Inhibition of p53 after acute myocardial infarction: Reduction of apoptosis is counteracted by disturbed scar formation and cardiac rupture
Department of Medicine III, University of Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Strasse 40, 06097 Halle, Germany. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
(Impact Factor: 4.66).
11/2010; 50(3):471-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2010.11.006
Cardiomyocyte apoptosis, partially mediated through p53 signaling pathway, plays a crucial role in the progression of pathological remodeling and heart failure following myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that pifithrin-alpha (PFTa), a synthetic p53 inhibitor, would suppress cardiac apoptosis through the disruption of p53-dependent transcriptional activation and thereby improve heart function in a mouse model of MI. In our experiments we show that PFTa blocked p53 transcriptional activity and attenuated H(2)O(2)-induced cardiac apoptosis in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Additionally, administration of PFTa in mice after acute MI in vivo led to a significant reduction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis but in parallel caused an increase of infarct size and significantly reduced 7-day survival rate. Subsequent analysis revealed significantly reduced proliferation and cell number, diminished collagen deposition, and elevated MMP-2 activity at the infarct zone of PFTa-treated hearts. In homozygous p53 deficient mice (p53(-/-)), however, PFTa treatment did not interfere with scar formation and did not increase MMP-2 activity after MI. Collectively, our data suggest that although p53-inhibition through PFTa reduces cardiomyocyte apoptosis, in the setting of acute MI this assumed beneficial effect is severely counteracted by the adverse remodeling of the infarct zone. PFTa increases MMP-2 activity in a p53-dependent manner, which seems a major contributor to instability of the forming scar and consequently leads to infarct progression and ventricular rupture.
Available from: Xiaohui Fan
- "It was suggested that XST modulates inflammatory responses in treating ischemia, which has been found to prevent damages of the inflammatory factors to cardiac cells [34–37]. The influencing in complement and coagulation cascades pathway indicated that XST and its constituent compound notoginsenoside R1 are functional in modulating the coagulation process in MI, which is one of the most common clinical risk factors [32–35]. "
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ABSTRACT: Chinese medicine has evolved from thousands of years of empirical applications and experiences of combating diseases. It has become widely recognized that the Chinese medicine acts through complex mechanisms featured as multicompound, multitarget and multipathway. However, there is still a lack of systematic experimental studies to elucidate the mechanisms of Chinese medicine. In this study, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from myocardial infarction rat model treated with Xuesaitong Injection (XST), a Chinese medicine consisting of the total saponins from Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (Chinese Sanqi). A network-based approach was developed to combine DEGs related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with lines of evidence from the literature mining to investigate the mechanism of action (MOA) of XST on antimyocardial infarction. A compound-target-pathway network of XST was constructed by connecting compounds to DEGs validated with literature lines of evidence and the pathways that are functionally enriched. Seventy potential targets of XST were identified in this study, of which 32 were experimentally validated either by our in vitro assays or by CVD-related literatures. This study provided for the first time a network view on the complex MOA of antimyocardial infarction through multiple targets and pathways.
Available from: Paulo J Oliveira
- "The above-referred interplay between calcium and oxidative stress may also regulate other stress pathways involved in cell death or survival including involving p53 and p66Shc (Fig. 9). The increase in the transcription factor p53 in differentiated cells (Fig. 5D) appears to be particularly involved in the mechanisms of ISO toxicity since the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha (Zhang et al., 2011), decreased ISO toxicity on differentiated cells (Fig. 6A, middle and right panels), although increasing the toxicity on undifferentiated cells, when incubated for longer periods with ISO (Fig. 6A, left panel). Also, p53 activation may have led to increased Bax expression observed after ISO treatment in differentiated cells (Branco et al., 2012). "
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ABSTRACT: β-adrenergic receptor stimulation plays an important role in cardiomyocyte stress responses, which may result in apoptosis and cardiovascular degeneration. We previously demonstrated that toxicity of the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol on H9c2 cardiomyoblasts depends on the stage of cell differentiation. We now investigate β-adrenergic receptor downstream signaling pathways and stress responses that explain the impact of muscle cell differentiation on hyper-β-adrenergic stimulation-induced cytotoxicity. When incubated with isoproterenol, differentiated H9c2 muscle cells have increased cytosolic calcium, cyclic-adenosine monophosphate content and oxidative stress, as well as mitochondrial depolarization, increased superoxide anion, loss of subunits from the mitochondrial respiratory chain, decreased Bcl-xL content, increased p53 and phosphorylated-p66Shc as well as activated caspase-3. Undifferentiated H9c2 cells incubated with isoproterenol showed increased Bcl-xL protein and increased superoxide dismutase 2 which may act as protective mechanisms. We conclude that the differentiation of H9c2 is associated with differential regulation of stress responses, which impact the toxicity of several agents, namely those acting through β-adrenergic receptors and resulting in mitochondrial disruption in differentiated cells only.
Available from: cardiovascres.oxfordjournals.org
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ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction leads to heart failure and death. Ischaemic preconditioning (PreC) and postconditioning (PostC) reduce infarct size in animal models and human. Zac1 was identified as the only gene related to apoptosis and jointly down-regulated upon PreC and PostC. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of Zac1 down-regulation during ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) in vivo.
C57BL/6 mice were submitted to myocardial I/R injury, PreC, or PostC protocols. QPCR and immunochemistry showed that Zac1 expression was down-regulated both at the transcriptional and the protein levels upon PreC and PostC. Zac1(-/-) Knockout mice (n = 7) developed smaller infarcts (54%) than Zac1(+/+) littermates (n = 8) and decreased apoptosis (61.7%) in the ischaemic part of the left ventricle during I/R (Zac1(-/-), n = 6 vs. Zac1(+/+), n = 7; P = 0.0012). Mutants showed under control conditions a decrease of 53.9% in mRNA of Daxx, a pro-apoptotic protein playing a key role in I/R injuries (4.81 ± 0.77, n = 4 Zac1(-/-) mice vs. 10.44 ± 3.5, n = 7 Zac1(+/+) mice; P = 0.0121).
Our study shows for the first time that Zac1 is down-regulated both at the transcriptional and protein levels upon PreC and PostC in wild-type mice. Moreover, inactivation of Zac1 in vivo is associated with a decreased amount of Daxx transcripts and, upon I/R injury, decreased infarct size and apoptosis. Altogether, our results show that Zac1 down-regulation plays a key role during cardioprotection against I/R injury and support the concept that cardioprotection regulates a network of interacting pro-apoptotic genes including Zac1 and Daxx.
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