kohézió fő indikátoraként (például Alesina-La Ferrara 2000, Costa-Kahn 2003, Putnam 2007, Letki 2008. A társadalmi tőke összefüggésbe hozható "az emberek közösségtudatával, a szomszédsághoz való tartozás érzésével, az ott élő emberekkel való törődéssel 84 Sümeghy Dávid - Németh Ádám Területi Statisztika, 2022, 62(1): 81-112; DOI: 10.15196/TS620104 és azzal a hittel, hogy az ott élő emberek törődnek velük" (Portney-Berry 1997), illetve hálózati struktúraként is értelmezhető, amely ösztönzi az együttműködést és a koordinációt barátok és idegenek között egyaránt (Costa-Kahn 2003). ...
... Egyéni és a községekre/városrészekre vonatkozó adatok A szakirodalmi előzmények és ajánlások alapján a Western SOM egyéni változói közül a válaszadó nemét 6 , iskolázottságát 7 , állampolgárságát 8 , havi jövedelmét vizsgáltuk 9 , illetve azt, hogy a megkérdezett mióta él az adott községben 10 és hogy a felmérés idején munkanélküli volt-e. Az egyének bizalmát módosíthatják egyéb község/városrész szintű változók is (például Leigh 2006, Letki 2008, Dinesen-Sønderskov 2012, ezért a község/városrész lakosainak átlagjövedelmét, illetve a munkanélküliek arányát vettük be még a vizsgálatba. Az egyes változók leíró statisztikáját az 1. táblázat tartalmazza. ...
Article
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This study investigated the impact of ethnocultural diversity on changes in social cohesion in Västra Götaland County, Sweden, where the number of immigrants increased rapidly between 2014 and 2018. To investigate diversity, the authors used a diversity index weighted by cultural parameters in addition to the proportion of immigrants and the classical fragmentation index, while social cohesion was analysed using generalised and localised trust, respectively, with questionnaire surveys. The multilevel modelling used in the research has shown the role of individual variables and the impact of the diversity of the municipalities and city districts studied. The generalised trust was not affected by diversity in the multilevel models and correlation results, regardless of the measurement method (minority proportion, unweighted and weighted fragmentation index), but the individual variables provided a good indication of the level of trust of the individual. However, localised trust is already negatively affected by ethnic diversity, as residents in ethnically mixed municipalities or districts have lower localised trust, which confirms the constrict theory, that living in ethnically mixed areas leads to lower trust in general. There is no difference in model fit between the use of diversity indices and immigrant shares.
... Kawachi et al., 1997), a diverzitással kapcsolatos vizsgálatok egy része azonban a társadalmi tőkét használja a kohézió fő indikátoraként, és annak kulcs dimenziójaként definiálja azt (pl. Alesina & La Ferrara, 2000Costa & Kahn, 2003;Putnam, 2007;Letki, 2008). A társadalmi tőke összefüggésbe hozható az emberek közösségtudatával, a szomszédsághoz való tartozás érzésével, az ott élő emberekkel való törődéssel és azzal a hittel, hogy az ott élő emberek törődnek velük (Portney & Berry, 1997), illetve hálózati struktúraként is értelmezhető, amely ösztönzi az együttműködést és a koordinációt barátok és idegenek között egyaránt (Costa & Kahn, 2003). ...
... Dánia és Finnország) is (Dinesen & Sønderskov, 2012;Kesler & Bloemraad, 2010). Ausztráliában a nyelvi diverzitás (Leigh, 2006), míg Nagy-Britanniában az etnikai diverzitás a szociökonómiai különbségekkel karöltve (Letki, 2008) játszik kártékony szerepet, habár utóbbi országban, továbbá Németországban (pl. Gundelach & Traunmüller, 2014;Traunmüller, 2011) és Kanadában (pl. ...
... 25 This is because people who perceive themselves to have few commonalities and shared experiences with others in their community will have less incentive to interact with them. Challenging Putnam's research, Letki (2008) 26 found that a community's lower SES accounted for a large degree of erosion in social cohesion that had been previously attributed to ethnic diversity. Put simply, informal social interactions occur less frequently in economically deprived neighbourhoods which are, more often than not, also more ethnically diverse than more affluent neighbourhoods. ...
... 25 This is because people who perceive themselves to have few commonalities and shared experiences with others in their community will have less incentive to interact with them. Challenging Putnam's research, Letki (2008) 26 found that a community's lower SES accounted for a large degree of erosion in social cohesion that had been previously attributed to ethnic diversity. Put simply, informal social interactions occur less frequently in economically deprived neighbourhoods which are, more often than not, also more ethnically diverse than more affluent neighbourhoods. ...
Chapter
Social diversity has been a hallmark of Singapore’s cultural identity since the founding of the island by the British East India Company.1 For decades since independence in 1965, Singapore’s most discernible national trait has been its multiethnic and multireligious contour with the population comprising a Chinese majority (approximately 74 per cent), followed by ethnic Malays (14 per cent), ethnic Indians (10 per cent), and other races (2–3 per cent).2 This ethnic proportion has remained relatively stable for over fifty years. Racial and religious identities in Singapore overlap substantively. The ethnic Malays are predominantly Muslim, the Chinese practise mainly Taoism, Buddhism, and Christianity or Catholicism, and ethnic Indians embrace Hinduism, and Christianity or Catholicism. Suffice to say, this demographic terrain shapes the daily lives of people and their interactions with those from other backgrounds. It also has a profound influence on the city-state’s political landscape and is closely tied to the geopolitical dynamics in the region. Beyond ethnicity and religion, there are other forms of tribalism that distinguish one group from another and, in some cases, there with material, psychological, and existential consequences. This chapter begins with a brief history of the evolving socio-demographic scene in Singapore, followed by an introduction to the principles that govern diversity discourse in the city-state. It will highlight signs of a new socio-economic divide along geographical boundaries, tagged with ethnic overtones. The implications of this emerging spatial class segregation on urban planning will be discussed.
... For instance, when studying inequality in social capital, studies report differences in social capital according to sociodemographic characteristics and how neighbourhood level factors affect access to social capital (e.g. Kleinhans et al., 2007;Letki, 2008). As Small (2009) argues, such studies reflect existing differences in social capital, but seldom explain how these differences originate. ...
... In the neighbourhood effects literature, several neighbourhood characteristics have been identified as explanations for differences in civic participation between neighbourhoods; differences that cannot be attributed to the individual characteristics of residents . Although many studies have focused on the role of ethnic diversity (see van der Meer & Tolsma, 2014), neighbourhood SES seems to be a more important contextual characteristic for explaining differences in social capital and civic behaviour (Bécares et al., 2011;Laurence, 2009;Letki, 2008;Tolsma et al., 2009). Neighbourhood SES has particular relevance for our theoretical framework, since we hypothesise that levels of civic participation will diverge or converge according to the available socioeconomic resources in neighbourhoods (cf. ...
Thesis
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This dissertation includes the following research goals: 1) To understand the nature of urban socioeconomic change from a multidimensional social class perspective; 2) To investigate possible consequences of socio-spatial inequality; 3) To study the influence of macro-level changes on civic participation and; 4) To analyse the role of local organisations in facilitating different forms of participation
... The form that social capital takes -that is, for what aims and how it is usedis strongly correlated with the institutional and organisational environment (eg Putnam 1993 ;Berman 1997 ;Letki 2008 ). Putnam observes that a democratic setting is conducive to the emergence of social capital at the macro level (society). ...
... Later on, democratisation and bureaucratisation of the public sphere forced supporters to establish official associations -the next, and more advanced step of organisation. The emergence of associations as a response to the new democratic order fits in with well-established explanations according to which the way of using social capital is strongly connected to the wider institutional setting (eg Putnam 1993 ;Fukuyama 1995 ;Woolcock 1998 ;Letki 2008 ). However, what made these associations effective in their rebuilding/ rescue efforts (both in the case of those already in place and those established for the purpose) was the adaptation of existing informal structures based on reciprocity, internal trust and organisational ability ( Coleman 1990 ) -in other words, on bonding social capital established in the course of intergroup rivalry. ...
Chapter
The article examines the role of mobilisation of social capital in the process of rescuing/rebuilding football clubs by their supporters in Poland. Considering that the issue of mobilisation of resources in the circles of football supporters has not been investigated so far, the article fills an important gap in the study of football fan activism. The paper is based on qualitative material from desk research and semi-structured interviews. The analysis reveals three main forms of using social capital by supporters: call to arms, appropriable social organisation and intentional social organisation. Each of these forms is illustrated with a study of the most typical case: Lechia Gdańsk, Odra Wodzisław and Hutnik Kraków, respectively.
... Wang et al., 2016;Yue et al., 2013;Zhu et al., 2012), and only a few studies have concentrated on the relationship between neighbourhood choice and socioeconomic integration of migrants. In addition, most existing studies, such as in the research of Letki (2008) and Laurence (2011), focus on Western countries, and few are related to China (L. Liu et al., 2018;Yue et al., 2013;Zhu et al., 2012). ...
... Language assimilation also contributes to the socioeconomic integration and cohesion of migrants (Piller & Takahashi, 2011). Social trust among different groups also helps to enhance social and economic integration (Laurence, 2011;Letki, 2008). However, in the context of China, the influencing factors are slightly different. ...
Article
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On the basis of the 2013 China Migrants Dynamic Survey provided by the National Health and Family Planning Commission, we explored the impact of neighbourhood choice on the socioeconomic integration of migrants and the underlying mechanism. When problems with endogeneity were controlled, the findings showed that neighbourhood choice had a significant positive effect on the socioeconomic integration of migrants, that is, compared with migrants living in informal neighbourhoods (urban villages or outdated inner‐city housing), those living in formal neighbourhoods (commercial housing, affordable housing or work unit housing neighbourhoods) displayed higher socioeconomic integration. Further research found that neighbourhood choice did not directly affect the socioeconomic integration of migrants in China, partly because migrants living in formal neighbourhoods established localized social capital (contacting local residents and government personnel, seeking help from them and increasing expenditures on local invitations and gifts) to promote better integration into the city, and they had a stronger willingness to settle down, which encouraged them to work harder, actively integrated into the mainstream society.
... Results about the negative influence of ethnic diversity on social capital and cohesion have been criticised for not considering how low socioeconomic status influences social interactions [56]. Another concern is that these results could be used to encourage homogeneity and anti-immigrant policies rather than policies to encourage "strength in diversity" [56]. ...
... Results about the negative influence of ethnic diversity on social capital and cohesion have been criticised for not considering how low socioeconomic status influences social interactions [56]. Another concern is that these results could be used to encourage homogeneity and anti-immigrant policies rather than policies to encourage "strength in diversity" [56]. These conclusions and solutions could have detrimental effects since there is strong evidence for how increased opportunities for interethnic contact facilitate interethnic interactions, which stimulate both out-and in-groups' trust and trust in neighbours [57]. ...
Article
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The development of social capital is acknowledged as key for sustainable social development. Little is known about how social capital changes over time and how it correlates with sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. This study was conducted in 46 neighbourhoods in Umeå Municipality, northern Sweden. The aim was to examine neighbourhood-level characteristics associated with changes in neighbourhood social capital and to discuss implications for local policies for sustainable social development. We designed an ecological study linking survey data to registry data in 2006 and 2020. Over 14 years, social capital increased in 9 and decreased in 15 neighbourhoods. Higher levels of social capital were associated with specific sociodemographic factors, but these differed in urban and rural areas. Urban neighbourhoods with a higher proportion of older pensioners (OR = 1.49, CI: 1.16–1.92), children under 12 (OR= 2.13, CI: 1.31–3.47), or a lower proportion of foreign-born members (OR= 0.32, CI: 0.19–0.55) had higher odds for higher social capital levels. In rural neighbourhoods, a higher proportion of single-parent households was associated with higher levels of social capital (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.04–1.98). Neighbourhood socioeconomic factors such as income or educational level did not influence neighbourhood social capital. Using repeated measures of social capital, this study gives insights into how social capital changes over time in local areas and the factors influencing its development. Local policies to promote social capital for sustainable social development should strive to integrate diverse demographic groups within neighbourhoods and should increase opportunities for inter-ethnic interactions.
... Both goal dimensions are closely related to the various conceptions of social cohesion in the research literature. In research on the effect of diversity on social cohesion, social capital and trust are among the most frequently used indicators (Letki: 2008;Fieldhouse & Cutts: 2010;Lancee & Dronkers: 2011;Larsen: 2013). ...
... As for cohesion, some scholars consider economic disadvantage -rather than diversity -as the key element undermining neighbourhood relations. Research has shown that deprivation damages the sense of community; being disadvantaged and living in a disadvantaged environment undermines the willingness to interact and engage socially, thereby decreasing the sense of belonging (Laurence, 2011;Letki, 2008). Because ethnically diverse areas also tend to be the more disadvantaged areas, it is crucial to take a context's level of deprivation into account. ...
... Place attachment has also been linked to placeprotectionist attitudes and tactics for countering unwelcome changes [29] or opposition to remove symbolic but controversial monuments [30]. Some researchers have treated place attachment as one facet of social capital [31] and as an important factor contributing to social cohesion [32], which connects members of a local community and increases their quality of life. ...
Conference Paper
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Recent studies on smart cities have emphasised that smart solution initiatives should take into account citizens’ different needs and concerns. The main aim of this paper is to examine the role of different types of place attachment – emotional bonds that residents have with their city – in predicting the acceptance of future smart city technologies. In our study conducted among residents of multiple cities in Poland (N = 627), we found that while active place attachment (i.e. conscious identification with a place) predicted more favourable attitudes towards enabling technologies, traditional (natural and unintentional) place attachment was positively associated with acceptance of surveillance technologies regarding everyday monitoring and anti–Covid-19 measures. We also found that the relationship between place attachment and acceptance of future technologies is partially mediated by the use of existing smart city technologies. The implications for city governments and planners are discussed.
... Ethnic fragmentation of societies has a negative impact on the involvement of individuals in social life, as in such a situation, people are more likely to interact within their own ethnic group (Alesina & La Ferrara 2000). At the same time, it should be emphasized that the amount of social capital in the neighbourhood was negatively affected not by ethnic diversity itself, but by the economic status of the neighbourhood correlated with such diversity (households in ethnically heterogeneous communities were poorer) (Letki 2008). Furthermore, the importance of quality and types of contacts undertaken is underlined: the negative link between ethnicity and social capital may have resulted from the fact that the levels of contacts between groups were insufficient or not of sufficient quality to inspire trust and other positive intra-group attitudes (Hewstone 2009). ...
Article
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The aim of the article is to analyse the level, forms and manifestations of cooperation and integration between the members of two ethnically diverse local communities in which there are intense international migrations. Based on individual in-depth interviews, expert interviews and observations , an attempt was made to determine to what extent international labour migrations and ethnic and cultural diversity affect the level of integration in cooperation between the actual and declarative dimensions. The aim of the article is also to determine what is the nature of the local bond, in particular the neighbourhood bond. It has been demonstrated that economic migration is an important factor influencing the level of integration and cooperation in local communities: it results in removing the migrant from his or her community of origin, thus weakening the same level of integration and cooperation between its members, but also provides an opportunity to make new, lasting and significant acquaintances, including between people from the same locality of different ethnic and cultural origin. Spatial mobility can also cause divisions between its subjects and the rest of the community. The impact of international migrations on social capital depends on the time the migrant spends outside the local community. It is not the length of stay abroad that matters, but above all the frequency of visits to the place of origin.
... International organizations hope that pushing country leaders to increase ethnic representation will improve overall outgroup attitudes -how citizens view the outgroup. I measured overall outgroup attitudes as a combination of trust in non-coethnics (Trust) (Kasara, 2013;Letki, 2008;Oberg, Oskarsson and Svensson, 2011;Stolle, Soroka and Johnston, 2008) and perceived equality between di↵erent ethnic groups (Equality) (Jackman, 1977;McIntosh et al., 1995). 9 I also attempted to discern whether respondents improve outgroup attitudes by eliminating traditional in-and outgroup boundaries and forming a shared group (Gaertner and Dovidio, 2000) or whether individuals fail to see themselves as sharing a common identity (One Group). ...
Article
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Can country leaders improve citizens’ ethnic outgroup views by changing ethnic representation in government? Years of pressure from the international community calling for leaders to make particularly their cabinets more ethnically representative seems to suggest that ethnic representation—conceptualized as descriptive and substantive representation and ministerial cooperation—is key to improving citizens’ outgroup views. I argue that increasing ethnic representation influences majority and minority citizens differently; minority citizens’ outgroup views will become more favorable, while majority citizens’ views will worsen. Using a pre-registered vignette experiment with ethnic Albanians and Macedonians in North Macedonia, I show that ethnic representation does not provide the improvements in outgroup relations that many have hoped. Both groups’ affect toward and perceptions of the cabinet change somewhat, but increasing ethnic representation does not improve overall outgroup attitudes. These results suggest that ethnic representation alone does not lead to more productive interethnic relationships.
... In a similar vein, studies on neighbourhood effects have found that economic deprivation of neighbourhoods or communities is a critical factor hampering social trust, and that group-based inequalities and residential segregation represent further trust-inhibiting factors (Abascal and Baldassarri, 2015;Letki, 2008;Sampson, 2012;Ziller and Spo¨rlein, 2020). Moreover, residential instability is substantially related to lower levels of local social ties and friendship, and of social trust (Sampson, 1988(Sampson, , 2012. ...
Article
Communities are responsible for a range of public services and represent critical experiential contexts for social interactions between residents. However, the role of local governance and public service provision for creating social trust has received limited attention so far. This study examines how quality, efficiency and fairness of local public service provision relates to social trust. Using multilevel models on repeated cross-sectional survey data from the Quality of Life in European Cities project, we test the relationship between time-varying city-level indicators of quality of local government and social trust. The empirical results show that an increase in the dimension of local public service quality is substantially associated with an increase in social trust. We find improvements in sport and leisure facilities as well as the state of public spaces, streets and buildings to be particularly relevant.
... As to social capital or social network, intimate relationships with family members, such as the communicating frequency with parents, can hinder the socio-economic integration of young rural migrants (Schwarzweller, 2006). However, social trust among different groups can enhance migrants' socio-economic integration (Laurence, 2011;Letki, 2008). Yue et al. (2013) further indicate that social networks within local residents remarkably facilitate migrants' acculturation, social and psychological integration. ...
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Migrants’ socio-economic integration is a major theme in migration research, which can provide economic and cultural benefits. And it will contribute to social stability. The investigation from the spatial perspective should also be considered. This paper aims to examine the spatial differentiation of the socio-economic integration of migrants and identify its driving forces to provide crucial evidence and policy recommendations to urban policymakers and further improve migrants’ socio-economic integration. Based on the latest China Migrants Dynamic Survey, this paper uses global Moran’s I index, hot spot analysis and GWR model to explore spatial differentiation and driving forces of the socio-economic integration of 155,789 migrants in 291 cities at prefecture level and above in China. The results show that: (1) The socio-economic integration of migrants consists of five dimensions, which are economic integration, cultural integration, social security, social relation and psychological integration. Among them, psychological integration is the highest (73.16) and economic integration is the lowest (13.38). (2) The socio-economic integration of migrants is mainly influenced by their own characteristics instead of the destination characteristics. Four factors (age, education, length of stay and population growth rate) positively affect migrants’ socio-economic integration, while three factors (inter-provincial mobility, proportion of tertiary industry in GDP, and ratio of teacher to student in middle school) negatively impact the socio-economic integration of migrants. (3) The socio-economic integration of migrants shows the distribution pattern of agglomeration. And the integration also presents a significant spatial heterogeneity. The driving forces of the socio-economic integration exhibit various zonal spatial differentiation patterns, including “E–W”, “SE–NW”, “NE–SW”, and “S–N”. Finally, some useful recommendations are given for improving migrants’ socio-economic integration.
... A survey literature has associated greater social cohesion (measured as community participation and friendliness) with lower crime (Saegert & Winkel 2004;Sampson et al. 1997;Takagi et al. 2012;Hartnagel 1979, however, found no relationship), older residents (Hartnagel 1979;Saegert & Winkel 2004), higher education levels (Saegert & Winkel 2004;Letki 2008, p. 117), better health (Lochner et al. 1999) and lower poverty (Forrest & Kearns 2001;Letki 2008). Similarly, in the community association literature, unit owner age and income are positively associated with satisfaction with association responsiveness (CAI Research Foundation 1999, p. 30). ...
Article
Residential community associations (common interest communities such as condominiums, cooperatives and planned unit developments, as well as properties subject to homeowners associations and architectural review boards) have become the dominant form of ownership for new United States single-family residential units. Community associations typically use covenants, conditions and restrictions (also known as CCRs, C&Rs, deed restrictions or covenants) to impose extensive private-ordered controls over unit owners. This empirical study uses regression analysis of a Web-based community association enforcement practices survey, concluding that more intense private-ordered enforcement is associated with increased unit value and decreased covenant violation levels. It also finds that judicial deference to private-ordered community association enforcement decisions is associated with higher value, and that some measures of social cohesion are associated with decreased covenant violation levels.
... A clear link exists between neighborhood socioeconomic status and social capital indicators such as social networks, trust, and communal involvement (e.g. Custers et al., 2019;Letki, 2008). Yet, some studies indicate that neighborhood resources, such as recreation facilities, public spaces, grocery stores, and social services, at least partly mediate this relationship (Curley, 2010a(Curley, , 2010bGilster, 2017;van Bergeijk et al., 2008). ...
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Neighborhood organizations are believed to be important in alleviating the plight of the urban poor. This study examines how different types of neighborhood organizations affect the lives of the urban poor in low-income neighborhoods. Qualitative field work was conducted in a faith-based organization, a professional welfare organization, and a volunteer-based organization. Our findings indicate the ways in which these organizations foster social relations between participants, provide daily structure to non-working individuals, and connect people to other organizations and systemic bodies such as the labor market or local government. In addition, the relation between the neighborhood organizations and social policy has been considered, paying close attention to policy processes of decentralization, responsibilization, and social innovation. A central aim of this study is thus to analyze how neighborhood organizations mediate between social processes at the micro-level and macro-level systemic forces. Finally, this study discusses how considering the socially productive role of local organizations may advance neighborhood effects studies.
... This study measures social cohesion by using proxies, which include faith in institutions and perceptions of how social groups get along or trust each other within a particular locale (Langer, Stewart, Smedts, & Demarest, 2017). Furthermore, the study articulated different measures of social cohesions by following the guidelines given in the existing literature (Letki, 2008;Lochner, Kawachi, & Kennedy, 1999;Nannestad, 2008;Portes, 1998;Saggar et al., 2012;Uslaner, 2014;Koopmans, & PolLancee, 2014). Whether they can influence decision making at the local administration or not. ...
Article
Abstract In developing countries, migration plays a crucial role in the development of social capital. However, the lack of social cohesion and migrants' integration into the host country exposes the locals and migrants to conflict and violence. In Pakistan, big cities are constantly facing the challenges of the inflows of migrants from neighboring countries. This article analyzes three premises relating to social cohesion and the integration of migrants. First, it explores the contextual factors (i.e., ethnic commonalities) behind migrants' large inflows. Second, it analyzes some of the driving forces of integrations, such as socioeconomic characteristics (education, employment, self‐reported health, etc.) of the population settled in Karachi's migrants' neighborhoods. Third, it examines the process of social cohesion by using data on the migrants's perceptions of the social cohesion. This study employs both quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate the premises. Research findings offer a pragmatic insight into the broader spectrum of the thematic issues, which hinder the streamlining and monitoring of integration and social cohesion in migrants' neighborhoods.
... Racial diversity in communities has been suggested to decrease overall social capital in communities, hindering a shared sense of unity. (Letki 2008;Kim et al. 2020). Kim et al. (2020) specifically posit that it decreases bonding and bridging capital. ...
Article
Substance use and associated fatalities are disproportionately experienced by rural communities, where there is an urgent need to understand and facilitate the recovery process. The concept of social capital is a critical one for recovery from a substance use disorder, even more so for individuals living in rural communities who experience unique social connection barriers. This study used Consensual Qualitative Research methodology to analyze data from a convenience sample of 12 focus groups conducted with individuals in short- and long-term recovery in rural Minnesota and Michigan, in the Midwestern region of the United States. Coding and analysis focused specifically on the ways that participant recovery was aided by positive social capital and hindered by negative social capital. Key findings included the supportive role that recovery communities can play in the recovery process and the unique challenges that rural individuals face in re-creating their social networks to support their recovery. Recovery networks such as self-help groups, treatment courts, or clinical supports, were a frequently mentioned source of social capital. The results of this study suggest that rural residents draw from, and contend with, a vast range of positive and negative sources of social capital for recovery. Increasing nonsubstance using personal social networks for recreation and emotional support, strengthening involvement in recovery communities, reducing feelings of social isolation, introducing chances for service and contribution to others, and reducing community stigma are key actionable leverage points.
... Huntington & Dunn, 2004;Twigg, Taylor, & Mohan, 2010), which has historically been a topic of preoccupation for governments and policy makers. However, some of these negative ef-fects are not widely accepted (Letki, 2008), and have fuelled the debate on how to manage cultural diversity (Verkuyten, 2006). Certainly, the management of cultural diversity and cultural convergence, that is, the balance between the preservation of differences and equality over time, requires the development of cultural evolutionary models that systematically manipulate group identities and the role of internal and external selection pressures in order to make more useful predictions about the spread of behavior. ...
Thesis
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The emergence of shared cultural conventions in a population is shaped by the interaction between individuals’ cognition and the structure of the society. Humans, more than any other species in the animal kingdom, are able to learn and transmit vast amounts of information, through language and other cultural products. Individual cognitive constraints include cognitive biases, value systems and memory among others. Additionally, humans have an extraordinary capacity to build developmental environments and construct social niches that can be modelled as complex systems. We are born into particular societies with specific social structures, which constitute our ecological niches. Societies are shaped by the structure of the social network and other high-level hierarchical entities that constitute integrated systems of rules that structure social interactions (e.g. institutions). In this thesis I formalise some of the relationships between these factors using a variety of approaches. In particular, I explore the following three main research questions: (1) How do the interactions between individual cognitive traits and the temporal dynamics of social network connectivity, i.e. the order in which individuals in a population interact with each other, affect the spread of cultural variants? (2) How do the interactions between individual cognitive traits and institutions affect the evolution of cultural diversity and the emergence of cultural conventions? (3) How might current iterated learning models, niche construction and evolutionary developmental biology be synthesised into a compatible framework for language evolution? Chapter 1 contains a review of the literature and an introduction to the assumptions underlying the models presented in this thesis. In Chapter 2, I present an agent-based model manipulating specific network connectivity dynamics, cognitive biases and memory. I show that connectivity dynamics affect the time-course of variant spread, with lower connectivity slowing down convergence of the population onto a single cultural variant. I also show that, compared to a neutral evolutionary model, content bias (i.e. a preference for variants with high value) is the main driver of convergence and amplifies the effects of connectivity dynamics, whilst larger memory size and coordination bias, especially egocentric bias, slow down convergence. In Chapter 3, I report on an experiment in the lab in which participants engage in a Pictionary-like graphical communication task as members of a 4-participant micro-society. The experiment has two main goals: First, to evaluate the effect of two network connectivity dynamics (early and late) on the evolution of the convergence of micro-societies on shared communicative conventions under controlled conditions. Second, to compare the predictions of the agent-based model described in Chapter 2 against experimental data, and calibrate the model to find the bestfitting parameter setting. Our experimental data shows that, as predicted by the model, an early connectivity dynamic increases convergence and a late connectivity dynamic slows down convergence. Expanding on the model developed in Chapter 2, Chapter 4 explores how the interactions between content bias, value systems and institutional performance affect cultural diversity and the emergence of cultural conventions at the population level. Simulation results show that high hegemony (i.e. one or few variants are strongly preferred over the others) and homogeneity of value systems among agents accelerate the extinction of cultural traits and thus erode cultural diversity. In certain regions of the parameter space, institutions that do not reinforce original value systems tend to be effective at preserving cultural diversity. However, an important limitation of this model is that institutional performance remains fixed over time. In Chapter 5, I attempt to overcome previous shortcomings of the model by developing a co-evolutionary model of value systems, institutions and choice. To the best of my knowledge, this model constitutes the first attempt to quantify the propagation of cultural variants by incorporating a comprehensive parameter combination of compliance, confirmation, content and frequency biases into the learning and production algorithm. Results show that, in general, institutional power facilitates the emergence of cultural conventions when compliance biases increase. In general, a compliance bias pushes diversity up when institutions are diverse, and pushes diversity down when institutions convey value systems with strong dominance of one or few cultural variants. In some regions of the parameter space, global conventions can also emerge in the absence of institutional power and therefore of institutions that are in place to guide convergence. On a more conceptual level and applied to the case of language, Chapter 6 reviews the literature on iterated learning and ecological evolutionary developmental biology to explore their compatibility. I use the concept of niche construction to build bridges between eco-evo-devo accounts for cognitive capacities and cultural evolution guided by iterated learning processes. Additionally, based on recent insights from both domains, I propose an integrated conceptual model that might be useful to connect biological and cultural approaches, as well as act as a hypothesis-generating framework around which cognitive scientists can structure new triple-inheritance formal models. In Chapter 7, I summarise the most relevant findings of this thesis and I discuss some potential implications.
... At the same time, previous research has indicated that it is not diversity in itself which undermines solidarity and trust in society, but the way in which this diversity is organized (Levrau and Loobuyck 2013). In the UK, ethnic minority groups are overwhelmingly concentrated in socio-economically deprived areas, and several studies have shown that after controlling for area deprivation, ethnic diversity has little or no effect on social cohesion (Letki 2008;Laurence 2011;Becares et al. 2011;Sturgis et al. 2011;Sturgis et al. 2014). The effect of ethnic diversity on trust within neighbourhoods has also been shown to depend on levels of residential segregation, with ethnic diversity impacting negatively on neighbour trust only in more segregated areas (Laurence 2017). ...
Article
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A growing number of studies have shown adverse effects of ethnic diversity on social cohesion routed in ethnic categorical differences, competition and racial threat. We build on previous research by examining the hypothesis that cultural (language) differentiation leads to lower intra-neighbourhood trust through feelings of anomie. Our results, based on data from the 2009-2011 UK Citizenship survey and a multilevel modelling framework, do not offer support for the proposition that diversity lowers trust through linguistic diversity and poor communication. In line with other studies, we find a negative association between ethnic diversity and trust and show that for the white group, this relationship does not depend on migrants' levels of fluency in the majority language. In contrast, in neighbourhoods where migrants cannot speak English well, increases in ethnic diversity are associated with higher levels of neighbour trust among the non-white group.
... For instance, Portes and Vickstrom contended that "diversity contributes to the long-term viability of nations dependent on modern, not backward, forms of association" [80]. In one highly-cited study, Letki found that socio-economic status is far more decisive, "while the eroding effect of racial diversity is limited" [81]. ...
Article
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Social cohesion is recognised as the glue that holds societies together and is connected to numerous positive social outcomes. Many authors have defined the term and its dimensions, leading to a wide range of different perspectives. Indeed, an array of dimensions have emerged as researchers have conceptualized social cohesion based on the theoretical assumptions of their disciplines. This wide range of disciplinary contributions has created a rich but muddled research field. In line with the growing recognition of social cohesion, there is a need to better understand social cohesion’s evolution and status within broader academic research. Thus, this study has two main objectives: (i) to analyse the nature and evolution of literature related to social cohesion and (ii) to identify the thematic areas related to social cohesion research and their connections to specific disciplines. To achieve this, a bibliometric analysis of 5027 journal articles listed in the Web of Science (WoS) was conducted. Through this, a substantial increase in research activity was noted, and the broad, multidisciplinary nature of the research is also illustrated. However, there remains room for further collaboration across disciplines as well as research exploring how different social groups and institutions contribute to social cohesion.
... Because the effect of religious organisations and churches is not the same across MER groups and religions, a debate has emerged over whether and how they matter in electoral participation. Verba et al. (1995) On the other hand, the European literature is in dialogue with social capital theory, according to which MER minority organisations can produce social fragmentation (Putnam 2001), or, on the contrary, generate social trust which spills over into political trust and civic behaviour (Jacobs and Tillie 2004;Andrews 2008;Letki 2008). The majority of studies support the second hypothesis, showing that the involvement of individuals from a MER background in affairs of the ethnic community increases their voter turnout (Fennema and Tillie 1999Tillie , 2001Van Heelsum 2005). ...
Article
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This article critically assesses how North American and European sociological literature explains migrant, ethnic and racial (MER) minorities’ electoral participation (registration on electoral lists and voting). It highlights three main controversies around this issue. First, it looks at how models that track the electoral participation of MER minorities by focusing on socio-economic resources have been increasingly challenged by models that take into account migration and generational factors. Second, it looks at how different models debate the collective dynamics of minority groups within host countries and insist on the importance of factors such as group consciousness, the role of minority-based organisations, and the minority candidate and neighbourhood effects in determining electoral participation. Third, it deals with variations in the gaps between MER minority and national majority turnout at elections across countries and the macro-structural and institutional factors that may account for these variations. Future research would greatly benefit from comparative and intersectional perspectives and from using the analytical tools of political socialisation to investigate more in depth the role of individual trajectories and of political and social context.
... Fruhen and Keith (2014) are furthermore of the opinion that social cohesion arises from trust, an important part of social capital. In support of the latter, Letki (2008) posits that trust is the basis on which productive relationships, cooperation and communication are built; therefore, trust is an integral part of social capital. Moreover, Gretry, Horváth, Belei and Van Riel (2017) cautions that, if people do not trust each other, they will find it difficult to interact socially, especially in diverse working environments. ...
Article
The surveys of residents living in areas planned for increasing residential density in Perth, Australia (Canning Bridge, Cannington, Wellard activity centres) concluded that the idea of encouraging ‘a diverse mix of people into the precinct’ was not perceived positively by current residents. From a socio-psychological view, the surveys reflect a perceived concern about future demographic change in their neighbourhood following a dense development. This paper solely discusses the results of follow-up in-depth interviews with several residents for investigating the residents’ concerns about demographic change. The thematic analysis of interviews highlights that ‘fear of the unknown’ drove many of the negative perceptions towards demographic change. Many interviewees interpreted ‘diversity’ in relation to cultural background (ethnicity), with their ‘fear’ stemming from their unfamiliarity with people of different cultural backgrounds. The interview results also suggest that the level and quality of current informal and formal socialising among neighbours may be a precursor to overcoming their concerns. The paper concludes that while the dimension of ‘diversity’ is widely embraced by planners it has the potential to be seen negatively by residents who see this quality as a social disruption to their neighbourhood and lifestyle. Further, micro scale social events such as small street get-togethers may have the potential and be more effective than macro/large events for establishing social, cultural context that is required prior to new developments and their incoming residents.
Article
Social science theory and research have linked racial diversity to both positive and negative outcomes for communities. Research has also demonstrated that the effects of demographic indicators sometimes vary across space and time. This complex web of results calls for examinations of the spatial and temporal elements at play in this relationship. Using spatial lag models, I analyze the relationship between racial diversity—both as a static measurement and as the 20-year change—and crime in four distinct neighborhood clusters in Philadelphia, PA. I first find evidence of spatial heterogeneity—that racial diversity predicts lower crime rates in one community, but higher crime rates in another. Second, the change in racial diversity influences crime in ways that differ from the static diversity measure. These results provide support for both competing hypotheses regarding the racial diversity–crime connection while also underscoring the role of spatiotemporal contexts in illuminating the dynamism of neighborhood processes.
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This paper presents evidence that the relevance of incentives to co‐produce depends on the social‐psychological context under which actors operate. We propose that context (including community attachment, trust in local authorities, ethnic diversity, unemployment level and population density) moderates effect of incentives (utility of the co‐produced service, monetary and reputational rewards, and social norms). Through a survey experiment carried out in 593 urban locations across 13 countries we show that willingness to co‐produce increases with community attachment and decreases with ethnic diversity of the local area. The relevance of utility and social norms as determinants of willingness to co‐produce depends on the social‐psychological context. Reputational and monetary rewards have limited effect, and their relation to the context is less clear. All incentives are largely irrelevant when actors operate in cooperation‐conducive circumstances, where co‐production is a value in itself. However, their importance as ‘tools’ to encourage co‐production arises under challenging contexts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Migrants' socio-economic integration is taken as one of important forms for common prosperity. And it is a crucial factor for social harmony and stability. However, the association between housing tenure choice and migrants' socio-economic integration does not receive enough attention. Based on 2017 China Migrants Dynamics Survey (CMDS), it is found migrants' socio-economic integration mainly consists of the following three aspects: Economic integration, socio-cultural integration and psychological integration. Compared with migrant renters, the socio-economic integration of migrants with houses is rather higher, while migrants' level of socio-economic integration, who live in employee's dormitories, is comparatively low, even after controlling the endogenous by using PSM and IV method. Further study indicates that the effect of housing tenure choice on migrants' socio-economic integration partly affects their settlement intention, integration will, local capital and labor supply. Heterogeneity analysis shows that new generation have a negative effect on the role of homeownership on migrants' socio-economic integration, while living in eastern China and the development of digital economy can both strengthen the effect of housing tenure choice on migrants' socio-economic integration.
Article
The paper provides quantitative estimates of national heterogeneity in the Russian regions, using indices of fractionalization and polarization, taking into account the linguistic distance between groups. The results showed that national heterogeneity in the period between the last population censuses in Russia as a whole did not increase, but there was a different and active dynamics in the regions. The content of the national structure in the country changed in the direction of bigger cultural distances between ethnic groups. Regression analysis of the relationship between national heterogeneity and output, budget expenditures, and crime rates showed more significant positive dependencies on the fractionalization index compared to negative correlations with the polarization index. In the situation of a relatively stable institutional environment in the country, national heterogeneity showed more active positive effects, while the potential for negative effects inherent in a polarized society did not find a sufficient basis to be realized.
Article
Urban migrant integration into the city fabric is a crucial aspect for social harmony and stability. With the development of digital economy, its role and underlying mechanism in urban migrant integration have not receive enough attention. According to the China Migrants Dynamic Survey, urban migrant integration consists of economic integration, sociocultural integration and psychological integration. Among these, economic integration is the least common, sociocultural integration is at the middle level, and psychological integration level is the most common. Further research shows that the digital economy significantly and negatively affects urban migrant integration. Regarding its subdimensions, the digital economy promotes migrant economic integration. However, it hinders migrant sociocultural integration and psychological integration. Further analysis of the underlying mechanisms reveal that the digital economy can promote migrants’ personal income and household income to improve their economic integration, while it can also reduce the probability of migrants’ interaction with local residents and weaken the development of a sense of local identity, which hinders their sociocultural and psychological integration. Heterogeneity analysis notes that the digital economy is more conducive to the economic integration of female and new generation migrants, while it hinders their psychological integration and greatly prohibits old generation migrants’ sociocultural integration.
Article
Diversity and socioeconomic deprivation have been widely discussed as determinants of social cohesion. These two factors are considered to be a threat to social cohesion. The existing literature identifies the problem, however, the literature suggesting the solution is very limited. The most important determinant which can cure the problems of social cohesion is the better quality of institutions, however, there is hardly any literature on this aspect. The current study has investigated the impact of political institutional quality on social cohesion by employing the fixed‐effect model for estimation. The analysis is conducted for 135 countries, using five‐year average panel data. The results suggest that political institutional quality augments social cohesion, gender equality, and per capita income also augment social cohesion. Ethnic diversity, income inequality, and globalization are a threat to social cohesion. Moreover, the threat to social cohesion is greater when there are low political institutional quality and high ethnic diversity, and income inequality as compared to a situation where there are high political institutional quality and low ethnic diversity, and income inequality. The results further suggest that the harmful effects of ethnic diversity, inequality, and globalization can be, not only overcome by institutional quality but can also be put to use to enhance social cohesion.
Article
The challenges facing the US nonprofit human services organizations (NHSOs) in securing philanthropic resources and the resulting pressure for increased commercialization are well‐known in the nonprofit literature. However, there is still limited research on how such financial challenges are likely to affect their location choices, particularly in a post‐recession context. Using organizational ecology theory, we conducted a nationwide longitudinal study covering the period of the US 2008 recession to examine whether resource availability is more likely to predict the density of NHSOs than human needs. We used secondary data on a variety of socioeconomic variables from the National Center for Charitable Statistics and the US census survey in a linear multivariate regression analysis. The findings supported a majority of hypotheses, suggesting that NHSOs pursuing earned income are less (versus more) likely to be established in regions where the socioeconomic factors indicate a high (versus low) level of human needs. These findings suggest a counterintuitive trend in the establishment of NHSOs and present cautionary information on pursuing commercial activities in the human services sector.
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The historic meltdown in the Zimbabwean economy and the violent nature of the country's politics since the year 2000 triggered a massive exodus that swelled the diaspora population, particularly in South Africa. The arrival of Zimbabweans in the diaspora, triggered diversity challenges. These included social cohesion and integration. Although some scholars have examined the impact of immigration on social cohesion and integration in the new society, little is known about how Zimbabweans settled in many parts of the world. Nor is there a clear, scientifically constructed understanding of the nature of relationships with relatives and acquaintances who remained in the country. This paper seeks to bridge that gap in knowledge by providing the results of a study that was carried out in Chimanimani District of Manicaland Province of Zimbabwe. Semi-structured interview guides were used in an exploratory study to facilitate conversations with a judgmental sample of twenty-eight people who left Chimanimani District for South Africa. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data.
Book
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Het is belangrijk dat iedereen - nieuwkomers en gevestigde inwoners - zich thuis kan voelen in Nederland. Dat vraagt een actiever overheidsbeleid om alle nieuwe migranten wegwijs te maken en op te nemen in onze samenleving. Er dienen ontvangst- en inburgeringsvoorzieningen te komen voor alle migranten: kennismigranten, asielmigranten, gezinsmigranten en migranten uit de Europese Unie. Gemeenten spelen daarin een sleutelrol en hebben daarvoor ondersteuning nodig. Deze en andere aanbevelingen doet de WRR in dit rapport (nr. 103) Samenleven in verscheidenheid. Beleid voor de migratiesamenleving.
Article
Objective. Review a key theoretical developments of the concept of social capital, review of socio-psychological approaches to the nature of social capital, and discuss the problem of social capital in a multicultural society based on existing research. Background. Despite of a large number of empirical studies, there are currently no common views on the structure of social capital, as well as generally accepted methods for measuring it. The phenomenology of social capital is considered at three levels: macro-, meso -, and micro-level. The article considers not only various theoretical approaches to the phenomenon of social capital, but also the advantages of having this socio-psychological resource by society. Special attention is paid to the review of research on social capital in a multicultural society. The article discusses the influence of ethnic diversity of society on its social capital, as well as the influence of various aspects of integration immigration policy on the social capital of society, which is of particular interest and relevance for multicultural Russia. Methodology. Systemic approach, comparative analysis method. Conclusions. The concept of social capital remains rather “umbrella”, combining a set of a number of phenomena that satisfy certain characteristics. Indicators of social capital at the group level and at the individual level are different. Social capital in a multicultural society is one of the resources for mutual adaptation of ethnic groups. Concerning the relation between ethnic diversity and social capital, although most foreign studies indicate a decrease in social capital in the context of ethnic diversity, we did not find this in Russia. The relationship of ethnic diversity to social capital depends strongly on the context.
Article
Do freedom and social diversity affect individual preferences for revolutionary action? In this paper, we study the interplay between subjective freedom, defined as autonomy in decision‐making, and social diversity, measured through the extent of religious and/or ethno–linguistic fractionalization. Our paper is based on three hypotheses about the impact of the above two variables and their interaction on individual preferences for revolt. Our hypotheses are tested using a dataset containing information on about 44,000 individuals and covering 51 different countries during the 1990–2003 period. Our research suggests that people that define themselves as free individuals are less likely to support revolutionary actions, while the extent of fractionalization mildly affects such a probability. Interestingly, subjective freedom moderates the impact of diversity on the individual preferences for revolt if the extent of fractionalization is below a certain threshold. Instead, when above, subjective freedom enhances the impact of diversity on the taste for revolt.
Article
Using data from the 2002 and 2014 waves of the European Social Survey, enriched with contextual data, we examine the impact of perceived ethnic enclaves upon several social outcomes of their residents. Diversity studies usually find a strong negative relationship between social trust and increasing ethnic heterogeneity for majority members. What happens however in residential areas such as ethnic enclaves that offer more opportunities for bridging contacts for majority members and for bonding among migrants and minorities? Our results show that majority, 1st and 2nd generation residents of enclaves have on average poorer social outcomes than non-residents. Nevertheless, residential sorting forms a large part of the enclave penalty story when it comes to the well-being of all groups in the study and the levels of trust and perceived discrimination of the 2nd generation. Importantly, our study suggests that enclaves are not necessarily areas in which people are doomed to chronic unhappiness, and we do not find conclusive evidence that lack of exposure to outgroupers is to blame for lack of trust across ethnic boundaries. Poorer personal and regional economic conditions exacerbate the negative association of the enclave residents with trust, happiness and social distance.
Article
Membership in voluntary associations is of core importance to civil society. In this study, I build on the large literature that focuses on how community racial/ethnic diversity affects individuals’ joining of—and participation within—voluntary associations. The central focus is on White ethnicity or European ancestry, which I analyze using the 2004 Iowa Community Survey and 2000 U.S. Census data. I find that White ethnic diversity is associated with fewer overall memberships and less frequent participation, with differing effects for various large groupings of voluntary organizations. I close our study by discussing the implications of my findings for organizations and the broader community.
Article
This paper assesses the relevance of social disorganization and collective efficacy in accounting for neighbourhood inequalities in the exposure to crime. Specifically, it questions the potential of community and voluntary organizations to enhance informal social control and reduce exposure to crime. It utilizes calls-for-service (incident) data for Greater Manchester (UK) and a Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach. Contrary to expectations, the research finds that measures of social disorganization (concentrated disadvantage aside) and collective efficacy hold a limited effect on neighbourhood exposure to crime. We discuss the implications of these findings for criminological inquiry and theoretical development, highlighting the necessity of such endeavour to account for the national political-economy and welfare regime of research settings
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Using the county-level data of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the United States, we test the relationship between communities’ social capital and philanthropic resource mobilization during a pandemic and how this relationship is moderated by the racial diversity and the severity of the pandemic in the community. The analysis suggests that the collective monetary contributions to frontline nonprofits responding to pandemics are closely related to the level of social capital in the community. The results also reveal that the positive relationship between social capital and resource mobilization is reinforced in racially diverse communities and when communities are affected by pandemics more severely. Our findings suggest that building inclusive communities by embracing diverse racial groups and individuals will contribute to communities’ resilience to pandemics and other disasters.
Article
This study examines the relationship between social capital and neighborhood diversity in Chilean cities. We propose that differences exist between hierarchical forms of diversity, which might erode social trust, and cultural differences that might foster new social links in heterogeneous communities. In Chile, strong material inequalities represent the main form of hierarchical differentiation, while south-to-south immigrants convey qualitative differences based on race, ethnic origin, or cultural practices. In contrast to most Western industrialized countries, where material and ethnic differences tend to converge, they appear to be uncoupled in Chile, explaining the presence of immigrants at different levels of the social hierarchy. We analyze original data from a Latin American country with high domestic inequality. Multilevel models nested at the city level reveal that social capital is negatively correlated with socioeconomic diversity, but positively correlated with immigrant diversity, suggesting that uncoupling these differences has a positive effect on social capital development.
Book
Drawing on primary research within voluntary sports clubs in the UK and secondary analysis of the wider international literature on social capital, this text focuses on the micro-processes of social capital development and how they play out in specific social settings. In so doing, it adds to existing research by developing a rich, contextualised, process-based view of social capital in action. Critically reviewing theoretical and empirical literature on social capital, the book highlights the key current debates. The empirical core of the book draws on ethnographic observation over 18 months at voluntary sports clubs in the UK, including in-depth interviews with sports club members and organisers. The text explicitly seeks to set this empirical work in its wider context, by considering the findings in relation to other international studies of social capital in both sports clubs and other types of organisation. The book draws on international research from a whole range of countries: UK, USA, Australia, Canada, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Japan, Vanuatu, Czech Republic, Germany, and many others. The book establishes a transferable, process-based understanding of how social capital develops – both within sports clubs and beyond. This is an illuminating reading for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers with an interest in the sociology of sport, sport development, sport management, sport policy, social theory, social policy, or social networks.
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The inter-group contact hypothesis states that interactions between individuals belonging to different groups will influence the attitudes and behavior between members of these different groups. The two dominant measures of inter-group contact are context (i.e., size of a minority group within a specified geographic area) and individual behavior (i.e., personal contact between members of the majority and minority groups). The contextual and behavioral measures of contact produce divergent findings. The contextual contact literature finds that whites residing in areas with high concentrations of minority populations have significantly more negative attitudes toward minorities and minority-based public policies than whites residing in areas with low concentrations of minority populations. The behavioral contact literature finds that inter-group contacting among majority and minority populations significantly reduces prejudicial attitudes and opinions about minorities and minority-based policies. In this article we examine both contextual and behavioral measures of the contact hypothesis as they influence white attitudes toward immigrant populations (i.e., Hispanics) and white policy positions toward immigration policies. We offer and test an explanation for the literature's divergent findings.
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The views expressed in this report are those of the authors, not necessarily those of the Home Office (nor do they reflect Government policy).
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This research focuses on whites' reactions to the racial composition of the local population. Multilevel modeling is applied to a micro/macro data file that links 1990 General Social Survey responses to census information about respondents' localities. On summary scales representing traditional prejudice, opposition to race-targeting, and policy-related beliefs, white negativity swells as the local black population share expands. Among non-Southern whites, a 10-point rise in the local percentage of blacks brings an increase in traditional prejudice greater than the decrease in prejudice that comes with three additional years of education. South/non-South differences in whites' views about blacks are generally reduced to about one-half of their original size and fall short of statistical significance when local racial composition is controlled. Interestingly, concentrations of local Asian American and Latino populations do not engender white antipathy toward these groups. If whites' reactions To the presence of blacks is a threat response, the specific dynamics of this threat await description.
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A causal model of relationships between structural properties of states, civic culture attitudes of the general public, and change in level of democracy is tested with cross-national data. The model permits inferences about the possibility of unidirectional or reciprocal causation between civic culture attitudes and democracy, controlling for macrosocietal variables such as economic development, income inequality, and subcultural pluralism. Most civic culture attitudes do not have any significant impact on change in democracy. One of them, interpersonal trust, appears clearly to be an effect rather than a cause of democracy. The exception is the percentage of the general public that prefers gradual reform of society instead of revolutionary change or intransigent defense of the status quo. Support for gradual reform has a positive impact on change in democracy, and it is unrelated to a country's years of continuous democracy—findings that support the hypothesis of a unidirectional civic culture effect on democracy.
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THIS STUDY of the political culture of democracy had its inspiration some thirty years ago in the Social Science Division of the University of Chicago. Much of what now goes under the name of the behavioral approach to the study of politics originated there in the period between the wars. It is a tribute to the vision of the men who created this leaven that it has taken three or four decades for their conception of political science to become a common possession. In particular, this study owes its inspiration to the work of Charles E. Merriam. His Civic Training series formulated many of the problems with which this study is concerned, and his New Aspects of Politics suggested the methods that have been used in its execution.
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Most research on the environmental determinants of whites' racial attitudes focuses on the "threat" hypothesis, i.e., that white racism increases with the competition posed by a larger black population. We argue that in the segregated United States, contextual effects are more complicated than this, involving both race and socio-economic status. Cross-level data on individual racial attitudes and the environment's racial and education composition, constructed from the 1991 Race and Politics Survey and the 1990 Census, support this assertion. Living amongst more uneducated whites has a greater impact on whites' racial attitudes than does living amongst more blacks. Further analysis shows that the sources of this effect come less from interracial competition and more from a psychological response of out-group hostility generated by low status contexts. We also find that whites' views on racially targeted policies are shaped by racial contexts but only where the contextual parameter coincides with the policy outcome. Our findings suggest specific limitations to the threat thesis and highlight other ways that social contexts shape racial attitudes.