Variability in Antibiotic Use at Children's Hospitals

ArticleinPEDIATRICS 126(6):1067-73 · November 2010with10 Reads
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2010-1275 · Source: PubMed
Variation in medical practice has identified opportunities for quality improvement in patient care. The degree of variation in the use of antibiotics in children's hospitals is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 556,692 consecutive pediatric inpatient discharges from 40 freestanding children's hospitals between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2008. We used the Pediatric Health Information System to acquire data on antibiotic use and clinical diagnoses. Overall, 60% of the children received at least 1 antibiotic agent during their hospitalization, including >90% of patients who had surgery, underwent central venous catheter placement, had prolonged ventilation, or remained in the hospital for >14 days. Even after adjustment for both hospital- and patient-level demographic and clinical characteristics, antibiotic use varied substantially across hospitals, including both the proportion of children exposed to antibiotics (38%-72%) and the number of days children received antibiotics (368-601 antibiotic-days per 1000 patient-days). In general, hospitals that used more antibiotics also used a higher proportion of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Children's hospitals vary substantially in their use of antibiotics to a degree unexplained by patient- or hospital-level factors typically associated with the need for antibiotic therapy, which reveals an opportunity to improve the use of these drugs.
    • "Antibiotics are among the drugs most commonly prescribed to children in hospital and community settings [1][2][3]. It has been reported that the average proportion of children in hospital settings who receive at least one antibiotic is between 33 % and 78 % [4][5][6][7][8]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Antibiotics are among the drugs most commonly prescribed to children in hospitals and communities. Unfortunately, a great number of these prescriptions are unnecessary or inappropriate. Antibiotic abuse and misuse have several negative consequences, including drug-related adverse events, the emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens, the development of Clostridium difficile infection, the negative impact on microbiota, and undertreatment risks. In this paper, the principle of and strategies for paediatric antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programs, the effects of AS interventions and the common barriers to development and implementation of AS programs are discussed. DiscussionOver the last few years, there have been significant shortages in the development and availability of new antibiotics; therefore, the implementation of strategies to preserve the activity of existing antimicrobial agents has become an urgent public health priority. AS is one such approach. The need for formal AS programs in paediatrics was officially recognized only recently, considering the widespread use of antibiotics in children and the different antimicrobial resistance patterns that these subjects exhibit in comparison to adult and elderly patients. However, not all problems related to the implementation of AS programs among paediatric patients are solved. The most important remaining problems involve educating paediatricians, creating a multidisciplinary interprofessional AS team able to prepare guidelines, monitoring antibiotic prescriptions and defining corrective measures, and the availability of administrative consensuses with adequate financial support. Additionally, the problem of optimizing the duration of AS programs remains unsolved. Further studies are needed to solve the above mentioned problems. Conclusions In paediatric patients, as in adults, the successful implementation of AS strategies has had a significant impact on reducing targeted- and nontargeted-antimicrobial use by improving the quality of care for hospitalized patients and preventing the emergence of resistance. Considering that rationalization of antibiotic misuse and abuse is the basis for reducing emergence of bacterial resistance and several clinical problems, all efforts must be made to develop multidisciplinary paediatric AS programs in hospital and community settings.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "A database review within the United States, found pediatric dosing of antibiotic was variable among hospitals, despite controlling for patient and facility characteristics. In this review, the patients of some hospitals were 44% more likely to receive antimicrobial treatment, and therapy continued for up to 37% more days [14]. Our study demonstrates equal variability within a single center for a single condition. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical fibrinolysis has been shown to be as effective as surgical debridement for the treatment of pediatric empyema. However, no studies effectively evaluate antibiotic treatment. We evaluated antibiotic utilization among different treatments of pediatric empyema. This is a retrospective review of 169 empyema patients who underwent chemical and/or mechanical fibrinolysis at a dedicated children's hospital from 2005-2013. Data points included duration of therapy, cultures, presence of necrosis or abscess, and adverse drug reactions. Immunocompromised patients and those with additional foci of infection were excluded. Twenty-seven patients underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), 123 had chemical fibrinolysis via tube thoracostomy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and 19 had tPA followed by VATS. The mean (±standard deviation) duration of total antibiotic therapy was 25.7 ± 6.5 d; following a 24 h afebrile period of 19.4 ± 6.3 d. Patients who had tPA had a significantly shorter duration of parenteral antibiotic therapy when compared with primary VATS (9.2 ± 3.6 d versus 11.6 ± 5.5 d, P = 0.04) and VATS following tPA (9.2 ± 3.6 d versus 14.3 ± 8.1 d, P < 0.01). Patients with necrosis or abscess (n = 26) had an increased total duration of antibiotics (29.3 ± 5.7 d versus 25.1 ± 6.4 d, P < 0.01). Seventy patients (41%) had an adverse reaction related to antibiotic use. Patients with empyema currently receive a protracted variable course of antibiotic therapy influenced by primary treatment and the presence of necrosis or abscess. With a high incidence of adverse reactions, a standardized protocol with truncated treatment duration should be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
    • "Up to half of antimicrobials prescribed in hospital have been deemed unnecessary or incorrect [3,4]. It has been reported that the average number of children in hospital settings who receive at least one antimicrobial is between 33% and 72%5678. A 2009 Canadian point prevalence study reported that 40.1% of pediatric patients in 30 hospitals received antimicrobials [9] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Antimicrobial use is very common in hospitalized children. An assessment of clinician’s prevailing knowledge and clinical approach to prescribing antimicrobials is helpful in order to develop the best strategies for successful stewardship programs. The objectives of the study were to determine fundamental knowledge of principles, approach to antimicrobial use through the clinical vignettes and to identify perceived challenges in decreasing antimicrobial use. Methods A questionnaire was developed by subject matter experts and pretested to ensure validity. Using a cross-sectional prospective design, the questionnaire was completed anonymously by staff and trainee physicians at a single tertiary care pediatric hospital between late November 2011 and February 2012. Results Of 159 eligible physicians, 86 (54.1%) responded, of which 77 (46 staff and 31 trainees) reported regularly prescribing antimicrobials. The majority of physicians had modest knowledge of factors that would increase risk of resistance however, less than 20% had correct knowledge of local resistance patterns for common bacteria. Almost half of physicians correctly answered the clinical vignettes. Over half of trainees and one third of staff relied most on online manuals for information regarding antimicrobials to assist prescription decision-making. Overall, physicians perceived that discontinuing empiric antimicrobials was the most difficult to achieve to decrease antibiotic use. Conclusions Our results highlight several challenges that pediatric practioners face with respect to knowledge and approach to antimicrobial prescribing. Pediatric stewardship programs could in this setting focus on discontinuing antimicrobials appropriately and promoting local antibiograms in the proper clinical setting to decrease overall use of antimicrobials.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
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