Payer costs for inpatient treatment of pathologic fracture, surgery to bone, and spinal cord compression among patients with multiple myeloma or bone metastasis secondary to prostate or breast cancer

ArticleinJournal of managed care pharmacy: JMCP 16(9):693-702 · November 2010with22 Reads
Source: PubMed
Patients with bone metastasis secondary to prostate or breast cancer or multiple myeloma are predisposed to skeletal-related events (SREs), such as surgery or radiation to the bone, pathologic fracture, and spinal cord compression. Inpatient costs of these and other SREs represent an estimated 49%-59% of total costs related to SREs. However, information on payer costs for hospitalizations associated with SREs is limited, especially for costs associated with specific SREs by tumor type. To examine costs from a payer perspective for SRE-associated hospitalizations among patients with multiple myeloma or bone metastasis secondary to prostate or breast cancer. Patients with SRE hospitalizations were selected from the MarketScan commercial and Medicare databases (January 1, 2003, through June 30, 2009). Sampled patients had at least 2 medical claims with primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for prostate cancer, breast cancer, or multiple myeloma and at least 1 subsequent hospitalization with principal diagnosis or procedure codes indicating bone surgery, pathologic fracture, or spinal cord compression. For patients with prostate cancer or breast cancer, a diagnosis code for bone metastasis was also required. If secondary diagnoses or procedure codes for SREs were present in the claim, they were used to more precisely identify the type of SRE for which the patient was treated, resulting in 3 mutually exclusive categories: spinal cord compression with or without pathologic fracture and/or surgery to the bone; pathologic fracture with or without surgery to the bone; and only surgery to the bone. Related readmissions within 30 days of a previous SRE-associated hospitalization date of discharge were excluded to minimize the risk of underestimating costs. Mean health plan payments per hospitalization, measured as net reimbursed amounts paid by the health plan to a hospital after subtracting patient copayments and deductibles, were analyzed by cancer type and type of SRE. A total of 555 patients contributed 572 hospitalizations that met the study criteria for prostate cancer, 1,413 patients contributed 1,542 hospitalizations for breast cancer, and 1,361 patients contributed 1,495 hospitalizations for multiple myeloma. The mean age range was 61 to 72 years, and the mean length of stay per admission was 5.9 to 11.6 days across the 3 tumor types. The ranges of mean health plan payment per hospital admission across tumor types were $43,691-$59,854 for spinal cord compression, with or without pathologic fracture and/or surgery to the bone; $22,390-$26,936 for pathologic fracture without spinal cord compression, with or without surgery to the bone; and $31,016-$42,094 for surgery to the bone without pathologic fracture or spinal cord compression. The inpatient costs associated with treating SREs are significant from a payer perspective. Our study used a systematic process for patient selection and mutually exclusive categorization by SRE type and provides a per episode estimate of the inpatient financial impact of cancer related SREs assessed in this study from a third-party payer perspective.
    • "Additionally, a few investigators have addressed the issue of how to handle multiple types of SRE claims that occur on the same day by imposing a hierarchy in which SREs viewed as clinical events (i.e., PF and SCC) take precedence over SREs viewed as treatment events (i.e., RAD and BS). For example, RAD or BS would only be counted if there were no claims for PF or SCC on the same day [11, 15]. Given the great degree of variation in the approaches to identify different SRE types, this study investigates the consequences of various approaches and quantifies the variation in prevalence and cumulative incidence measures that can occur depending upon the approach used to study such events. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal related events (SREs) are common in men with metastatic prostate cancer (mPC). Various methods have been used to identify SREs from claims data. The objective of this study was to provide a framework for measuring SREs from claims and compare SRE prevalence and cumulative incidence estimates based on alternative approaches in men with mPC. Several claims-based approaches for identifying SREs were developed and applied to data for men aged [greater than or equal to] 66 years newly diagnosed with mPC between 2000 and 2009 in the SEER-Medicare datasets and followed through 2010 or until censoring. Post-diagnosis SREs were identified using claims that indicated spinal cord compression (SCC), pathologic fracture (PF), surgery to bone (BS), or radiation (suggestive of bone palliative radiation, RAD). To measure SRE prevalence, two SRE definitions were created: 'base case' (most commonly used in the literature) and 'alternative' in which different claims were used to identify each type of SRE. To measure cumulative incidence, we used the 'base case' definition and applied three periods in which claims were clustered to episodes: 14-, 21-, and 28-day windows. Among 8997 mPC patients, 46 % experienced an SRE according to the 'base case' definition and 43 % patients experienced an SRE according to the 'alternative' definition. Varying the code definition from 'base case' to 'alternative' resulted in an 8 % increase in the overall SRE prevalence. Using the 21-day window, a total of 12,930 SRE episodes were observed during follow up. Varying the window length from 21 to 28 days resulted in an 8 % decrease in SRE cumulative incidence (RAD: 10 %, PF: 8 %, SCC: 6 %, BS: 0.2 %). SRE prevalence was affected by the codes used, with PF being most impacted. The overall SRE cumulative incidence was affected by the window length used, with RAD being most affected. These results underscore the importance of the baseline definitions used to study claims data when attempting to understand relevant clinical events such as SREs in the real world setting.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
    • "Approval of expensive end-of-life treatment has been increasingly debated in the last years and a supplement to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines on technology appraisal was written to allow approval of very restricted end-of-life medicines exceeding conventional threshold levels of £20-30,000 per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) [12]. Presently, the evidence for healthcare costs of patients with bone metastases is limited131415. Additionally, lifetime costs attributable to the treatment of patients with spinal metastases have to our knowledge never been analysed [16]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer treatment, and in particular end-of-life treatment, is associated with substantial healthcare costs. The purpose of this study was to analyse healthcare costs attributable to the treatment of patients with spinal metastases. The study population (n = 629) was identified from clinical databases in Denmark. Patients undergoing spinal metastasis treatment from January 2005 through June 2012 were included. Clinical data were merged with national register data on healthcare resource use, costs and death date. The analytic period ranged from treatment initiation until death or administrative censoring in October 2013. Analysis of both survival and costs were stratified into four treatment regimens of increasing invasiveness: radiotherapy (T1), decompression (T2), decompression + instrumentation (T3) and decompression + instrumentation + reconstruction (T4). Survival was analysed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Costs were estimated from a healthcare perspective. Lifetime costs were defined as accumulated costs from treatment initiation until death. The Kaplan-Meier Sampling Average method was used to estimate these costs; 95% CIs were estimated using nonparametric bootstrapping. Mean age of the study population was 65.2 years (range: 19-95). During a mean follow-up period of 9.2 months (range: 0.1-94.5 months), post treatment survival ranged from 4.4 months (95% CI 2.5-7.5) in the T1 group to 8.7 months (95% CI 6.7-14.1) in the T4 group. Inpatient hospitalisation accounted for 65% and outpatient services for 31% of the healthcare costs followed by hospice placements 3% and primary care 1%. Lifetime healthcare costs accounted for €36,616 (95% CI 33,835-39,583) per T1 patients, €49,632 (95% CI 42,287-57,767) per T2 patient, €70997 (95% CI 62,244-82,354) per T3 patient and €87,814 (95% CI 76,638-101,528) per T4 patient. Overall, 45% of costs were utilised within the first month. T1 and T4 patients had almost identical distributions of costs: inpatient hospitalisation averaged 59% and 36% for outpatient services. Costs of T2 and T3 were very similarly distributed with an average of 71% for inpatient hospitalisation and 25% for outpatient services. The index treatment accounts for almost half of lifetime health care costs from treatment initiation until death. As expected, lifetime healthcare costs are positively association with invasiveness of treatment.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
    • "Although spinal cord compression was rare, it required the longest hospital stays. This is consistent with two separate economic analyses illustrating the high cost of each spinal cord compression event (Felix et al. 2011; Barlev et al. 2010 ). Notably, surgery to bone required shorter inpatient stays than pathologic fracture, probably because surgery facilitates faster stabilization of bone. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with breast cancer and bone metastases often experience skeletal complications (skeletal-related events [SREs]: pathologic fracture, radiation to bone, surgery to bone or spinal cord compression). Prospective data on the health resource burden of SREs are needed for planning healthcare requirements and estimating the value of new treatments, but limited data are available. This prospective, observational study collected health resource utilization (HRU) data independently attributed to SREs by investigators. Eligible patients had bone metastases secondary to breast cancer, life expectancy ≥6 months, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤2, and at least one SRE in the 97 days before enrollment. Data, collected retrospectively for 97 days before enrollment and prospectively for 18-21 months, included number and duration of inpatient stays, outpatient visits, emergency room visits and procedures. Altogether, 223 patients were enrolled from Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Of the 457 SREs, 118 (25.8%) were associated with inpatient stays. The mean duration of stay was 19.5 (standard deviation [SD] 19.2) days per SRE (based on 117 SREs). Surgery to bone and spinal cord compression were the SREs most likely to require inpatient stays (77.8% and 57.9% of SREs, respectively), while radiation to bone was the least likely (9.7%). Spinal cord compression required the longest inpatient stay per event (34.2 [SD 30.2] days) and radiation to bone the shortest (14.3 [SD 10.2] days). Overall, 342 SREs (74.8%) required an outpatient visit, with radiation to bone the most likely (85.7%), and surgery to bone the least likely (42.6%). Radiation to bone was also associated with the greatest number of outpatient visits per event (6.8 [SD 6.7] visits). All SREs were associated with substantial HRU therefore, preventing SREs in patients with breast cancer may reduce the burden imposed on healthcare systems.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
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