Synthesis of Heterogeneous Li4Ti5O12 Nanostructured Anodes with Long-Term Cycle Stability

Ceramic Research & Development Division, Dongil Technology Ltd, #215-6, Bukyang-dong, Hwasung, 445-854 Korea
Nanoscale Research Letters (Impact Factor: 2.78). 10/2010; 5(10):1585-1589. DOI: 10.1007/s11671-010-9680-4
Source: PubMed


The 0D-1D Lithium titanate (Li(4)Ti(5)O(12)) heterogeneous nanostructures were synthesized through the solvothermal reaction using lithium hydroxide monohydrate (Li(OH)·H(2)O) and protonated trititanate (H(2)Ti(3)O(7)) nanowires as the templates in an ethanol/water mixed solvent with subsequent heat treatment. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to reveal that the Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) powders had 0D-1D heterogeneous nanostructures with nanoparticles (0D) on the surface of wires (1D). The composition of the mixed solvents and the volume ratio of ethanol modulated the primary particle size of the Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) nanoparticles. The Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) heterogeneous nanostructures exhibited good capacity retention of 125 mAh/g after 500 cycles at 1C and a superior high-rate performance of 114 mAh/g at 20C.

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    • "The other strategy is to reduce the electron and Li-ion diffusion lengths by designing nanostructured Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 spinels [38] [39] [40], which also brings about other benefits such as large electrode/electrolyte interface for large Li-ion flow and high utilization of the electrode material. Various nanostructures of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , such as nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires, and nanotubes, have been synthesized to improve the rate performance of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 [41] [42] [43]. The two strategies can also be combined to achieve further enhancement in the rate performance of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 . "
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    ABSTRACT: Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with high energy and power are promising power sources for electric vehicles (including hybrid electric vehicles). One of the challenges is to develop advanced anode materials with high safety, good cycling stability, and fast charge/discharge capabilities. The Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a state-of-the-art Li-ion battery anode material owing to its outstanding safety and excellent structural stability during cycling. However, Li4Ti5O12 large particles still suffer from low ionic conductivity and electronic conductivity, which result in poor rate performance and inhibit its wide practical application. Developing nanostructured electrode materials is one of the most attractive strategies to dramatically enhance the electrochemical performance, including capacity, rate capability, and cycling life. Currently, extensive efforts have been devoted to developing nanostructured Li4Ti5O12 and Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanocomposites to improve their rate performance for high-power Li-ion batteries. In this article, we review the recent progress in developing nanostructured Li4Ti5O12 and Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanocomposites and discuss the benefits of nanostructure and carbon incorporation for the electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12-based anodes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    • "The spinel Li4Ti5O12 is reported to be a stable anode operating on the Ti(IV)/Ti(III) redox couple located at 1.5 V versus Li+/Li. It is capable of a fast charge and a long cycle life because no SEI layer is formed [46-48]. However, it has a low specific capacity (approximately 140 mAh g-1), and the high redox potential (1.5 V) reduces the energy density of a cell using this anode. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lithium-ion batteries are supposed to be a key method to make a more efficient use of energy. In the past decade, nanostructured electrode materials have been extensively studied and have presented the opportunity to achieve superior performance for the next-generation batteries which require higher energy and power densities and longer cycle life. In this article, we reviewed recent research activities on selective crystallization of inorganic materials into nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and discuss how selective crystallization can improve the electrode performance of materials; for example, selective exposure of surfaces normal to the ionic diffusion paths can greatly enhance the ion conductivity of insertion-type materials; crystallization of alloying-type materials into nanowire arrays has proven to be a good solution to the electrode pulverization problem; and constructing conversion-type materials into hollow structures is an effective approach to buffer the volume variation during cycling. The major goal of this review is to demonstrate the importance of crystallization in energy storage applications.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Nanoscale Research Letters
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    • "Figure 5 shows the rate capability of the nano-Li4Ti5O12 powders that were prepared through the solid-state process, for up to 20 C. The cells were charged and discharged at 1 C for the first 10 cycles, and then, the rate was increased in stages to 20 C. At a rate of 20 C, the capacity of the nano-Li4Ti5O12 powders was still high: 112 mAh g-1. This outstanding performance at high rates was much better than that afforded by any of the various types of Li4Ti5O12 nanostructures such as nanowires and nanoparticles [3,12,13]. In particular, the nano-Li4Ti5O12 powders calcined at 700°C exhibited better long-term cyclability as well as superior rate capabilities than those calcined at 800°C (Figure 5), possibly a result of the nanosize effect of the small particle size and large surface area. "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries, Li4Ti5O12, has attracted attention because it is a zero-strain Li insertion host having a stable insertion potential. In this study, we suggest two different synthetic processes to prepare Li4Ti5O12 using anatase TiO2 nanoprecursors. TiO2 powders, which have extraordinarily large surface areas of more than 250 m2 g-1, were initially prepared through the urea-forced hydrolysis/precipitation route below 100°C. For the synthesis of Li4Ti5O12, LiOH and Li2CO3 were added to TiO2 solutions prepared in water and ethanol media, respectively. The powders were subsequently dried and calcined at various temperatures. The phase and morphological transitions from TiO2 to Li4Ti5O12 were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of nanosized Li4Ti5O12 was evaluated in detail by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling. Furthermore, the high-rate performance and long-term cycle stability of Li4Ti5O12 anodes for use in Li-ion batteries were discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Nanoscale Research Letters
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