The aqueous extract of Terminalia superba (Combretaceae) prevents glucose-induced hypertension in rats

Laboratoire de Physiologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Yaoundé I, PO Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon.
Journal of ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 11/2010; 133(2):828-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.016
Source: PubMed


The stem bark of Terminalia superba (Combretaceae) (TS) is used in traditional Cameroonian medicine as antihypertensive remedy. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypotensive and the antihypertensive effects of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Terminalia superba.
Hypertension was obtained in rats by oral administration of 10% D-glucose for 3 weeks. The acute effects of Terminalia superba were studied on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) after intravenous administration in normotensive rats (NTR) and glucose hypertensive rats (GHR). The antihypertensive effects were studied after oral administration of the extract (50 and 100 mg/kg/day) or nifedipine (10 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks. At the end of the experiment, BP and HR were measured and reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels were measured in heart, aorta, liver and kidney.
Intravenous administration of the aqueous extract of Terminalia superba induced a significant hypotensive response without any change in HR. The hypotensive effect of the extract was unaffected by atropine or propranolol but decreased by reserpine (5 mg/kg) and yohimbine (0.1 mg/kg). In addition, the oral administration of the extract significantly prevented the rise in BP in glucose-hypertensive rats. Finally, the treatment with plant extract significantly blunted the decrease in GSH and the increase in MDA levels associated with hypertension, and significantly prevents the increase in aortic SOD activity.
The present study demonstrates that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Terminalia superba exhibits hypotensive and anti-hypertensive properties that are, at least in part, related to a withdrawal of sympathetic tone and to an improvement of the antioxidant status, respectively. Overall data validate the use of Terminalia superba as antihypertensive therapy in traditional medicine.

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    • "Le suc des feuilles soigne la conjonctivite [18]. Cette plante est aussi utilisée dans le traitement de l'hypertension artérielle [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Terminalia superba Engl. et Diels (Combretaceae) est une plante largement répartie en Afrique. Elle est beaucoup employée en pharmacopée indigène. Le présent travail a pour objectif de réaliser une synthèse bibliographique et une analyse des résultats de recherche portant sur la composition phytochimique ainsi que les propriétés biologiques et pharmacologiques de T. superba. Ce travail a permis de noter que cette plante est riche ; acide gallique et gallate de méthyle, époxylignanes, triterpènes glucosides, acide ellagique. Ces groupent chimiques peuvent seuls ou dans une possible synergie d'action, être responsables d'activités biologiques et pharmacologiques notamment des activités anti-diabétiques, anti-parasitaires, anti-microbiennes, anti-hypertensives, anti-oxydantes, anti-ulcéreuses, anti-diarrhéiques et analgésiques. En conclusion, par ses vertus, T. superba est une potentielle source de recettes médicinales.
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