ArticleLiterature Review

Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the question of whether sleep deprivation affects nearly all cognitive capacities in a global manner through degraded alertness and attention, or whether sleep loss specifically impairs some aspects of cognition more than others. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex as a brain region that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep loss, but perplexingly, executive function tasks that putatively measure prefrontal functioning have yielded inconsistent findings within the context of sleep deprivation. Whereas many convergent and rule-based reasoning, decision making and planning tasks are relatively unaffected by sleep loss, more creative, divergent and innovative aspects of cognition do appear to be degraded by lack of sleep. Emerging evidence suggests that some aspects of higher level cognitive capacities remain degraded by sleep deprivation despite restoration of alertness and vigilance with stimulant countermeasures, suggesting that sleep loss may affect specific cognitive systems above and beyond the effects produced by global cognitive declines or impaired attentional processes. Finally, the role of emotion as a critical facet of cognition has received increasing attention in recent years and mounting evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may particularly affect cognitive systems that rely on emotional data. Thus, the extent to which sleep deprivation affects a particular cognitive process may depend on several factors, including the magnitude of global decline in general alertness and attention, the degree to which the specific cognitive function depends on emotion-processing networks, and the extent to which that cognitive process can draw upon associated cortical regions for compensatory support.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Proper sleep is required to maintain optimal cognitive function. Lack of nighttime sleep, even for one night, has detrimental effects on several cognitive functions, especially sustained attention and vigilance, but other cognitive aspects are also involved, including executive function and sensory perception (e.g., visuospatial perception) (Killgore, 2010). Evaluating different aspects of sleep (subjective quality, duration, daytime sleepiness, etc.) over a period of time, rather than simply assessing the duration of onenight sleep, can provide a more robust and general assessment of sleep function and quality. ...
... However, by implementing an interaction model, we found that visual search and attention are highly associated with the DAN (both structural and functional) in the PS group and with the VAN in the GS group. One-night lack of sleep is not uncommon among adolescents and early adulthood, and many studies have investigated its effects on cognition so far (Killgore, 2010). However, most studies instructed participants to forcefully not sleep for the purpose of their study. ...
... Decreased sustained attention is the most reported finding of cognitive effects of short-period sleep deprivation (Gunzelmann et al., 2009;Killgore, 2010;Hudson et al., 2020). Its implications reach far from the area of cognitive sciences, and it is believed that disrupted visual attention may underlie higher rates of accidents after sleep deprivation (Wibirama et al., 2015;Wijayanto et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sleep deprivation disrupts visual attention; however, the effects of chronic poor sleep quality on it are not understood. The dorsal attention network (DAN) and the ventral attention network (VAN) are involved in visual attention and search (VSA), with the DAN being important for the serial attention network and the VAN for parallel “pop-out” visual search. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate correlation of sleep quality with visual attention and search, functional, and tracts’ properties of the DAN and VAN. Materials and Methods We recruited 79 young male subjects and assessed their sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), dividing subjects into poor sleepers (PSs) and good sleepers (GSs) based on a cutoff of 5. Daytime sleepiness, sleep hygiene, depression, and anxiety levels were also evaluated. We assessed VSA using a computerized match-to-sample (MTS) task. We extracted functional networks and tracts of the VAN and DAN and statistically assessed group differences in task performance and imaging covarying age, depression, and anxiety. An interaction model with MTS × group was also done on imaging. Results In total, 43.67% of subjects were PSs. Sleep quality significantly correlated with daytime sleepiness, sleep hygiene, depression, and anxiety (all p < 0.001). No between-group differences were seen in task performance and functional or tract properties of the attention networks. Interaction analysis showed that the task performance was highly reliant on the DAN in PSs and on the VAN in GSs. Conclusion Our findings show no association between sleep quality and VSA in task performance and imaging correlates of the attention network. However, unlike the GS group, poor sleep quality is associated with VSA being more reliant on the DAN than on the VAN.
... [11][12][13] Regular and sufficient sleep supports human physical and mental health. 14 Short sleep duration is associated with reduced cognitive performance, 15,16 diminished productivity, 17 increased absenteeism, 18 compromised immune function, 19 and elevated risk of hypertension, adverse cardiovascular outcomes, 20,21 mortality, 20,22 depression, anger, and suicidal behaviors. 23,24 Acute sleep re-striction delays reaction times, 15 increases accident risk, 25 inhibits the neural encoding of new experiences to memory, 26 and limits the clearance of neurotoxic metabolites from the brain linked to aging and neurodegenerative diseases. ...
... 14 Short sleep duration is associated with reduced cognitive performance, 15,16 diminished productivity, 17 increased absenteeism, 18 compromised immune function, 19 and elevated risk of hypertension, adverse cardiovascular outcomes, 20,21 mortality, 20,22 depression, anger, and suicidal behaviors. 23,24 Acute sleep re-striction delays reaction times, 15 increases accident risk, 25 inhibits the neural encoding of new experiences to memory, 26 and limits the clearance of neurotoxic metabolites from the brain linked to aging and neurodegenerative diseases. 27 Nevertheless, growing proportions of industrialized populations do not obtain adequate sleep, a development attributed to lifestyle and environmental changes, but not yet fully understood. ...
... [5][6][7][8]13,53,[65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73] Thus, sleep may act as a key biobehavioral mechanism between ambient temperature and adverse human outcomes, with implications for human performance and productivity as well as physical and mental health. 13,15,[18][19][20][21][23][24][25] For instance, by elevating the probability of short sleep, high ambient temperatures may predispose susceptible segments of society to worsened affect, 23,74 anger and aggression, 23,24 hypertension and adverse cardiovascular outcomes, 20-22 diminished cognitive performance, 15,16 elevated risk of accidents and injuries, 25 and compromised immune system functioning. 19 While further research should seek to clarify this hypothesis, addressing the nocturnal impact of rising ambient temperatures on human sleep may be an efficient early intervention to reduce downstream adverse behavioral and developmental impacts linked to insufficient sleep. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ambient temperatures are rising worldwide, with the greatest increases recorded at night. Concurrently, the prevalence of insufficient sleep is rising in many populations. Yet it remains unclear whether warmer-than-average temperatures causally impact objective measures of sleep globally. Here, we link billions of repeated sleep measurements from sleep-tracking wristbands comprising over 7 million sleep records (n = 47,628) across 68 countries to local daily meteorological data. Controlling for individual, seasonal, and time-varying confounds, increased temperature shortens sleep primarily through delayed onset, increasing the probability of insufficient sleep. The temperature effect on sleep loss is substantially larger for residents from lower-income countries and older adults, and females are affected more than males. Those in hotter regions experience comparably more sleep loss per degree of warming, suggesting limited adaptation. By 2099, suboptimal temperatures may erode 50–58 h of sleep per person-year, with climate change producing geographic inequalities that scale with future emissions.
... Killgore's team also found comparable results with the Iowa Gambling Task, where sleep deprivation led to a decline in cognitive flexibility [26]. A published review suggested that sleep deprivation can severely impair cognitive flexibility; however, evidence in this regard has been less consistent [27]. A previous meta-analysis by Fortier-Brochu et al. [28] found that there were no significant differences in cognitive flexibility between healthy and insomnia populations. ...
... Third, previous studies on insomnia and cognitive flexibility are not always consistent [25][26][27][28][29], but behavioral experimental results show that improved sleep can improve cognitive flexibility [26,27]. ...
... Third, previous studies on insomnia and cognitive flexibility are not always consistent [25][26][27][28][29], but behavioral experimental results show that improved sleep can improve cognitive flexibility [26,27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of digital Cognitive Behavior Therapy for insomnia (dCBT-i) on sleep quality have been previously demonstrated but the spillover effects on fatigue, flow (a state of immersion in activities of interest), and cognitive flexibility remain unclear. The current study examined the effectiveness of dCBT-i. A total of 97 college students (20.96 ± 1.87 years, 73.1% female students) were randomly selected from a shortlist and divided into sleep intervention (n = 39), conventional education (n = 37), and healthy control (n = 21) groups. Task switching paradigm, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Flow Experience Scale (FES), and the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI) were measured pre- and post-intervention. Results show that the sleep quality of the intervention group improved, and fatigue was relieved. Participants in the sleep intervention group had increased flow experience scores post-intervention and improved cognitive flexibility. The control group’s sleep quality deteriorated and fatigue level increased. dCBT-i can not only achieve a significant improvement in sleep quality and reduce fatigue, but also improve learning abilities, quality of life, flow, and cognitive flexibility. Future research should pay attention to indicators such as work efficiency, sedative use, and the durability and stability of such effects.
... The strongest evidence for the impact of sleep on the neural correlates of executive performance can be found in studies of sleep restriction and deprivation (Lowe, Safati, & Hall, 2017;Yaffe et al., 2014). The observed neurocognitive impairments that are a consequence of sleep restriction have often been attributed to suboptimal functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the principal cortical area responsible for higher-level cognitive processes, including executive functions (Killgore, 2010). However, there is growing evidence that during response inhibition, one of the core executive capabilities, activation occurs not only in the PFC, but in other areas of the cortex as well (Boehler, Appelbaum, Krebs, Hopf, & Woldorff, 2010;Chikazoe, 2010;Hsu et al., 2011;Swick, Ashley, & Turken, 2011). ...
... Executive functions are broad, complex, and are dependent upon multiple areas of the cortex. There is growing evidence that areas of activation during inhibitory tasks are not only located in the PFC, which is often attributed to be the principal cortical area for higherlevel cognitive processes like executive function (Killgore, 2010), but also in the pre-supplementary motor area, insular cortex, and medial frontal gyrus, among others (Boehler et al., 2010;Chikazoe, 2010;Hsu et al., 2011;Swick et al., 2011). Our study is the first to highlight that PA and sleep quality are each independently associated with greater brain activation in regions that are associated with executive performance and are susceptible to age-associated cognitive decline (Raz & Rodrigue, 2006). ...
Article
Sleep and physical activity (PA) are important for the maintenance of executive functions. Whether these lifestyle factors independently contribute to associated neural correlates of executive functions is unknown. We therefore investigated the independent associations of PA and sleep with neural activity during executive performance using task‐based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Baseline data from a subset of participants (n = 29) enrolled in a randomised trial were used for this cross‐sectional analysis. We measured PA, sleep duration and efficiency for 7 days using the SenseWear Mini and examined neural activity underlying response inhibition using the Go/NoGo executive performance task. Brain activation patterns during the NoGo condition were contrasted to activation patterns during the Go condition (i.e., NoGo–Go). We constructed two separate models (controlling for age, sex, and education) to examine the independent associations of (i) PA and sleep duration; and (ii) PA and sleep efficiency with brain activation. Significant clusters were corrected for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05) to determine region‐specific activation patterns. The mean (SD) participant age was 61 (9) years, and 79% were female. PA was independently associated with greater task‐related blood‐oxygen‐level dependent (BOLD) signal activity in the left cingulate gyrus; longer sleep duration was independently associated with greater BOLD signal activity in the left putamen. Higher sleep efficiency was independently associated with increased BOLD signal activity in the left hippocampus. PA, sleep duration, and efficiency are each independently associated with greater neural activity underlying response inhibition, which further illustrates that PA and sleep are each uniquely important for brain health.
... Insufficient sleep increases the risk of human error-related accidents (5). ASD affects cognition in many ways and can negatively impact alertness, learning, memory, and executive function (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12). Since ASD has serious effects on human cognitive brain function, safety intervention studies on the effects of ASD, such as acupuncture, are increasingly popular in this field (13,14). ...
... The FS-14 was jointly compiled by a number of experts, including Chalder and Berelowitz, in the United Kingdom (45). The physical fatigue score is obtained by adding the scores of eight items (1-8), the mental fatigue score is obtained by adding the scores of six items (9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14), and the total fatigue score is the sum of physical and mental fatigue scores. The highest score of physical fatigue is 8, the highest score of mental fatigue is 6, and the highest total score is 14. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Acute sleep deprivation (ASD) can effect mood, attention, memory, alertness and metabolism. Especially, it is often accompanied by cognitive impairment of the brain. Acupuncture is safe and effective for improving cognitive function, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, an event-related potential (ERP) technique will be employed to measure the behavioral, cognitive, and physiological changes produced by electroacupuncture intervention after ASD. Methods We will recruit 60 healthy subjects. The participants will be randomly divided into a treatment group, a control group, a sham electroacupuncture group and a blank group, at a 1:1:1:1 ratio. The primary outcome will be determined by the change from baseline to 36 h in the MoCA score. The secondary results include the amplitude and latency of ERP N2 and P3, Go-hit rates, Go-RTs, No-Go-FA rates, the WCST, the Digit Span Subtest of the WAIS, the ESS score and FS-14. The 15 healthy subjects will not receive acupuncture treatment and ASD, but will receive EEG records and cognition functions test at the beginning and end of the experiment. Electroacupuncture intervention will be performed for 30 min once every 12 h, a total of three times. ERP measurements and other tests will be performed after baseline and ASD, and the statistician and outcome evaluator will be blinded to treatment allocation. Discussion This study is expected to investigate the effectiveness of electroacupuncture in improving cognition for ASD. Trial Registration ChiCTR2200055999.
... They found an increase in impulsivity and slower processing time when making decisions after a 26-h shift when compared to baseline levels (i.e., when wellrested). Consequently, fatigue-related variations in behavior can lead to effects on everyday decision-making, as these processes not only rely on cognitive capacity, but also emotional factors (Killgore, 2010). ...
... Drug Caffeine Penetar et al., 1993;Lieberman et al., 2002;Barry et al., 2005;Wesensten et al., 2005;Kohler et al., 2006;Killgore et al., 2011;McIntire et al., 2014;Paech et al., 2016;McIntire et al., 2017;Crooks et al., 2019;Killgore andKamimori, 2020a Modafinil Pigeau et al., 1995;Caldwell et al., 2000, Caldwell et al., 2004bWesensten et al., 2005D-amphetamine Newhouse et al., 1989Pigeau et al., 1995;Wesensten et al., 2005Donepezil Dodds et al., 2011 CX717 (AMPAKINE compound) Boyle et al., 2012 Non-invasive stimulation Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) Nitsche and Paulus, 2001;McIntire et al., 2014McIntire et al., , 2017Cheng et al., 2021 Transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (tVNS) Rizzo et al., 2003;McIntire et al., 2021 Other Break period Pigeau et al., 1995 have found that it only takes 1 h for caffeine to have its greatest effects and lasts for 8 h (Lieberman et al., 2002). Additionally, caffeine has prevented an increase in the number of risks taken when compared to placebo during sleep deprivation (Killgore et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The deleterious effects of insufficient sleep have been well-established in the literature and can lead to a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Some of the most replicated findings demonstrate significant declines in cognitive functions such as vigilance and executive attention, psychomotor and cognitive speed, and working memory. Consequently, these decrements often lead individuals who are in a fatigued state to engage in substandard performance on everyday tasks. In the interest of curtailing these effects, prior work has attempted to identify mechanisms that predict fatigue onset and develop techniques to mitigate its negative consequences. Nonetheless, these results are often confounded by variables such as an individual’s resistance to fatigue, sleep history, and unclear distinctions about whether certain performance decrements are present due to fatigue or due to other confounding factors. Similar areas of research have provided approaches to produce models for the prediction of cognitive performance decrements due to fatigue through the use of multi-modal recording and analysis of fatigue-related responses. Namely, gathering and combining response information from multiple sources (i.e., physiological and behavioral) at multiple timescales may provide a more comprehensive representation of what constitutes fatigue onset in the individual. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the relevant literature on the topic of fatigue-related performance effects with a special emphasis on a variety of physiological and behavioral response variables that have shown to be sensitive to changes in fatigue. Furthermore, an increasing reliance on sleep loss, meant to assist in meeting the demands of modern society, has led to an upsurge in the relevance of identifying dependable countermeasures for fatigued states. As such, we will also review methods for the mitigation of performance effects due to fatigue and discuss their usefulness in regulating these effects. In sum, this review aims to inspire future work that will create opportunities to detect fatigue and mitigate its effects prior to the onset of cognitive impairments.
... To illustrate, a study in Peru among persons living with HIV (PLWH) demonstrated that participants with sleep disturbances as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index had difficulty with antiretroviral medication adherence [26]. Multiple studies have demonstrated the role of sleep in consolidation of cognition and memory, both of which are key factors in remembering to take routine medications such as PrEP [27,28]. For instance, a study involving the subjective measure of sleep quality among PLWH showed that those who had worse sleep quality had worse memory and executive function [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
PrEP uptake and adherence among young Black sexual minority men (YBSMM), has been sub-optimal. Multiple studies identified sleep as an important determinant of medication adherence, although it has not been examined with regard to PrEP among YBSMM. This study utilized data collected from HIV-negative cisgender YBSMM in the Neighborhoods and Networks (N2) study in Chicago using PrEP (N = 70). Sleep quality was measured using the PHQ-9 and PrEP adherence questions were adapted from Reynolds et al., 2004. Bivariate and multivariable regression analyses were used to estimate associations between sleep and missing PrEP doses, controlling for relevant demographic and behavioral factors. YBSMM who reported sleep disturbance a moderate amount of time (aOR 7.59 [1.05 to 54.57]) were more likely to miss taking PrEP because they had too many pills to take. Sleep quality is an overlooked determinant of medication adherence, and may negatively impact YBSMM’s ability to consistently take PrEP.
... Chronotype has been linked to politically meaningful psychological traits, such as the Big Five (Lipnevich et al., 2017) and the Dark Triad (Jonason et al., 2013), and with demographic characteristics, such as urban-rural residence (Carvalho et al., 2014), age, and sex (Fischer et al., 2017). Inadequate sleep is linked to cognitive burdens (Killgore, 2010;Vaseghi et al., 2021); cognitive load affects ideological cognition (Eidelman et al., 2012), decision-making (Deck & Jahedi, 2015), especially as complexity increases (Allred et al., 2016), candidate evaluation (Nawara & Bailey, 2021), and the processing of news information (Van Cauwenberge et al., 2014). Sleep deficits also disrupt emotion regulation (Palmer & Alfano, 2017), which may make politics more stressful (Ford & Feinberg, 2020). ...
Article
A bstract Sleep research presents an important frontier of discovery for political science. While sleep has largely been neglected by political scientists, human psychology is inextricably linked with sleep and so political cognition must be as well. Existing work shows that sleep is linked to political participation and ideology, and that contentious politics can disrupt sleep. I propose three directions for future research—on participatory democracy, on ideology, and on how context shapes sleep-politics links. I also note that sleep research intersects with the study of political institutions, of war and conflict, of elite decision-making, and of normative theory. In short, political scientists across subfields can and should consider whether and how sleep influences political life in their area of expertise and how to influence relevant policies. This new research agenda will enrich our theories of politics and enable us to identify pressing areas for policy interventions to revitalize our democracy.
... Sleep is closely related to inhibitory control, and it is generally believed that sleep deprivation has adverse effects on response inhibition and flexibility [22][23][24]. For example, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using the go/no-go paradigm found that 24 h of sleep deprivation caused a significant decrease in activation of the ventral and anterior prefrontal regions associated with inhibitory control [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Excellent response inhibition is the basis for outstanding competitive athletic performance, and sleep may be an important factor affecting athletes’ response inhibition. This study investigates the effect of sleep deprivation on athletes’ response inhibition, and its differentiating effect on non-athlete controls’ performance, with the aim of helping athletes effectively improve their response inhibition ability through sleep pattern manipulation. Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data were collected from 36 participants (16 table tennis athletes and 20 general college students) after 36 h of sleep deprivation using ERP techniques and a stop-signal task. Sleep deprivation’s different effects on response inhibition in the two groups were explored through repeated-measures ANOVA. Behavioral data showed that in a baseline state, stop-signal response time was significantly faster in table tennis athletes than in non-athlete controls, and appeared significantly longer after sleep deprivation in both groups. ERP results showed that at baseline state, N2, ERN, and P3 amplitudes were lower in table tennis athletes than in non-athlete controls, and corresponding significant decreases were observed in non-athlete controls after 36 h of sleep deprivation. Table tennis athletes showed a decrease in P3 amplitude and no significant difference in N2 and ERN amplitudes, after 36 h of sleep deprivation compared to the baseline state. Compared to non-athlete controls, table tennis athletes had better response inhibition, and the adverse effects of sleep deprivation on response inhibition occurred mainly in the later top-down motor inhibition process rather than in earlier automated conflict detection and monitoring.
... In the meantime, more than 50% of the general population was affected by obstructive sleep apnea, which is a frequent respiratory sleep disorder and is associated with neurocognitive performance impairment [2]. Previous studies have mostly focused on the effect of sleep deprivation on emotions and some cognitive functions [3,4]. By contrast, research on how sleep deprivation affects hand movement and task performance, particularly after extended periods of sleep deprivation, have rarely been reported. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that sleep deprivation can affect emotions and some cognitive functions. However, research on how sleep deprivation influences the visuomotor memory have rarely been reported. In the current study, a Fitts’ Law task was used to investigate how movement and the visuomotor memory are affected under the condition of sleep deprivation. Experiment 1 had 36 participants (15 males, mean age = 21.61 years) complete the same Fitts’ Law task 10 days apart under standard conditions. Experiment 2 had five participants (three males, mean age = 27.2 years) complete the task after 7 days of sleep deprivation, then complete it again after 10 days without sleep deprivation. Experiment 1 demonstrated the stability of the trial-to-trial effects. Experiment 2 showed that the previous trial (n) exerted no effect on the current trial (n + 1) under the conditions of sleep deprivation (p = 0.672). However, the effect was observed after 10 days without sleep deprivation (p = 0.013). This suggests that sleep deprivation did not affect task performance but influenced the transfer of the trial history. Future studies are required to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation with more participants.
... According to studies, sleep deprivation decreases the levels of memory, attention and executive functions 44,45 . Our findings were in line with those of another research indicating that sleeplessness has an impact on executive functions 46 . Our findings were also consistent with other studies regarding the effects of sleep deprivation on reaction time [47][48][49] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This investigation aimed to compare caffeinated gums with two different dosages of caffeine (200mg vs. 300mg) by assessing their effectiveness on the improvement of cognitive functions among Iranian individuals voluntarily suffering from 30 hours of sleep deprivation. Material and Methods: Thirty-four healthy male volunteers with ages from 28 to 35 years old were randomly assigned to either 200 or 300mg caffeine intake. Each participant completed CANTAB subtests to assess their core cognitive functions including MOT, RTI, RVP, and SWM before and after sleep deprivation, as well as after being treated with caffeinated gum. Results: The 300mg caffeine intake group indicated higher levels of enhancement of core cognitive functions compared with those in the 200mg caffeine intake group. Conclusion: This study suggests that the dose of 300mg of caffeine could effectively enhance the cognitive functions of Iranian individuals suffering from sleep deprivation.
... Previous studies reported attention deficits, memory problems, and impaired executive functions after either total or partial sleep deprivation. 17,33,34 It is known that patients with mTBI can suffer from long-term cognitive difficulties and lower quality of life. This study showed that moderate-severe sleep disturbances are associated with delayed recovery of cognitive functions and unfavorable long-term outcomes post-mTBI. ...
Article
Mild (mTBI) traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for the majority of all TBI cases. Evidence has suggested that patients with mTBI can suffer from long-lasting cognitive deficits, persistent symptoms, and decreased quality of life. Sleep disorders are commonly observed after TBI, with the prevalence rate of sleep disturbances in persons with TBI being much higher than that in the general population. Poor sleep quality can impair cognitive functions in the general population. This effect of sleep disturbances may impede the recovery processes in the population with TBI. The objective of this study is to add to our understanding of the relationship between self-reported sleep problems and other post-concussion symptoms and look at the association between early sleep problems and long-term outcomes in mTBI. Post-concussion symptoms, neurocognitive functions, level of global outcomes, and rating of satisfaction of life were assessed in 64 patients with mTBI. The results revealed that the presence of sleep disturbances co-occur with an increased level of overall post-concussion symptoms at the subacute stage of mTBI, particularly with symptoms including poor concentration, memory problems, and irritability. In addition, sleep disturbance at the subacute stage is associated with persistent poor concentration and memory problems, as well as worse neurocognitive function, slower overall recovery, and lower satisfactory of life at the long term. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbance can be a prognostic factor of long-term outcomes after mTBI. Early interventions to improve sleep quality can have potential benefits to facilitate the recovery process from mTBI.
... Insufficient sleep has adverse health and behavior consequences such as daytime sleepiness, feeling irritable during the day, and depressed mood [2,3]. Reduced attention, psychomotor vigilance, and increased variability in behavioral responses are the most consistent effect of sleep deprivation [4]. Students may be at risk of developing sleep disorders during their education. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Quality of sleep and stress level can affect the health, capacity of learning, and academic performance of the students. This study aimed to investigate the association between stress and sleep quality with academic performance among undergraduate clinical dental students in Shiraz, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during the second semester of the academic year 2020-2021 among clinical dental students at Shiraz Dental School, Iran. A total of 138 students completed Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and dental environment stress (DES) questionnaire. The grade point averages (GPAs) of the previous terms of the participants were also collected. Data analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the one-way ANOVA, post hoc Duncan's test, nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, and the chi-squared test. The p values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Clinical dental students participated in this study experienced moderate levels of stress and poor sleep quality. Mean total DES and PSGI scores did not differ by sex, year of study, marital status, and place of residence (p values >0.05). Most of the students (52.9%) had moderate GPAs. A significant relationship was observed between sex and GPA as well as between place of residence and GPA (p values <0.05). No significant differences were found between DES total score or PSQI score and GPA categories (p values >0.05). A significant direct relationship between DES total score and PSQI score was observed (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Dental undergraduates in Shiraz, Iran, experienced moderate levels of stress and poor sleep quality. The results showed no significant difference between sleep quality or DES and academic achievement. However, a significant direct correlation was observed between sleep quality and dental environment stress.
... In general, sleep is a complex, adaptive and physiological process that is central to cognition and behavioural regulation in healthy subjects as well as in patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases. As a consequence, impaired sleep quality and quantity may affect executive functions [15,16], learning and memory consolidation [17,18] and emotional processing [19,20] even in healthy subjects. Sleep quality and quantity may also contribute to the appearance and/or worsening of psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, depression, irritability and apathy [21,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Sleep patterns are frequently disrupted in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD); however, they are still poorly understood, especially their association with clinic features. Our study aimed to explore potential correlations between sleep features and motor, cognitive, behavioural and functional changes in manifest HD subjects. (2) Methods: We enrolled 42 patients who were assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) questionnaires; clinical features were evaluated by the validated ENROLL-HD platform assay, including the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and the Problem Behaviours Assessment Short Form (PBA-s). (3) Results: We found a significant association between the patients’ perception of sleep abnormalities and scores of impaired independence, cognitive and motor performances. Specifically, sleep efficiency (PSQI—C4 subscores) and the use of sleep medications (PSQI—C6 subscores) seem to be more frequently associated with the severity of the disease progression. (4) Conclusion: sleep abnormalities represent an important part of the HD clinical profile and can impair patients’ quality of life by affecting their level of independence, cognition performance and mental well-being.
... Third, a person might consider him-or herself as a morning (lark) or evening (night owl) type, and, thus, perform better at a specific time-of-day (Adan et al., 2012;Roenneberg et al., 2003), yet little is known as to how such chronotypes may influence the experience of spontaneous thoughts. Fourth, given the well-documented effects of sleep on several cognitive domains (Killgore, 2010), the present review also informs the debate regarding the role of executive functions in spontaneous thoughts (McVay & Kane 2010;Smallwood, 2013;Smallwood & Schooler, 2006;Watkins, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite an upsurge of research on spontaneous cognition, little is known about its associations with sleep-related outcomes. This systematic review, following PRISMA guidelines, examined the relationship between sleep and spontaneous thoughts, across different definitions and measurements of sleep outcomes and spontaneous cognition, and a diversity of methodologies. Twenty-one articles with survey and/or experimental designs were identified. Self-reported disturbed sleep-comprising poor sleep quality, more insomnia symptoms, more daytime sleepiness and a tendency towards eveningness-and experimentally induced sleep deprivation were associated with a tendency to engage in disruptive mind wandering and daydreaming, but not positive-constructive daydreaming. Findings regarding circadian fluctuation in spontaneous thoughts were mixed and inconclusive. This systematic review bridges the gap between the sleep and spontaneous cognition research by contributing to the understanding of potential psychological and cognitive mechanisms of spontaneous cognition, as well as by elucidating the emotional and cognitive consequences of disturbed sleep.
... On the other hand, in children [52] and adolescents [53,54], minimal but repeated sleep restrictions or sleep deprivation throughout the night have resulted in various cognitive deficits. More specifically, disturbed sleep may lead to slower responses and more variable performance during alertness, vigilance, and attention tasks [55,56]. Additionally, disturbed sleep can increase impulsive errors during executive function tasks [57]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep disturbances may be a significant source of distress for children with neurodevelopmental disorders, and consequently also for their families. Crucially, sleep disturbances might be influenced by comorbidity. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific learning disorder (SLD) often co-occur, and consequently, investigating sleep disturbances in children with comorbidity of ADHD and SLD is essential. Our study aimed at detecting sleep difficulties in a group of 74 children with ADHD, 78 children with SLD, and 76 children with ADHD and SLD by using the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children. The results showed that sleep difficulties emerge more clearly in children with comorbid ADHD and SLD compared to children with only ADHD or SLD. These sleep difficulties were not due to differences in ages and behavioral/emotional problems. In conclusion, evaluating sleep disturbances is important when assessing and managing children with ADHD, SLD, and particularly with the two comorbid conditions, to better understand their difficulties and develop tailored interventions.
... Sleep is a universal and core occupation throughout the lifespan. Inadequate sleep can interfere with synaptic development and brain maturation, attention, memory, mood regulation, behavior, and other aspects of daytime function (Killgore, 2010;Beebe, 2011), leading to restrictions in occupation and participation. While sleep difficulties are not uncommon in the neurotypical population, sleep disorders have been reported in up to 80% of autistic individuals (Richdale and Schreck, 2009;Souders et al., 2009;Cortesi et al., 2010;Morgan et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of sleep dysfunction is considerably higher in the autistic population than in the non-autistic. Similarly, the incidence of sensory reactivity differences in autism exceeds that in the neurotypical population. The basis of sleep disorders in autism is multifactorial, but sensory integration/processing concerns may play a role. Research that investigates this interplay for autistic individuals is limited but vital. In this scoping review, we examined literature addressing the following research question: What is the relationship between sleep and sensory integration/processing in autism? We included articles if they were peer-reviewed, English or Spanish, purposefully addressed sensory integration/processing differences, were sleep focused and included autism as the primary diagnosis or population. Articles were excluded if the language was not English or Spanish, research was conducted with animals, they were non-peer-reviewed, the primary population was not autistic, the sensory focus reflected a specific sensorineural loss (e.g., blindness, or deafness), there was not a clear inclusion of sensory integration/processing or sleep. We searched six databases and included all citations from the inception of each database through June 2021. The search strategy identified 397 documents that were reduced to 24 included articles after exclusion criteria were applied. The majority of studies we identified characterized the relation between sleep and sensory integration/processing differences in autism. Investigators found multiple sleep concerns such as bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, delayed sleep onset, night awaking, and short sleep duration in autistic individuals. Identified sensory concerns focused on reactivity, finding hyper- and hypo-reactivity as well as sensory seeking across sensory domains. Co-existence of sleep concerns and sensory integration/processing differences was frequently reported. Few intervention studies showed a clear sensory focus; those that did emphasized pressure, movement, touch, and individual sensory preferences/needs. Swimming programs and massage showed promising results. No studies were of high quality. At a minimum, there is a co-existence of sensory reactivity differences and sleep concerns in autistic children, and possibly autistic adults. The relationship between poor sleep and sensory integration/processing differences is complex and multi-faceted, requiring additional research. Interventions that purposefully include a central sensory component have not been well studied in autistic children or adults. Overall studies with greater rigor and purposeful use of sensation and sensorimotor supports as a component of intervention are needed. This study was not funded.
... It also leads to slowing of responses which results in impaired performance. 6 Disturbances in cognition cause impaired performances in job where decision making is crucial. Healthcare profession is one among such, where insufficient sleep impairs work performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: A person spends one third life in sleep, so the quality and quantity of sleep is of utmost importance. Health Care Professionals (HCPs) are more prone to inconsistency in sleep both in quality and quantity, which leads to deflection from health and well-being of themselves and care of others. This study aims to assess the various factors influencing sleep quality and daytime sleepiness among medical and nursing healthcare professionals. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and work-related information, co-morbidity and quality of Sleep using ESS (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) scale. Results: Among the 150 HCPs, 64.7% were medical and 35.3% were nursing professionals. 53.6% of medical and 66% of nursing professionals reported poor sleep quality. Increased coffee consumption influences sleep quality and it was found to be statistically significant. Nursing professionals had more excessive daytime sleepiness (58.5%) with significant p-value (p=0.01). Conclusion: According to our study results, sleep quality was poor among nursing professionals which highlights the need for measures to improve their quality of sleep.
... This trend of inadequate and illtimed sleep represents a major public health concern (e. g [8,9]). There is ample evidence that insufficient sleep negatively impacts many domains of a teenager's life, including cognitive functioning [10][11][12][13], academic performance [7,14] and mental health [15][16][17]. Therefore, it is critical to identify factors that may facilitate healthier sleep in this population; one such factor may be physical activity [18][19][20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Research to date suggests that physical activity is associated with improved sleep, but studies have predominantly relied on self-report measures and have not accounted for school day/free day variability. To address these gaps in the literature, the aim of the present study was to (a) quantify physical activity in adolescents using long-term daily actigraphy measurement and (b) to examine the association between actigraphically assessed steps and sleep behavior in a sample of healthy adolescents. To be able to capture intra- and inter-individual differences in the daily physical activity of adolescents, we examined within as well as between subjects effects and its association with sleep. Methods Fifty adolescents between 10 and 14 years of age were included in the present study. In total 5989 days of actigraphy measurement (average of 119 ± 40 days per participant; range = 39–195 days) were analyzed. We use multilevel modeling to disentangle the within and between subject effects of physical activity on sleep. In this way, we examine within an individual, the association between steps during the day and subsequent sleep on a day-to-day basis. On the other hand, our between subjects’ analysis allows us to ascertain whether individuals with more overall physical activity have better sleep. Results Within a subject more steps on school and free days were associated with later bed times on school and free days as well as later rise times on school days only. On the other hand, comparing between subjects’ effects, more steps were associated with lower sleep efficiency on free and school days. No other significant associations were found for the other sleep variables. Conclusion Our results obtained through objective and long-term measurement of both sleep and number of steps suggest weak or non-significant associations between these measures for most sleep variables. We emphasize the importance of the methodology and the separation of within subject from between subject features when examining the relationship between physical activity and sleep.
... 23 Sleep deprivation reduces attention and psychomotor vigilance. 24 Even short-term sleep deprivation affects overall domains of cognition, including attention, working memory, processing speed, short-term memory, and reasoning. 25 One of the reasons for taking a nap is to reduce drowsiness in response to sleep deprivation or to compensate anticipated sleep deprivation in advance. ...
Article
Background and Purpose The relationship between napping and cognition remains con-troversial. This study aimed to investigate the association between napping and cognition ac-cording to sleep debt in the Korean adult population. Methods A population-based nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2018. A two-stage stratified random sample of Koreans aged ≥19 years was selected and evaluated using questionnaires by trained interviewers. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mail-In Cognitive Function Screening Instrument (MCFSI). Sleep habits on weekdays and weekends, napping, and subjective sleep requirements were assessed using the questionnaires. Accumu-lated sleep debt was calculated by subtracting the weekly average sleep duration from subjective sleep requirements. Sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, insomnia, depression, demograph-ics, and comorbidities were assessed. Participants were grouped into those with sleep debt ≤60 min and those with sleep debt >60 min. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the independent association between the factors and cognition. Results In total, 2,501 participants were included in the analysis. Naps were reported in 726 (29.0%) participants (nappers). The mean MCFSI score was higher in nappers (3.4±3.6) than in non-nappers (2.3±3.0) (p<0.001). Multiple linear regression controlling for age, alcohol, smoking, depression, insomnia, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, and education revealed that 30 to 60 min of napping was associated with worse cognitive function in participants with sleep debts ≤60 min, while >60 min of napping was associated with better cognitive function in participants with sleep debts >60 min. Conclusions In general, naps are associated with worse cognitive function in the Korean adult population. However, for those with sleep debt of >60 min, naps for >60 min were associated with better cognitive function.
... Sleep is a dynamic and physiological need for restoring and maintaining health and well-being [1]. Sleep plays a critical role in stress response, emotional regulation, and cognitive functioning [1,2]. However, sleep disruptions are common in patients followed in the intensive care unit (ICU) and are associated with adverse outcomes such as decreased cognitive functions, increased length of hospital stay, and mortality [3]. ...
Article
To investigate the psychometric characteristics of the modified Freedman Sleep Quality Questionnaire (mFSQQ) to assess sleep in Turkish intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2020 and August 2021 with patients older than 18 years, who stayed in the ICU for ≥ 24 h and were cooperative with a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≥ 10 in medical and surgical ICUs of a university hospital. During the adaptation of the items of the mFSQQ, language, content, and construct validity were examined, and the test–retest method and internal consistency were used to examine its reliability. The content validity index of the questionnaire was 0.82. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.71, which indicates adequate sampling; Bartlett’s test of sphericity was χ2 = 2868.97, p < 0.001. The Turkish version had three subscales. The factor loadings of the items were above 0.30, and the factors explained 60.59% of the total variance. The test–retest reliability coefficient was 0.85, indicating high consistency. The Cronbach α reliability coefficient was 0.80, indicating high reliability. The item-total correlations were found to be sufficient (between 0.25 and 0.78). The Turkish version of the mFSQQ showed good psychometric characteristics and can be used as a routine evaluation instrument to determine sleep quality by the ICU team and to promote sleep.
... function (Dijk et al., 1992;Drummond et al., 2004;Durmer and Dinges, 2005;Blatter and Cajochen, 2007;Goel et al., 2009;Killgore, 2010;Lim and Dinges, 2010;Krause et al., 2017) and emotional perception (Paradee et al., 2008;Walker and van Der Helm, 2009;Kahn et al., 2013;McClung, 2013;Prather et al., 2013;Goldstein and Walker, 2014;Stolarski and Jankowski, 2015). If the expectation is that our emotion and memory systems interact in such a way that drives preferential longterm declarative memory for arousing over neutral information (van der Helm and Walker, 2011;Cunningham et al., 2014b;Cunningham and Payne, 2017) and both Process S and Process C individually exert influence on these systems, then in order to understand the independent effects of sleep on emotional memory processing, Process S and Process C must both be taken into consideration. ...
Article
Full-text available
For two decades, sleep has been touted as one of the primary drivers for the encoding, consolidation, retention, and retrieval of episodic emotional memory. Recently, however, sleep’s role in emotional memory processing has received renewed scrutiny as meta-analyses and reviews have indicated that sleep may only contribute a small effect that hinges on the content or context of the learning and retrieval episodes. On the one hand, the strong perception of sleep’s importance in maintaining memory for emotional events may have been exacerbated by publication bias phenomena, such as the “winner’s curse” and “file drawer problem.” On the other hand, it is plausible that there are sets of circumstances that lead to consistent and reliable effects of sleep on emotional memory; these circumstances may depend on factors such as the placement and quality of sleep relative to the emotional experience, the content and context of the emotional experience, and the probes and strategies used to assess memory at retrieval. Here, we review the literature on how sleep (and sleep loss) influences each stage of emotional episodic memory. Specifically, we have separated previous work based on the placement of sleep and sleep loss in relation to the different stages of emotional memory processing: (1) prior to encoding, (2) immediately following encoding during early consolidation, (3) during extended consolidation, separated from initial learning, (4) just prior to retrieval, and (5) post-retrieval as memories may be restructured and reconsolidated. The goals of this review are three-fold: (1) examine phases of emotional memory that sleep may influence to a greater or lesser degree, (2) explicitly identify problematic overlaps in traditional sleep–wake study designs that are preventing the ability to better disentangle the potential role of sleep in the different stages of emotional memory processing, and (3) highlight areas for future research by identifying the stages of emotional memory processing in which the effect of sleep and sleep loss remains under-investigated. Here, we begin the task of better understanding the contexts and factors that influence the relationship between sleep and emotional memory processing and aim to be a valuable resource to facilitate hypothesis generation and promote important future research.
... Poor sleep quality can negatively impact cognitive capabilities, and bringing alertness back with stimulant remedies may not heal the higher level cognitive ability degradation by lack of sleep, despite other facets of cognitive ability such as decision making being relatively unaffected by sleep deprivation (Killgore, 2010). Thus, the impact of sleep deprivation on an individual's ability to reason, to problem solve, and to plan relies on determinants like emotional state and the cognitive processes' -sensation, attention, and perception -ability to connect and expand upon the cortical parts of the brain to compensate. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Studies that study the impact of psychological, physical (environmental), social, and cultural determinants on the sleep of inmates in correctional facilities are limited. Only some within these investigate prevention or treatment measures for sleep deprivation or insomnia and its respective efficacy. A literature review was conducted via PubMed, AccessMedicine, BioMed Central, and other resources using keywords such as "sleep and correctional facilities", "insomnia and correctional facilities", "sleep deprivation treatment", and other keywords relating to correctional facilities, sleep, and the treatment of different sleep disorders. Results consisted of a positive feedback loop between difficulties in sleep and mental disorder factors, prior litigation regarding sleep being an effective means in diagnosing infrastructure concerns and concentration of efforts of policymakers, cognitive behavioral therapy improving 70-80% of insomnia patients, and stimulus control and relaxation techniques reducing nightly awakenings in inmates. Results indicated that the Psychological Services Inmate Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Multivariable Apnea Prediction Score are effective methods for calculating sleep quality in inmates, ensuring proper bedding, limiting internal conflicts between inmates, reducing blue light in prisons, and reassessing wake-up times is important to prevent Eighth Amendment violations, and that cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective treatment measure for reducing the symptoms of insomnia. More research needs to be conducted on the efficacy of hypnotic medication but the implementation of it with non-pharmacological treatments shows promising improvements in the sleep quality of inmates.
... Sleep also plays an essential role in learning and memory [23], where the loss of sleep impairs both working memory, as well as declarative memory through disrupting memory encoding and consolidation [24,25]. Critically ill patients experiencing acute sleep loss may therefore have difficulty retaining information and effectively participating in patient teaching activities. ...
Chapter
Sleep is a biologic necessity that sustains life and maintains health and wellbeing. When sleep is disrupted, meaning an abnormality in duration, timing, continuity, or quality, it threatens to negatively affect a myriad of biologic functions and deteriorates health. Critically ill adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for sleep disruption, and consequently are at high risk for resultant negative biologic effects from this disrupted sleep. Given the complex nature of critical illness, few high-quality studies have examined biologic changes in response to sleep disruption in the ICU. As such, this chapter primarily focuses on short-term, relevant biologic consequences of sleep disruption in healthy adults, with context for how observed changes may be relevant to critically ill populations.KeywordsSleepCircadian rhythmSleep deprivationInadequate sleepSleep insufficiencySleep lossSleep fragmentation
... Although causality cannot be inferred from the present study, these results align with previous experimental sleep deprivation studies demonstrating that sleep plays a casual role in cognitive functions (71,72) and emotional regulation (73,74). Notably, research has shown a complex interplay between sleep, emotions and cognition whereby poor sleep leads to increased emotional reactivity and impulsivity, while these daytime experiences can, in turn, affect sleep (75). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescents. Sleep disturbances could alter inhibitory processes and contribute to dangerous behaviors in this critical developmental period. Adolescents in suicidal crisis have been shown to have lighter sleep compared to healthy controls. Additionally, suicidal adolescents have lower neural resources mobilized by emotionally charged inhibition processing. The present exploratory study aimed to determine how sleep architecture in suicidal adolescents may relate to inhibition processing in response to emotional stimuli. Methods Ten adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and who attempted suicide were recruited while hospitalized for a suicidal crisis in a psychiatric inpatient unit. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded prior to bedtime during a Go/NoGo task involving pictures of sad, happy, and neutral faces. Polysomnography was then recorded throughout the night. Pearson correlations were conducted to investigate how inhibition performance and ERP parameters reflecting inhibition processing (i.e., P3d and N2d derived from difference waveform calculated as NoGo minus Go trials) relate to sleep architecture. Results Poorer inhibition accuracy in response to emotional stimuli was significantly correlated with shorter REM sleep latency, higher REM sleep, and more frequent nocturnal awakenings. The P3d in response to sad faces was negatively correlated with NREM2 sleep and positively correlated with NREM3 sleep. No such association with the P3d was found for happy or neutral stimuli. There were no significant correlations for the N2d. Conclusion Altered sleep in adolescents with depression who are in a suicidal crisisis associated with behavioral inhibition difficulties and fewer neural resources mobilized by inhibitory processes in emotionally charged contexts. This highlights the importance of addressing sleep disturbances while managing suicidal crises in adolescents.
... Sleep deprivation (SD), which includes decreased quantity or impaired quality of sleep, is a common problem worldwide (Bandyopadhyay and Sigua, 2019), and its prevalence increases every year (Abrams, 2015;Knutson et al., 2010). Currently, it is a consensus that insufficient sleep contributes to many deleterious effects, including a general slowing of response speed, increased risks of cognitive deficits, cancer, stroke, obesity and diabetes (Abrams, 2015;Killgore, 2010;Liu and Chen, 2019). Moreover, depression, as the third leading cause of global non-fatal burden, severely affects quality of life and limits psychosocial functioning (Collaborators, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic sleep deprivation (SD) is a common problem for humans and can lead to many deleterious effects, including depression, anxiety, stroke, permanent cognitive deficits, stress, and other physiological diseases. It is vital to acquire information about the relevant neural activities at the whole-brain level to systematically explore the mechanisms of brain dysfunction related to SD. Expression of the immediate-early gene (IEG) Fos in the mouse brain has been widely used as a functional marker of brain activity in the field of neuroscience. However, most previous studies only analyzed the change of c-Fos in several specific brain regions using traditional research methods or in short-term SD model. Here, we applied c-Fos mapping through the fluorescence micro-optical sectioning tomography (fMOST) technique and AAV-PHP.eB to comprehensive analysis the state of cumulative activation across the whole brain in a mouse model of chronic SD. The chronic rapid eyes movement (REM) SD model was induced by moving mice to a separate holding area filled with water. The experimental period lasted for 6 h per day. The results showed that after 14 days of SD, the mice displayed anxiety behaviors in open field test and elevated plus maze test, and displayed depression-like behaviors in tail suspension test and the sucrose preference test. The c-Fos + cells were detected in a maximum of 230 brain regions. SD-induced stress model evoked c-Fos expression in several brain regions compared to the control group. In particular, the isocortex-cerebral cortex plate area, including the retrosplenial, anterior cingulate, agranular insular, gustatory, and parasubiculum, appear to be the most sensitive regions after chronic REM SD.
... Perturbations to steroid hormones under circadian regulations such as the sleep wake cycle can result in poor neurocognitive health [238]. Diminished sleep quality in older adults have been linked to declines in executive function and attention [239]. Testosterone has also shown to decline with age in men and has been linked to cognitive health [240]. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most recognisable features of ageing is a decline in brain health and cognitive dysfunction, which is associated with perturbations to regular lipid homeostasis. Although ageing is the largest risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, a loss in cognitive function is commonly observed in adults over the age of 65. Despite the prevalence of normal age-related cognitive decline, there is a lack of effective methods to improve the health of the ageing brain. In light of this, exercise has shown promise for positively influencing neurocognitive health and associated lipid profiles. This review summarises age-related changes in several lipid classes that are found in the brain, including fatty acyls, glycerolipids, phospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, and explores the consequences of age-associated pathological cognitive decline on these li-pid classes. Evidence of the positive effects of exercise on the affected lipid profiles are also discussed to highlight the potential for exercise to be used therapeutically to mitigate age-related changes to lipid metabolism and prevent cognitive decline in later life.
... In addition to the above-mentioned facts, sleep disorder is also associated with fatigue. [54] The high frequency of anxiety, depression, and PTSD in ICU patients' families can be observed even after the discharge of the patient. [5] The symptoms of the families of the patients admitted to the ICU have been examined using various and sometimes nonspecialized tools, and accordingly, there are contradictions in the reports. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Hospitalization in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) brings about psychological and physical symptoms in patients' family members. Family Intensive Care Unit Syndrome (FICUS) is a term used to explain the psychological symptoms of the family of a patient in response to the patient's admission to the ICU. The purpose of this study was to define FICUS along with its symptoms and predictors. Materials and Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and SID databases were searched for literature published in 2005-2018 with the keywords 'FICUS,' 'intensive care unit,' 'family,' 'caregivers,' 'anxiety,' 'depression,' and 'post-Traumatic stress disorder' in their title and abstract. The strategy for conducting an integrative review provided by Whittemore and Knafl (2005) was used in this study. Results: Twenty articles were included in the final data analysis. Following the patient's admission to the ICU, family members experience multiple psychological symptoms such as FICUS. The most commonly reported symptoms were anxiety, depression, post-Traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), complicated grief, sleep disorder, stress, and fatigue. The low education level, having a critically-ill spouse, adequate support, financial stability, preference for decision-making, understanding of the disease process, anxiety, depression, or previous acute stress were predictors of FICUS. Conclusions: On the basis of the results, families also experience physical symptoms, so the FICUS is not limited to the occurrence of psychological symptoms. This study found that there is no universal definition for the term 'FICUS' in the research literature. Thus, further research is needed to explore FICUS in the health field. © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.
... Increased fatigue induced by sleep loss is closely related to a lower vigilance level (Killgore, 2010), which becomes evident even after one night without sleep (Haslam, 1984). According to the state instability hypothesis, sleep loss causes momentary attentional lapses due to variation in an alert state (Doran et al., 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the effect of stress, fatigue, and sleep deprivation on the ability to maintain an alert and attentive state in an ecologically valid setting is of importance as lapsing attention can, in many safety-critical professions, have devastating consequences. Here we studied the effect of close-quarters battle (CQ battle) exercise combined with overnight military training with sleep deprivation on cognitive performance, namely sustained attention and response inhibition. In addition, the effect of the CQ battle and overnight training on cardiac activity [heart rate and root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD)] during the cognitive testing and the relationship between cardiac activity and cognitive performance were examined. Cognitive performance was measured with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and the sustained attention to response task (SART). Altogether 45 conscripts participated in the study. The conscripts were divided into control (CON) and experimental (EXP) groups. The CON completed the training day after a night of sleep and the EXP after the overnight military training with no sleep. Results showed that the effect of the overnight training on cognitive performance and the between-group difference in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) depended on the cognitive test. Surprisingly, the cognitive performance was not largely affected by the CQ battle. However, as expected, the CQ battle resulted in a significant decrease in RMSSD and an increase in HR measured during the cognitive testing. Similarly, the HR parameters were related to cognitive performance, but the relationship was found only with the PVT. In conclusion, fatigue due to the overnight training impaired the ability to maintain sufficient alertness level. However, this impairment in arousal upregulation was counteracted by the arousing nature of the SART. Hence, the conscripts' cognitive performance was mainly preserved when performing a stimulating task, despite the fatigue from the sleep loss of the preceding night and physical activity.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Sleep disturbance is quite prevalent among students, which leads to deleterious consequences on health. Cranial electrostimulation (CES) has been speculated to entrain cortical slow waves; therefore, we investigated the efficacy of cranial electrostimulation to improve slow wave sleep in collegiates. Methods: Twenty-eight students with Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) score >5 were randomly assigned into two groups: CES and control. Participants in CES group completed 60 minutes of CES intervention for 12 weeks with 100 µA microcurrent and 0.5 Hz frequency parameters during night. Pre- and post-intervention measures were taken for sleep architecture using over-night polysomnography (PSG) and sleep quality using PSQI. Participants were instructed to report to the laboratory at 10:00 p.m. and PSG was performed with electroencephalograms (EEG), chin electromyography (EMG) and bilateral electrooculogram (EOG) in place. Sleep stages were scored manually in accordance with the new AASM guidelines. PSG variables reported in the present study are sleep latency (SL), total sleep time (TST), percentage of N1, N2, N3, NREM (non-rapid eye movement), REM (rapid eye movement) and sleep efficiency (SE%). Results: After ascertaining the comparability of demographic and sleep variables at baseline for both the groups, a 2X2 mixed model ANOVA was employed. Significant between-group differences were obtained for N1% and N3% such that N1% decreased and N3% increased post CES. However, other PSG variables, along with PSQI score did not demonstrate statistically significant between-group difference. Discussion: The present study demonstrated that 12-weeks of CES improved N3% and reduced N1%. Future researches should be undertaken to build upon the findings of present study.
Article
Background: During the last 2 years of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, knowledge about the long-term effects of the disease, the so-called long COVID, has rapidly grown; however, many questions remain unanswered, especially regarding the causes of persistent symptoms and their prognosis. Cognitive disorders and sleep disturbances are among the most frequent complaints. Both are associated with severe suffering and significant impairment in everyday functioning. Objective: What is known about the occurrence of cognitive disorders and sleep disturbances in long COVID? What are the influencing factors and what is known about the course over time and possible underlying mechanisms? What treatment options are available? Material and method: In a narrative review, the most important findings on cognitive disorders and sleep disturbances in long COVID are presented. An overview of cohort studies with data on the prevalence and influencing factors of both symptom complexes is given. Current knowledge and hypotheses on pathophysiological mechanisms are presented and an outlook on treatment approaches is given. Results: About one in five of those affected report cognitive impairment more than 3 months after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and about one third report sleep disturbances. The latter comprise symptoms of insomnia as well as hypersomnia. Cognitive impairment and sleep disturbances occur in patients with all levels of initial disease severity. There are indications of an improvement of cognitive deficits over time but further longitudinal studies are needed. Conclusion: In addition to the prognosis, the underlying disease mechanisms are still insufficiently understood. Furthermore, there is a great need for research on the efficacy and specific effective factors of therapeutic interventions.
Article
Poria cocos has been traditionally used as folk medicine and functional food in China for more than 2000 years. The water-soluble polysaccharide is the main component of P. cocos decoction....
Chapter
Sleep deficiency, including circadian disruption, is pervasive in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). However, sleep is critically important to human health, and leveraging the tremendous potential of sleep promotion to improve critical care outcomes is a goal of ICU clinicians and investigators alike. The risks and mechanisms for ICU sleep and circadian disruption are numerous and include broad categories of patient, environmental, and acute illness factors. However, methodologic limitations, particularly the lack of feasible and rigorous sleep measures, have slowed research progress and limited evidence in support of sleep interventions. Many questions remain regarding the natural history of sleep disruption during the acute and recovery phases of critical illness. Furthermore, it is uncertain which aspects of sleep during critical illness are most tightly linked to patient outcomes. Thus, multicomponent bundles which attempt to address the diverse factors causing ICU sleep disruption are complex, challenging to implement, and possibly focused on domains of ICU sleep disruption that are less relevant to improving critical illness outcomes. With the advent of novel measurement technologies, investigators are poised to overcome the listed challenges, answer these key questions, and translate the promise of ICU sleep promotion into clinical practice.KeywordsSleep deficiency, circadian alignment, circadian amplitude, delirium, implementation, translation, sleep duration, sleep quality
Article
Background Cognitive testing in large population surveys is frequently used to describe cognitive aging and determine the incidence rates, risk factors, and long-term trajectories of the development of cognitive impairment. As these surveys are increasingly administered on internet-based platforms, web-based and self-administered cognitive testing calls for close investigation. Objective Web-based, self-administered versions of 2 age-sensitive cognitive tests, the Stop and Go Switching Task for executive functioning and the Figure Identification test for perceptual speed, were developed and administered to adult participants in the Understanding America Study. We examined differences in cognitive test scores across internet device types and the extent to which the scores were associated with self-reported distractions in everyday environments in which the participants took the tests. In addition, national norms were provided for the US population. Methods Data were collected from a probability-based internet panel representative of the US adult population—the Understanding America Study. Participants with access to both a keyboard- and mouse-based device and a touch screen–based device were asked to complete the cognitive tests twice in a randomized order across device types, whereas participants with access to only 1 type of device were asked to complete the tests twice on the same device. At the end of each test, the participants answered questions about interruptions and potential distractions that occurred during the test. Results Of the 7410 (Stop and Go) and 7216 (Figure Identification) participants who completed the device ownership survey, 6129 (82.71% for Stop and Go) and 6717 (93.08% for Figure Identification) participants completed the first session and correctly responded to at least 70% of the trials. On average, the standardized differences across device types were small, with the absolute value of Cohen d ranging from 0.05 (for the switch score in Stop and Go and the Figure Identification score) to 0.13 (for the nonswitch score in Stop and Go). Poorer cognitive performance was moderately associated with older age (the absolute value of r ranged from 0.32 to 0.61), and this relationship was comparable across device types (the absolute value of Cohen q ranged from 0.01 to 0.17). Approximately 12.72% (779/6123 for Stop and Go) and 12.32% (828/6721 for Figure Identification) of participants were interrupted during the test. Interruptions predicted poorer cognitive performance (P<.01 for all scores). Specific distractions (eg, watching television and listening to music) were inconsistently related to cognitive performance. National norms, calculated as weighted average scores using sampling weights, suggested poorer cognitive performance as age increased. Conclusions Cognitive scores assessed by self-administered web-based tests were sensitive to age differences in cognitive performance and were comparable across the keyboard- and touch screen–based internet devices. Distraction in everyday environments, especially when interrupted during the test, may result in a nontrivial bias in cognitive testing.
Article
Background: Poria cocos is an ancient medicine and modern functional food, which exerts excellent effects on anxiety, although its mechanism is unknown. Purpose: To explore the mechanisms of the aqueous extract of P. cocos (PCD) in ameliorating anxiety-like behavior caused by chronic sleep deprivation (CSD). Methods: PCD chemical composition was analyzed by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. A CSD rat model was established over 21 days. We examined the effects and mechanisms after 10 days of CSD using open-field tests (OFTs), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, 16S rDNA, non-targeted metabolomics, and Western blot analyses. Results: Sixty-two triterpenoids were identified in PCD. CSD-induced anxiety-like behavior was significantly attenuated by PCD treatment. PCD improved hypothalamic neurotransmitters, decreased proinflammatory cytokines, and depressed the proteins expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. The full-length 16S rDNA sequence of bacterial cells was also sequenced by high-throughput analysis. CSD caused significant changes in the intestinal flora. PCD improved the species diversity and bacterial abundance in the intestines of rats with anxiety. Metabolomics analysis indicated that 12 PCD-related metabolites in serum and 32 PCD-related metabolites in feces were identified, respectively. Metabolite analysis in serum, PCD treatment affected taurine, hypotaurine, cysteine, methionine, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism, among others. Metabolite analysis in feces showed significant effects of PCD treatment on the metabolism of vitamin B6, tyrosine, drugs, and glycerophospholipid. Additionally, the correlation analysis of heatmaps showed a tight relationship between inflammatory factors, metabolic parameters, and gut microbial phylotypes. Conclusions: PCD relieved anxiety by regulating intestinal flora, regulating metabolic disorders, and inhibiting inflammatory pathways in chronic sleep-deprived rats.
Article
Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to memory and cognitive impairment due to damage to the hippocampus. Isoquercetin possesses neuron-protective properties. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of isoquercetin on SD-induced hippocampal neurons damage and the underlying mechanism. Herein, the cognitive competence was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test after SD. The morphology of the hippocampus was observed after Nissl staining. Moreover, the level of NLRP3 was detected by Immunofluorescent staining and western blot. In vitro study, pyroptosis was tested by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry. The levels of pyroptosis-related factors were measured by western blot. The results indicated that isoquercetin improved spatial memory and prevented change of hippocampal neurons of SD mice. Moreover, SD upregulated NLRP3 level, which was downregulated by isoquercetin. Additionally, isoquercetin rescued the increase of pyroptosis and the upregulation of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC, IL-1β, IL-18, and GSDMD levels induced by LPS. In conclusion, isoquercetin improved learning and cognitive capability of SD mice via suppressing NLRP3-induced pyroptosis of hippocampal neurons cells, suggesting that isoquercetin might be an efficacious drug for memory disorders caused by SD.
Chapter
Insufficient sleep duration has emerged as a key behavioral risk factor for cardiometabolic disease risk, daytime functioning deficits, and other adverse outcomes, including mortality. Epidemiologic estimates of insufficient sleep vary, likely due to variability in how sleep is assessed. Most population-based estimates are based on single item retrospective reports of habitual sleep duration. Based on these reports, approximately 30–35% of the adult population reports 6 h of sleep or less and approximately 8–12% report 9 h or more, with the plurality (approximately 50–60%) reporting the normative 7–8 h. No nationally representative data exist using objective measures, nor do they exist using prospective self-report (diary), nor do they exist using validated questionnaires. These estimates, since they rely on retrospective self-report are likely subject to validity issues, recall biases, and other methodologic problems. They may better reflect time in bed than physiologic sleep. Still, these reports have demonstrated utility. Self-reported habitual sleep duration has been reliably associated in epidemiologic studies with incident mortality, as well as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and daytime dysfunction across a range of domains. Habitual sleep duration also distinguishes sociodemographic groups, with patterns associated with age (increased sleep duration in younger and older adults), education level (insufficient sleep associated with less education), income (insufficient sleep associated with poverty), and race/ethnicity (insufficient sleep more likely among minority groups).
Article
Background & objectives: Several studies have been conducted globally to assess the impact of usage of mobile phones on quality and duration of sleep as also on day time sleepiness. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of mobile phone usage on the quality and composition of sleep in a sample from Indian population. Methods: The study was conducted at two tertiary care hospitals in north India from July 2014 to September 2019. A total of 566 participants were recruited in this study from both the centres. Sleep quality was assessed with the help of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. Subsequently, actigraphy was done in 96 participants and polysomnography in 95 participants. Results: Of the 566 participants, 128 (22.61%) had PSQI ≥5, reflecting poor sleep quality. A higher use of mobile phone was significantly associated with a poor sleep quality as a component of PSQI questionnaire (P=0.01) and higher overall PSQI score (P=0.01). The latency from sleep onset to N2 and N3 sleep stages was significantly shorter in participants having a higher mobile phone usage as compared to those with a lower usage [Median (range): 13.5 min (1.5-109) vs. 6.5 min (0-89); P=0.02] and [Median (range): 49 min (8.5-220.5) vs. 28.75 min (0-141); P=0.03], respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: This study focused on the maladaptive changes brought on by mobile phone usage on sleep. More studies with larger sample sizes need to be done that may serve to confirm the hypothesis generating findings of our study.
Article
This study focuses on sources of youth decision-making and examines paths through which these factors may affect delinquent behavior. Using longitudinal Add Health data, we explore the mediating mechanisms linking several antecedents of decision-making, thoughtfully reflective decision-making (TRDM), and crime. We find that various adverse factors (i.e., family and school stressful conditions, depression, sleep problems) reduce the ability of adolescents to be thoughtful and reflective, which leads to higher levels of criminal behavior. By contrast, involvement in conventional activities (i.e., hobbies, religious activities) is found to foster TRDM, which reduces delinquency. Our study calls for an integration of perspectives in criminology, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience to better explain the relationship between decision-making and crime. Policy implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
People spend approximately half of their waking hours in a so-called offline state — daydreaming, mind wandering or otherwise inattentive to their surroundings. These activities are often viewed as a waste of time, perhaps as moments of lost productivity. However, periods of offline waking rest can facilitate the consolidation of newly formed memories. Even a few minutes of rest with closed eyes can improve memory, perhaps to the same degree as a full night of sleep. These findings have profound implications for understanding the memory consolidation process, its time course and its underlying mechanisms. In this Review, I describe evidence that offline waking rest retroactively facilitates memory. Similar to the beneficial effect of sleep, the effect of rest might be driven by neural-level reactivation of newly formed memory traces. As both rest and sleep seem to support consolidation, I next consider whether these two states support the same or dissociable stages of consolidation. Then I review evidence that seconds-long bouts of offline rest occur throughout the day and that even these ultrashort offline periods might benefit memory. Finally, I conclude by describing future directions for research into the underlying processes of sleep and wake states. People spend approximately half of their waking hours inattentive to their surroundings. In this Review, Wamsley describes the beneficial effect that these periods of offline waking rest have on memory, contrasting this benefit and its underlying mechanisms with the effects of sleep.
Article
Objective: The majority of women experience vasomotor symptoms (VMS) during the menopausal transition. Whether self-reported VMS are associated with cognitive test performance later in life remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether a greater burden of VMS is associated with poor later-life cognition. Methods: The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study is a prospective study of randomly selected Wisconsin high school graduates of the class of 1957. At ages 65 and 72, a random subset of participants completed six cognitive tests, including similarities, letter and category fluency, immediate and delayed word recall, and digit ordering. Nested regression models were used to examine the association between extent of VMS, assessed at age 54, and baseline cognition at 65, adjusting for early-life socioeconomic status, women's reproductive health variables, intelligence quotient, and midlife income. This series of models was also used to examine the association between VMS and change in cognition score from age 65 to 72. In sensitivity analyses, models were repeated in a sample using multiple imputation for missing covariates. Results: Of the 5,326 women enrolled, 874 had data on VMS, covariates, and all cognitive tests. In an unadjusted model, higher VMS were associated with a lower similarities score (b = -0.09 95% CI -0.16 to -0.02) at age 65 but no other cognitive tests. In adjusted models, VMS were not related to cognition at age 65 or change in cognition. Results remained similar with multiple imputation. Conclusions: Our study does not support a relationship between self-reported VMS and cognition later in life.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Suanzaoren Decoction (SZRD) is a traditional and classic prescription for the treatment of insomnia, with a history of more than 1,000 years. It replenishes blood components, calms the nerves, reduces fever and irritability. It is commonly used in the clinical treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome, cardiac neurosis, and menopausal syndromes. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that it improves cognitive impairment; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Aim of the study This study preliminarily investigated the potential bioactive components and mechanism of SZRD in improving cognitive impairment by exploring network pharmacology, molecular docking, and conducting in vivo experiments. Materials and methods The components of various Chinese herbs in SZRD and their disease-related targets were identified through network pharmacology and literature. Gene ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses of intersection targets were performed using the relevant database. Next, the “Components-Targets-Pathways” (C-T-P) and “Protein-Protein interaction” networks were constructed using the enrichment analysis results to further identify potential pathways, bioactive components, and hub genes. At the same time, molecular docking was used to further distinguish the key bioactive components and genes of SZRD responsible for improving cognitive impairment. Finally, the potential mechanism of action was further analysed and verified using in vivo experiments. Results A total of 117 potential active components and 138 intersection targets were identified by network pharmacology screening. The key bioactive components, including calycosin, 5-Prenylbutein, licochalcone G, glypallichalcone, and ZINC189892, were identified by analysing the networks and molecular docking results. Hub genes included ACHE, CYP19A1, EGFR, ESR1, and ESR2. The oestrogen signalling pathway was the most important in the enrichment analysis. In vivo experiments further proved that SZRD could improve cognitive impairment by affecting the oestrogen signalling pathway and the expression of ACHE and CYP19A1. Conclusions Network pharmacology and in vivo experiments demonstrate that SZRD improves cognitive impairment caused by sleep disturbance through estrogen receptor pathway, which provides a basis for its clinical application.
Article
Bright light exposure at night can help workers adapt to their shift schedules, but there has been relatively little research on evening light. We conducted a systematic review of studies that manipulated light exposure in the evening (broadly defined as 16:00-22:00) before real or simulated night shifts. Across the five eligible studies, evening light produced phase delays in melatonin, body temperature, and sleep propensity; it also improved sleep quality, sleep duration, memory, and work performance. There were mixed effects for mood, no changes in sleepiness, and no negative effects. The confidence in these results ranged from moderate for physiological markers of circadian phase delays to very low for mood. Future studies should compare the relative effectiveness and safety of evening versus night-time light exposure. Overall, the benefits of evening light for shift workers are tentative yet promising.
Article
Entrenched in the well-established link between stress and health, noise exposure as a potential contributor to stress-related health effects receives tremendous attention. Indeed, exposure to noise can act as a stressor as evidenced through increased heart rate, blood pressure, adrenaline, epinephrine, and cortisol. Cortisol is secreted from the adrenal glands in response to stressor-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. For assessment of environmental noise and stress, repeated sampling in blood, saliva, or urine is necessary to evaluate the association between environmental noise exposure and protracted changes in cortisol. Controlling for the many variables that influence the secretion of cortisol at discrete sampling intervals is challenging. Studies suggest that systemically produced cortisol integrates and remains in hair as it grows, providing a measure that integrates a cortisol response over a longer period, circumventing several limitations associated with multiple sampling. Robust evidence supports the integration of cortisol into hair, yet recent studies call into question the notion that cortisol is retained with growth. The current paper discusses the strengths and limitations of hair cortisol analysis with an emphasis on its utility as a measure of chronic stress in environmental noise studies.
Article
Sleep deprivation is an important cause of cognitive impairment, and anterior insular subregions are core brain regions linked to cognitive function. However, the relationship between anterior insular subregions functional connectivity (FC) and the cognitive impairment that occurs following total sleep deprivation (TSD) remains unknown. As such, this study was designed to evaluate how such anterior insular subregions FC alterations are linked with impaired cognitive activity after TSD. This study recruited 20 healthy volunteers who underwent two rounds of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), with one being conducted while in a state of rested wakefulness (RW) and the other being conducted following 24 h of TSD. These rs-fMRI data were then used to conduct seed-based FC analyses for the bilateral anterior insular subregions, including the dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and the ventral anterior insula (vAI). The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) was used to gauge cognitive performance, and associations between altered FC in these anterior insular subregions and PVT performance following TSD were measured using Pearson correlation analyses. Significant changes in the FC of these bilateral insular subregions were observed following 24 h of TSD relative to the RW state. Significantly enhanced FC was evident between the left dAI and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right dAI and bilateral SFG and right putamen, and right vAI and left medial SFG. Moreover, the observed enhancement of FC between the left vAI and right SFG functional connectivity was positively correlated with worse PVT performance. These data suggest that altered FC in the anterior insular subregions represents a prominent neuroimaging biomarker associated with cognitive impairment following TSD.
Article
Cognitive function impairment may seriously hamper the day-to-day activities of human beings. Investigating different risk factors of cognitive function impairment had been an area of immense interest among researchers that led to the identification of several factors. However, studies for estimating the importance of these factors are limited. In this study, an integrated multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach is proposed for estimating the importance of the cognitive impairment risk factors (CIRFs) for cognitive function impairment. Twenty-three CIRFs were identified from the literature and they were grouped into four main category factors such as individual factors, medical factors, psycho-social factors, and occupational factors. The importance of the CIRFs was estimated through their rank which was determined using an integrated analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy method, using pair-wise comparison matrices collected from a panel of ten experts. It was found that among the four main category factors, psycho-social factors and individual factors were the most and the least prominent respectively. Further, among the 23 CIRFs, long working hours which was a sub-factor of the occupational factors, and depression, a sub-factor of psycho-social factors, were the most and the least important respectively. The sturdiness and reliability of the ranking result were ascertained through sensitivity analysis.
Article
Sleep health is an important consideration for athletic performance. Athletes are at high risk of insufficient sleep duration, poor sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and fatigue, suboptimal sleep schedules, irregular sleep schedules, and sleep and circadian disorders. These issues likely have an impact on athletic performance via several domains. Sleep loss and/or poor sleep quality can impair muscular strength, speed, and other aspects of physical performance. Sleep issues can also increase risk of concussions and other injuries and impair recovery after injury. Cognitive performance is also impacted in several domains, including vigilance, learning and memory, decision making, and creativity.
Article
Full-text available
A substantial amount of research has been conducted in an effort to understand the impact of short-term (<48 hr) total sleep deprivation (SD) on outcomes in various cognitive domains. Despite this wealth of information, there has been disagreement on how these data should be interpreted, arising in part because the relative magnitude of effect sizes in these domains is not known. To address this question, we conducted a meta-analysis to discover the effects of short-term SD on both speed and accuracy measures in 6 cognitive categories: simple attention, complex attention, working memory, processing speed, short-term memory, and reasoning. Seventy articles containing 147 cognitive tests were found that met inclusion criteria for this study. Effect sizes ranged from small and nonsignificant (reasoning accuracy: g = -0.125, 95% CI [-0.27, 0.02]) to large (lapses in simple attention: g = -0.776, 95% CI [-0.96, -0.60], p < .001). Across cognitive domains, significant differences were observed for both speed and accuracy; however, there were no differences between speed and accuracy measures within each cognitive domain. Of several moderators tested, only time awake was a significant predictor of between-studies variability, and only for accuracy measures, suggesting that heterogeneity in test characteristics may account for a significant amount of the remaining between-studies variance. The theoretical implications of these findings for the study of SD and cognition are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
To assess circadian and homeostatic influences on subjective sleepiness and cognitive performance in older adults when sleep and waking are scheduled at different times of day; to assess changes in subjective sleepiness and cognitive performance across several weeks of an inpatient study; and to compare these findings with results from younger adults. Three 24-h baseline days consisting of 16 h of wakefulness and an 8-h sleep opportunity followed by 3-beat cycles of a 20-h forced desynchrony (FD) condition; 18 20-h "days," each consisting of 13.33 h of scheduled wakefulness and 6.67 h of scheduled sleep opportunity. Intensive Physiological Monitoring Unit of the Brigham and Women's Hospital General Clinical Research Center. 10 healthy older adults (age 64.00 +/- 5.98 y, 5 females) and 10 healthy younger adults (age 24.50 +/- 3.54 y, 5 females). Wake episodes during FD scheduled to begin 4 h earlier each day allowing for data collection at a full range of circadian phases. Subjective sleepiness, cognitive throughput, and psychomotor vigilance assessed every 2 h throughout the study. Core body temperature (CBT) data collected throughout to assess circadian phase. Older subjects were less sleepy and performed significantly better on reaction time (RT) measures than younger subjects. Decrements among younger subjects increased in magnitude further into the experiment, while the performance of older subjects remained stable. Our findings demonstrate that the waking performance and alertness of healthy older subjects are less impacted by the cumulative effects of repeated exposure to adverse circadian phase than that of young adults. This suggests that there are age-related changes in the circadian promotion of alertness, in the wake-dependent decline of alertness, and/or in how these 2 regulatory systems interact in healthy aging.
Article
Full-text available
We studied the effects of sleep deprivation on executive functions using a task battery which included a modified Sternberg task, a probed recall task, and a phonemic verbal fluency task. These tasks were selected because they allow dissociation of some important executive processes from non-executive components of cognition. Subjects were randomized to a total sleep deprivation condition or a control condition. Performance on the executive functions task battery was assessed at baseline, after 51 h of total sleep deprivation (or no sleep deprivation in the control group), and following 2 nights of recovery sleep, at fixed time of day (11:00). Performance was also measured repeatedly throughout the experiment on a control task battery, for which the effects of total sleep deprivation had been documented in previously published studies. Six consecutive days and nights in a controlled laboratory environment with continuous behavioral monitoring. Twenty-three healthy adults (age range 22-38 y; 11 women). Twelve subjects were randomized to the sleep deprivation condition; the others were controls. Performance on the control task battery was considerably degraded during sleep deprivation. Overall performance on the modified Sternberg task also showed impairment during sleep deprivation, as compared to baseline and recovery and compared to controls. However, two dissociated components of executive functioning on this task--working memory scanning efficiency and resistance to proactive interference--were maintained at levels equivalent to baseline. On the probed recall task, resistance to proactive interference was also preserved. Executive aspects of performance on the phonemic verbal fluency task showed improvement during sleep deprivation, as did overall performance on this task. Sleep deprivation affected distinct components of cognitive processing differentially. Dissociated non-executive components of cognition in executive functions tasks were degraded by sleep deprivation, as was control task performance. However, the executive functions of working memory scanning efficiency and resistance to proactive interference were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor were dissociated executive processes of phonemic verbal fluency performance. These results challenge the prevailing view that executive functions are especially vulnerable to sleep loss. Our findings also question the idea that impairment due to sleep deprivation is generic to cognitive processes subserved by attention.
Article
Full-text available
Sleep has been identified as a state that optimizes the consolidation of newly acquired information in memory, depending on the specific conditions of learning and the timing of sleep. Consolidation during sleep promotes both quantitative and qualitative changes of memory representations. Through specific patterns of neuromodulatory activity and electric field potential oscillations, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep support system consolidation and synaptic consolidation, respectively. During SWS, slow oscillations, spindles and ripples - at minimum cholinergic activity - coordinate the re-activation and redistribution of hippocampus-dependent memories to neocortical sites, whereas during REM sleep, local increases in plasticity-related immediate-early gene activity - at high cholinergic and theta activity - might favour the subsequent synaptic consolidation of memories in the cortex.
Article
Full-text available
Behavioural microsleeps (BMs) are brief episodes of absent responsiveness accompanied by slow-eye-closure. They frequently occur as a consequence of sleep-deprivation, an extended monotonous task, and are modulated by the circadian rhythm and sleep homeostatic pressure. In this paper, a multimodal method to investigate the neural correlates of BMs using simultaneous recording of fMRI, eye-video, VEOG, and continuous visuomotor response is presented. The data were collected from 20 healthy volunteers while they performed a continuous visuomotor tracking task inside an MRI scanner for 50 min. The BMs were identified post-hoc by expert visual rating of eye-video and visuomotor response using a set of pre-defined criteria. fMRI analysis of BMs revealed changes in haemodynamic activity in several cortical and sub-cortical regions associated with visuomotor control and arousal.
Article
Full-text available
There are considerable individual differences in cognitive performance deficits resulting from extended work hours and shift work schedules. Recent progress in sleep and performance research has yielded new insights into the causes and consequences of these individual differences. Neurobiological processes of sleep/wake regulation underlie trait individual variability in vulnerability to performance impairment due to sleep loss. Trait vulnerability to sleep loss is observed in the laboratory and in the work environment, even in occupational settings where (self-)selection pressures are high. In general, individuals do not seem to accurately assess the magnitude of their own vulnerability. Methods for identifying workers who are most at risk of sleep loss-related errors and accidents would therefore be helpful to target fatigue countermeasure interventions at those needing them most. As yet, no reliable predictors of vulnerability to sleep loss have been identified, although candidate genetic predictors have been proposed. However, a Bayesian forecasting technique based on closed-loop feedback of measured performance has been developed for individualized prediction of future performance impairment during ongoing operations. Judiciously selecting or monitoring individuals in specific tasks or occupations, within legally and ethically acceptable boundaries, has the potential to improve operational performance and productivity, reduce errors and accidents, and save lives. Trait individual variability in responses to sleep loss represents a major complication in the application of one-size-fits-all hours of service regulations--favoring instead modern fatigue risk management strategies, because these allow flexibility to account for individual vulnerability or resilience to the performance consequences of extended work hours and shift work schedules.
Article
Full-text available
Sleep deprivation is associated with considerable social, financial, and health-related costs, in large measure because it produces impaired cognitive performance due to increasing sleep propensity and instability of waking neurobehavioral functions. Cognitive functions particularly affected by sleep loss include psychomotor and cognitive speed, vigilant and executive attention, working memory, and higher cognitive abilities. Chronic sleep-restriction experiments--which model the kind of sleep loss experienced by many individuals with sleep fragmentation and premature sleep curtailment due to disorders and lifestyle--demonstrate that cognitive deficits accumulate to severe levels over time without full awareness by the affected individual. Functional neuroimaging has revealed that frequent and progressively longer cognitive lapses, which are a hallmark of sleep deprivation, involve distributed changes in brain regions including frontal and parietal control areas, secondary sensory processing areas, and thalamic areas. There are robust differences among individuals in the degree of their cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss that may involve differences in prefrontal and parietal cortices, and that may have a basis in genes regulating sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythms. Thus, cognitive deficits believed to be a function of the severity of clinical sleep disturbance may be a product of genetic alleles associated with differential cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss.
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive neuroscience continues to build meaningful connections between affective behavior and human brain function. Within the biological sciences, a similar renaissance has taken place, focusing on the role of sleep in various neurocognitive processes and, most recently, on the interaction between sleep and emotional regulation. This review surveys an array of diverse findings across basic and clinical research domains, resulting in a convergent view of sleep-dependent emotional brain processing. On the basis of the unique neurobiology of sleep, the authors outline a model describing the overnight modulation of affective neural systems and the (re)processing of recent emotional experiences, both of which appear to redress the appropriate next-day reactivity of limbic and associated autonomic networks. Furthermore, a rapid eye movement (REM) sleep hypothesis of emotional-memory processing is proposed, the implications of which may provide brain-based insights into the association between sleep abnormalities and the initiation and maintenance of mood disturbances.
Article
Full-text available
Cognition is regulated across the 24 h sleep-wake cycle by circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis through unknown brain mechanisms. We investigated these mechanisms in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function using a working memory 3-back task during a normal sleep-wake cycle and during sleep loss. The study population was stratified according to homozygosity for a variable-number (4 or 5) tandem-repeat polymorphism in the coding region of the clock gene PERIOD3. This polymorphism confers vulnerability to sleep loss and circadian misalignment through its effects on sleep homeostasis. In the less-vulnerable genotype, no changes were observed in brain responses during the normal-sleep wake cycle. During sleep loss, these individuals recruited supplemental anterior frontal, temporal and subcortical regions, while executive function was maintained. In contrast, in the vulnerable genotype, activation in a posterior prefrontal area was already reduced when comparing the evening to the morning during a normal sleep-wake cycle. Furthermore, in the morning after a night of sleep loss, widespread reductions in activation in prefrontal, temporal, parietal and occipital areas were observed in this genotype. These differences occurred in the absence of genotype-dependent differences in circadian phase. The data show that dynamic changes in brain responses to an executive task evolve across the sleep-wake and circadian cycles in a regionally specific manner that is determined by a polymorphism which affects sleep homeostasis. The findings support a model of individual differences in executive control, in which the allocation of prefrontal resources is constrained by sleep pressure and circadian phase.
Article
Full-text available
Circadian rhythms and sleep are two separate but intimately related processes. Circadian rhythms are generated through the precisely controlled, cyclic expression of a number of genes designated clock genes. Genetic variability in these genes has been associated with a number of phenotypic differences in circadian as well as sleep parameters, both in mouse models and in humans. Diurnal preferences as determined by the selfreported Horne-Ostberg (HO) questionnaire, has been associated with polymorphisms in the human genes CLOCK, PER1, PER2 and PER3. Circadian rhythm-related sleep disorders have also been associated with mutations and polymorphisms in clock genes, with the advanced type cosegrating in an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with mutations in the genes PER2 and CSNK1D, and the delayed type associating without discernible Mendelian inheritance with polymorphisms in CLOCK and PER3. Several mouse models of clock gene null alleles have been demonstrated to have affected sleep homeostasis. Recent findings have shown that the variable number tandem polymorphism in PER3, previously linked to diurnal preference, has profound effects on sleep homeostasis and cognitive performance following sleep loss, confirming the close association between the processes of circadian rhythms and sleep at the genetic level.
Article
Full-text available
Sleep is vital to cognitive performance, productivity, health and well-being. Earlier theories of sleep presumed that it occurred at the level of the whole organism and that it was governed by central control mechanisms. However, evidence now indicates that sleep might be regulated at a more local level in the brain: it seems to be a fundamental property of neuronal networks and is dependent on prior activity in each network. Such local-network sleep might be initiated by metabolically driven changes in the production of sleep-regulatory substances. We discuss a mathematical model which illustrates that the sleep-like states of individual cortical columns can be synchronized through humoral and electrical connections, and that whole-organism sleep occurs as an emergent property of local-network interactions.
Article
Full-text available
In an attempt to tease out the extent to which the performance decline during sleep deprivation might be due to a fall in the inherent capacity (d') of a subject, the parameters of the theory of signal detection were applied to auditory vigilance data obtained five times per 24 h during 60 h of continuous wakefulness. Eight subjects were exposed to both control and deprivation conditions in a balanced design. Oral temperature and self-assessed alert-drowsy reports were taken at three hourly intervals. The value of d' exhibited a significant stepwise decline during deprivation, falling sharply within the usual sleep period and levelling out during the daytime. Both temperature and self-assessment data exhibited clear circadian rhythms overlying the declines due to deprivation. The changes in d' were seen to be consistent with a brain "restitutive" role for sleep function.
Article
Full-text available
Reduced opportunity for sleep and reduced sleep quality are frequently related to accidents involving shift-workers. Poor-quality sleep and inadequate recovery leads to increased fatigue, decreased alertness and impaired performance in a variety of cognitive psychomotor tests. However, the risks associated with fatigue are not well quantified. Here we equate the performance impairment caused by fatigue with that due to alcohol intoxication, and show that moderate levels of fatigue produce higher levels of impairment than the proscribed level of alcohol intoxication.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of sleep deprivation on the neural substrates of cognition are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the effects of 35 hours of sleep deprivation on cerebral activation during verbal learning in normal young volunteers. On the basis of a previous hypothesis, we predicted that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) would be less responsive to cognitive demands following sleep deprivation. Contrary to our expectations, however, the PFC was more responsive after one night of sleep deprivation than after normal sleep. Increased subjective sleepiness in sleep-deprived subjects correlated significantly with activation of the PFC. The temporal lobe was activated after normal sleep but not after sleep deprivation; in contrast, the parietal lobes were not activated after normal sleep but were activated after sleep deprivation. Although sleep deprivation significantly impaired free recall compared with the rested state, better free recall in sleep-deprived subjects was associated with greater parietal lobe activation. These findings show that there are dynamic, compensatory changes in cerebral activation during verbal learning after sleep deprivation and implicate the PFC and parietal lobes in this compensation.
Article
Neuropsychological testing and brain imaging show that healthy aging leads to a preferential impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Interestingly, in young adults sleep deprivation (SD) has similar effects. Psychological tasks not so oriented to the PFC are less sensitive both to SD and aging. The PFC is a cortical region working particularly hard during wakefulness, which may make it more vulnerable to "deterioration," whether this is through aging or SD. In these respects SD in young adults may offer a model far aging. Na study has directly compared aging with SD. We compared groups comprising (equal sexes): YOUNG (av. 23y), MIDDLE AGED (av 60y) and OLD (av. 73y). Young were subdivided into SD and non-sleep deprived groups. All participants were carefully screened, were healthy, good sleepers and with a similar educational background. A battery of PFC-oriented, short and straightforward neuropsychological tests was used to compare the effects of 36h of SD in the young group, with findings from the healthy, alert, nan-sleep deprived groups. Tests relied on accuracy rather than speed (which took into account the problem of "global slowing" in the older participants), and were administered once (i.e., were novel). Test outcomes were significantly affected by: (1) SD in the young groups, and (2) by age. A non-PFC component of one test was not affected by SD or by age. it was concluded that 36h SD in young adults produces effects on the PFC similar to those found in normal, alert people aged about 60 years. However, it can not be concluded that an aged brain is a sleep-deprived brain.
Article
To determine whether a cumulative sleep debt (in a range commonly experienced) would result in cumulative changes in measures of waking neurobehavioral alertness, 16 healthy young adults had their sleep restricted to an average 4.98 hrs per night for 7 consecutive nights. Ss slept in the laboratory, and sleep and waking were monitored. Three times each day, Ss were assessed for subjective sleepiness and mood and were evaluated on a brief performance battery that included psychomotor vigilance (PVT), probed memory (PRM), and serial-addition testing. Once each day they completed a series of visual analog scales (VASs) and reported sleepiness and somatic and cognitive/emotional problems. Sleep restriction resulted in statistically robust cumulative effects on waking functions. Subjective sleepiness ratings, subscale scores for fatigue, confusion, tension, and total mood disturbance from the mood and VAS ratings of mental exhaustion and stress were elevated across days of restricted sleep. PVT performance parameters were also significantly increased by restriction. Significant time-of-day effects were evident in subjective sleepiness and PVT data. Findings suggest that cumulative nocturnal sleep debt had a dynamic and escalating analog in cumulative daytime sleepiness and that asymptotic or steady-state sleepiness was not achieved in response to sleep restriction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We recently reported that odor identification accuracy declined significantly following 24 h of continuous wakefulness. In the present study, we attempted to extend these findings by testing odor identification accuracy when the duration of wakefulness was more than doubled to over 52 h. The accuracy of odor identification decreased significantly following this period of extended wakefulness, although performance decrements were similar in magnitude to those previously reported following 24 h without sleep. These findings suggest that sleep loss impairs the ability to correctly identify common odors, but this effect does not appear to be exacerbated by additional sleep loss beyond the first 24 h.
Article
Sleep deprivation has been shown to alter decision-making abilities. The majority of research has utilized fairly complex tasks with the goal of emulating ’real-life’ scenarios. Here, we use a Lottery Choice Task (LCT) which assesses risk and ambiguity preference for both decisions involving potential gains and those involving potential losses. We hypothesized that one night of sleep deprivation would make subjects more risk seeking in both gains and losses. Both a control group and an experimental group took the LCT on two consecutive days, with an intervening night of either sleep or sleep deprivation. The control group demonstrated that there was no effect of repeated administration of the LCT. For the experimental group, results showed significant interactions of night (normal sleep versus total sleep deprivation, TSD) by frame (gains versus losses), which demonstrate that following as little as 23 h of TSD, the prototypical response to decisions involving risk is altered. Following TSD, subjects were willing to take more risk than they ordinarily would when they were considering a gain, but less risk than they ordinarily would when they were considering a loss. For ambiguity preferences, there seems to be no direct effect of TSD. These findings suggest that, overall, risk preference is moderated by TSD, but whether an individual is willing to take more or less risk than when well-rested depends on whether the decision is framed in terms of gains or losses.
Article
The Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital and University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania There is a need for brief, portable performance measures that are free of practice effects but that reliably show the impact of sleep loss on performance during sustained work. Reaction time (RT) tasks hold considerable promise in meeting this need, if the extensive number of responses they typically yield can be processed in ways that quickly provide the essential analyses. While testing the utility of a portable visual RT task during a sustained, quasi-continuous work schedule of 54 h, we developed a microcomputer software system that inputs, edits, transforms, analyzes, and reduces the data from the RT portable audiotapes, for each 10-min trial on the task. With relatively minor modifications, the software system can be used on a minimally configured microcomputer system that supports BASIC. The software is flexible and capable of retrieving distorted data, and it generates a variety of dependent variables reflecting intratrial optimum response capacity, lapsing, and response slowing.
Article
Sleep deprivation produces negative effects on mood and cognitive function, but existing data have almost exclusively utilized objective rating scales, which do not permit evaluation of idiosyncratic and unstructured responses. In this study, we used a semi-projective measure, the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) Study, to assess subjective responses to frustration following two nights without sleep. Twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the P-F at rested baseline and again following 55 h of continuous wakefulness. Participants provided written responses for an ambiguous cartoon character confronted with various frustrating situations. Relative to rested baseline, sleep deprivation was associated with altered responses on several indices, indicating a great number of uncommon types of responses, increased tendency to blame others for problems, and a reduced willingness to alleviate a conflict situation by accepting blame. Individual differences in several aspects of emotional intelligence were predictive of the extent to which responses to frustration changed with sleep loss. These findings suggest that sleep deprivation significantly weakens the inhibition of aggression and willingness to behave in ways that facilitate effective social interaction, possibly through reduced metabolic activity in prefrontal regions of the brain important for personality, affect, and inhibitory behavior.
Article
Prolonged sleep loss impairs alertness, vigilance and some higher-order cognitive and affective capacities. Some deficits can be temporarily reversed by stimulant medications including caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil. To date, only one study has directly compared the effectiveness of these three compounds and specified the doses at which all were equally effective in restoring alertness and vigilance following 64 h of wakefulness. The present study compared the effectiveness of these same three stimulants/doses following a less extreme period of sleep loss (i.e., 44 h). Fifty-three healthy adults received a single dose of modafinil 400 mg (n = 11), dextroamphetamine 20 mg (n = 16), caffeine 600 mg (n = 12), or placebo (n = 14) after 44 h of continuous wakefulness. After 61 h of being awake, participants obtained 12 h of recovery sleep. Psychomotor vigilance was assessed bi-hourly during waking and following recovery sleep. Relative to placebo, all three stimulants were equally effective in restoring psychomotor vigilance test speed and reducing lapses, although the duration of action was shortest for caffeine and longest for dextroamphetamine. At these doses, caffeine was associated with the highest percentage of subjectively reported side-effects while modafinil did not differ significantly from placebo. Subsequent recovery sleep was adversely affected in the dextroamphetamine group, but none of the stimulants had deleterious effects on postrecovery performance. Decisions regarding stimulant selection should be made with consideration of how factors such as duration of action, potential side-effects, and subsequent disruption of recovery sleep may interact with the demands of a particular operational environment.
Article
Functional neuroimaging studies suggest a prominent role for the medial prefrontal cortex in the formation of moral judgments. Activity in this region has also been shown to decline significantly during sleep loss. We therefore examined the effects of 2 nights of sleep deprivation on several aspects of moral judgment. Participants made judgments about the "appropriateness" of various courses of action in response to 3 types of moral dilemmas at rested baseline and again following 53 hours of continuous wakefulness. In-residence sleep laboratory at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Twenty-six healthy adults (21 men, 5 women). N/A. Compared to baseline, sleep deprivation resulted in significantly longer response latencies (suggesting greater difficulty deciding upon a course of action) only for Moral Personal (i.e., emotionally evocative) dilemmas, whereas response times to Moral Impersonal (less emotionally evocative) and Non Moral dilemmas did not change significantly with sleep loss. The effect of sleep deprivation on the willingness to agree with solutions that violate personally held moral beliefs was moderated by the level of emotional intelligence, as measured by the Bar-On EQ-i. Persons high in emotional intelligence were less susceptible to changes in moral judgments as a function of sleep loss. These findings suggest that sleep deprivation impairs the ability to integrate emotion and cognition to guide moral judgments, although susceptibility to the effects of sleep loss on this ability is moderated by the level of emotional intelligence.
Article
Lapses of attention, in the form of delayed responses to salient stimuli, increase in frequency for some but not all persons after sleep deprivation (SD). To identify patterns of task-related brain activation that might explain differences in vulnerability to SD, we performed fMRI on participants during a visual, selective attention task. We analyzed the correct responses in a trial-by-trial fashion to model the effects of response time. Stimulus contrast was varied to modulate perceptual difficulty. Attentional lapses and low-contrast stimuli were independently associated with increased signal in fronto-parietal regions associated with biasing attention. Sleep-deprived vulnerable individuals showed reduced top down fronto-parietal signal across all levels of image contrast and this reduction was particularly significant during lapses. There was concurrent reduction in extrastriate cortex and thalamus activation. Non-vulnerable persons showed a trend towards higher top-down biasing of attention and preserved visual cortex activation during SD lapses. A major contributor to performance degradation in SD appears to be a reduction in top-down biasing of attention that is independent of task difficulty.
Article
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively affects various cognitive performances, but surprisingly evidence about a specific impact of sleep loss on subjective evaluation of emotional stimuli remains sparse. In the present study, we assessed the effect of SD on the emotional rating of standardized visual stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System. Forty university students were assigned to the sleep group (n=20), tested before and after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, or to the deprivation group, tested before and after one night of total SD. One-hundred and eighty pictures (90 test, 90 retest) were selected and categorized as pleasant, neutral and unpleasant. Participants were asked to judge their emotional reactions while viewing pictures by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin. Subjective mood ratings were also obtained by means of Visual Analog Scales. No significant effect of SD was observed on the evaluation of pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. On the contrary, SD subjects perceived the neutral pictures more negatively and showed an increase of negative mood and a decrease of subjective alertness compared to non-deprived subjects. Finally, an analysis of covariance on mean valence ratings of neutral pictures using negative mood as covariate confirmed the effect of SD. Our results indicate that sleep is involved in regulating emotional evaluation. The emotional labeling of neutral stimuli biased toward negative responses was not mediated by the increase of negative mood. This effect can be interpreted as an adaptive reaction supporting the "better safe than sorry" principle. It may also have applied implications for healthcare workers, military and law-enforcement personnel.
Article
Neural systems of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) involved in executive functions are particularly vulnerable to sleep deprivation (SD). In this study, we investigated whether SD selectively affects specific components of the executive control processes involved in task-switching performance. Two different tasks are performed in rapid and random succession in this procedure, so that the to-be-executed task may change from one trial to the next (switch trial), or may be repeated (repetition trial). Task-switches are usually slower than task repetitions, giving way to the 'switch cost'. One hundred and eight university students were assigned randomly to the sleep (S) or the SD group. Each of them was tested on a task-switching paradigm before and after an experimental night (S or SD), and after one recovery night. SD impaired both task-switching accuracy and speed. A higher proportion of errors and increased switch costs after SD have been observed, compared to normal sleep. Control analyses on switch and repetition trials showed that the SD group was significantly worse only on the switch trials. The effects of SD are reverted by one night of recovery sleep. It is concluded that the ability to adjust behaviour rapidly and flexibly to changing environmental demands, which relies on the functional integrity of the PFC, is impacted negatively by sleep loss.
Article
Although it is well known that sleep loss results in poor judgement and decisions, little is known about the influence of social context in these processes. Sixteen healthy young adults underwent three games involving bargaining ('Ultimatum' and 'Dictator') and trust, following total sleep deprivation (TSD) and during rested wakefulness (RW), in a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design. To control for repeatability, a second group (n = 16) was tested twice under RW conditions. Paired anonymously with another individual, participants made their simple social interaction decisions facing real monetary incentives. For bargaining, following TSD participants were more likely to reject unequal-split offers made by their partner, despite the rejection resulting in a zero monetary payoff for both participants. For the trust game, participants were less likely to place full trust in their anonymous partner. Overall, we provide novel evidence that following TSD, the conflict between personal financial gain and payoff equality is focused upon avoidance of unfavourable inequality (i.e. unfairness). This results in the rejection of unfair offers at personal monetary cost, and the lack of full trust which would expose one to being exploited in the interaction. As such, we suggest that within a social domain decisions may be more influenced by emotion following TSD, which has fundamental consequences for real-world decision-making involving social exchange.
Article
The goal of this study was to establish whether the deterioration of the useful visual field due to sleep deprivation and age in a screen monitoring activity could be explained by a decrease in perceptual sensitivity and/or a modification of the participant's decision criterion (two indices derived from signal detection theory). In the first experiment, a comparison of three age groups (young, middle-aged, elderly) showed that perceptual sensitivity decreased with age and that the decision criterion became more conservative. In the second experiment, measurement of the useful visual field was carried out on participants who had been deprived of sleep the previous night or had a complete night of sleep. Perceptual sensitivity significantly decreased with sleep debt, and sleep deprivation provoked an increase in the participants' decision criterion. Moreover, the comparison of two age groups (young, middle-aged) indicated that sensitivity decreased with age. The value of using these two indices to explain the deterioration of useful visual field is discussed.
Article
Young adult male students participated in a naturalistic, group-design experiment to ascertain the effects of one night's total sleep deprivation (TSD) on performance of diverse executive function tasks presented as an extended, multitask battery. On the majority of component tasks in this battery, performance has been reported to be impaired following one night's TSD when tasks are administered in isolation. However, participants sleep deprived 35 to 39 hr showed few performance deficits among tests in this battery when compared with non-sleep-deprived controls. Sleep-deprived participants showed only poorer recognition memory and overconfidence in incorrect temporal judgments. Behavioral and physiological adaptation to chronically sleep-restricting lifestyles may confer resistance to the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation in high-functioning young adults.
Article
Insufficient duration of sleep is a highly prevalent behavioral pattern in society that has been shown to cause an increase in spontaneous pain and sensitivity to noxious stimuli. Prostaglandins (PGs), in particular PGE2, are key mediators of inflammation and pain, and we investigated whether PGE2 is a potential mediator in sleep-loss-induced changes in nociceptive processing. Twenty-four participants (7 females, age 35.1+/-7.1 years) stayed for 7 days in the Clinical Research Center. After two baseline days, participants were randomly assigned to either 3 days of 88 h of sleep deprivation (TSD, N=15) or 8h of sleep per night (N=9), followed by a night of recovery sleep. Participants rated the intensity of various pain-related symptoms every 2h across waking periods on computerized visual analog scales. PGE2 was measured in 24-h-urine collections during baseline and third sleep deprivation day. Spontaneous pain, including headache, muscle pain, stomach pain, generalized body pain, and physical discomfort significantly increased by 5-14 units on a 100-unit scale during TSD, compared to the sleep condition. Urinary PGE2 metabolite significantly increased by about 30% in TSD over sleep condition. TSD-induced increase in spontaneous pain, in particular headache and muscle pain, was significantly correlated with increase in PGE2 metabolite. Activation of the PGE2 system appears to be a potential mediator of increased spontaneous pain in response to insufficient sleep.
Article
To determine whether healthy aging is associated with increased sleepiness and whether healthy older adults experience more sleepiness when acutely sleep deprived. A 5-day inpatient circadian rhythm-sleep study consisting of 3 baseline nights followed by an extended 26-hour wake episode under constant conditions. Intensive Physiological Monitoring Unit, General Clinical Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital. Thirty-seven healthy participants without medical, psychological, or sleep disorders: 26 young (7 women, 19 men; mean age 21.9 +/- 3.3, range 18-29) and 11 "young-old" adults (3 women, 8 men; mean age 68.1 +/- 3.6, range 65-76). An extended 26-hour wake episode under constant conditions. Electroencephalographic-verified wakefulness, slow eye movements, sustained attention, subjective sleepiness. During the first 16 hours corresponding to the usual waking day, both groups rated themselves as alert and had similar levels of vigilance and little evidence of sleepiness. As the wake episode continued, the older subjects were less impaired, showing faster reaction times, fewer performance lapses and attentional failures, and less frequent unintentional sleep episodes than the younger subjects. This small study suggests that excessive sleepiness is not normal in healthy older adults. Symptoms of excessive sleepiness in this population, including reliance on caffeine to maintain alertness, should be evaluated and treated. Further study is needed to determine whether daytime sleepiness in middle-old (75-84 years) and old-old (> or = 85) adults is normal or is instead associated with sleep restriction, undiagnosed sleep disorders, medication side effects, mood disorders, or other medical disorders that disrupt sleep.