Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition

Neuroimaging Center, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USA.
Progress in brain research (Impact Factor: 2.83). 12/2010; 185:105-29. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53702-7.00007-5
Source: PubMed


Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the question of whether sleep deprivation affects nearly all cognitive capacities in a global manner through degraded alertness and attention, or whether sleep loss specifically impairs some aspects of cognition more than others. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex as a brain region that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep loss, but perplexingly, executive function tasks that putatively measure prefrontal functioning have yielded inconsistent findings within the context of sleep deprivation. Whereas many convergent and rule-based reasoning, decision making and planning tasks are relatively unaffected by sleep loss, more creative, divergent and innovative aspects of cognition do appear to be degraded by lack of sleep. Emerging evidence suggests that some aspects of higher level cognitive capacities remain degraded by sleep deprivation despite restoration of alertness and vigilance with stimulant countermeasures, suggesting that sleep loss may affect specific cognitive systems above and beyond the effects produced by global cognitive declines or impaired attentional processes. Finally, the role of emotion as a critical facet of cognition has received increasing attention in recent years and mounting evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may particularly affect cognitive systems that rely on emotional data. Thus, the extent to which sleep deprivation affects a particular cognitive process may depend on several factors, including the magnitude of global decline in general alertness and attention, the degree to which the specific cognitive function depends on emotion-processing networks, and the extent to which that cognitive process can draw upon associated cortical regions for compensatory support.

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    • "EF in children depend on both sleep quantity and efficiency (Steenari et al., 2003); a growing body of literature suggests that beneficial (non-REM) sleep parameters are related to daytime executive functioning in ADHD (Gruber and Sadeh, 2004; Durmer and Dinges, 2005; Sadeh et al., 2006; Gruber et al., 2007, 2011). Prefrontal functions seem to be particularly vulnerable to sleep impairment (Killgore, 2010). However, the mechanisms, which determine how altered sleep parameters relate to specific daytime functioning deficits in general and in ADHD, remain elusive (Yoon et al., 2012; Turnbull et al., 2013). "
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    • "These findings regarding attention and alertness are quite significant, especially if we contrast the relaxation response and clinical applications that seek to increase sleep duration/depth, with Buddhist texts and aims of enlightened awakening. Britton et al. point out that Buddhist meditators view the need for less sleep as a sign of progress and that sleep research has established a positive correlation between attention and wakefulness [53]. Moreover, there is only weak evidence that mindfulness meditation and MBSR promote sleep [54] [55], leading Britton et al. to argue that the Buddhist term awakening " . . "
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    • "Of note, these previous studies used performance on various WM tasks to estimate the cognitive decline following SD, which may have been influenced by a learning effect from repeated administrations and intrinsic difference in aptitude (Van Dongen, 2005). In the current study, we employed the " gold standard " PVT, which provides a highly reliable and sensitive metric of the effects of SD on cognition and which exhibits neither a practice effect nor aptitude differences (Killgore, 2010; Van Dongen, 2005). "
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