Payer costs for inpatient treatment of pathologic fracture, surgery to bone, and spinal cord compression among patients with multiple myeloma or bone metastasis secondary to prostate or breast cancer

Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Dr., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA.
Journal of managed care pharmacy: JMCP (Impact Factor: 2.71). 11/2010; 16(9):693-702.
Source: PubMed


Patients with bone metastasis secondary to prostate or breast cancer or multiple myeloma are predisposed to skeletal-related events (SREs), such as surgery or radiation to the bone, pathologic fracture, and spinal cord compression. Inpatient costs of these and other SREs represent an estimated 49%-59% of total costs related to SREs. However, information on payer costs for hospitalizations associated with SREs is limited, especially for costs associated with specific SREs by tumor type.
To examine costs from a payer perspective for SRE-associated hospitalizations among patients with multiple myeloma or bone metastasis secondary to prostate or breast cancer.
Patients with SRE hospitalizations were selected from the MarketScan commercial and Medicare databases (January 1, 2003, through June 30, 2009). Sampled patients had at least 2 medical claims with primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for prostate cancer, breast cancer, or multiple myeloma and at least 1 subsequent hospitalization with principal diagnosis or procedure codes indicating bone surgery, pathologic fracture, or spinal cord compression. For patients with prostate cancer or breast cancer, a diagnosis code for bone metastasis was also required. If secondary diagnoses or procedure codes for SREs were present in the claim, they were used to more precisely identify the type of SRE for which the patient was treated, resulting in 3 mutually exclusive categories: spinal cord compression with or without pathologic fracture and/or surgery to the bone; pathologic fracture with or without surgery to the bone; and only surgery to the bone. Related readmissions within 30 days of a previous SRE-associated hospitalization date of discharge were excluded to minimize the risk of underestimating costs. Mean health plan payments per hospitalization, measured as net reimbursed amounts paid by the health plan to a hospital after subtracting patient copayments and deductibles, were analyzed by cancer type and type of SRE.
A total of 555 patients contributed 572 hospitalizations that met the study criteria for prostate cancer, 1,413 patients contributed 1,542 hospitalizations for breast cancer, and 1,361 patients contributed 1,495 hospitalizations for multiple myeloma. The mean age range was 61 to 72 years, and the mean length of stay per admission was 5.9 to 11.6 days across the 3 tumor types. The ranges of mean health plan payment per hospital admission across tumor types were $43,691-$59,854 for spinal cord compression, with or without pathologic fracture and/or surgery to the bone; $22,390-$26,936 for pathologic fracture without spinal cord compression, with or without surgery to the bone; and $31,016-$42,094 for surgery to the bone without pathologic fracture or spinal cord compression.
The inpatient costs associated with treating SREs are significant from a payer perspective. Our study used a systematic process for patient selection and mutually exclusive categorization by SRE type and provides a per episode estimate of the inpatient financial impact of cancer related SREs assessed in this study from a third-party payer perspective.

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    • "Although spinal cord compression was rare, it required the longest hospital stays. This is consistent with two separate economic analyses illustrating the high cost of each spinal cord compression event (Felix et al. 2011; Barlev et al. 2010). Notably, surgery to bone required shorter inpatient stays than pathologic fracture, probably because surgery facilitates faster stabilization of bone. "
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with breast cancer and bone metastases often experience skeletal complications (skeletal-related events [SREs]: pathologic fracture, radiation to bone, surgery to bone or spinal cord compression). Prospective data on the health resource burden of SREs are needed for planning healthcare requirements and estimating the value of new treatments, but limited data are available. This prospective, observational study collected health resource utilization (HRU) data independently attributed to SREs by investigators. Eligible patients had bone metastases secondary to breast cancer, life expectancy ≥6 months, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤2, and at least one SRE in the 97 days before enrollment. Data, collected retrospectively for 97 days before enrollment and prospectively for 18-21 months, included number and duration of inpatient stays, outpatient visits, emergency room visits and procedures. Altogether, 223 patients were enrolled from Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Of the 457 SREs, 118 (25.8%) were associated with inpatient stays. The mean duration of stay was 19.5 (standard deviation [SD] 19.2) days per SRE (based on 117 SREs). Surgery to bone and spinal cord compression were the SREs most likely to require inpatient stays (77.8% and 57.9% of SREs, respectively), while radiation to bone was the least likely (9.7%). Spinal cord compression required the longest inpatient stay per event (34.2 [SD 30.2] days) and radiation to bone the shortest (14.3 [SD 10.2] days). Overall, 342 SREs (74.8%) required an outpatient visit, with radiation to bone the most likely (85.7%), and surgery to bone the least likely (42.6%). Radiation to bone was also associated with the greatest number of outpatient visits per event (6.8 [SD 6.7] visits). All SREs were associated with substantial HRU therefore, preventing SREs in patients with breast cancer may reduce the burden imposed on healthcare systems.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · SpringerPlus
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    • "Among men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa), seventy to eighty percent of those with metastatic disease have involvement of the bone [1-4] with significant implications for pain, morbidity and mortality [2,5-8]. Increasingly, researchers are using claims-based measures of bone metastasis (BM) to examine incidence, associated costs, and survival [4,6,7,9,10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To assess concordance between Medicare claims and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) reports of incident BM among prostate cancer (PCa) patients. The prevalence and consequences of bone metastases (BM) have been examined across tumor sites using healthcare claims data however the reliability of these claims-based BM measures has not been investigated. This retrospective cohort study utilized linked registry and claims (SEER-Medicare) data on men diagnosed with incident stage IV M1 PCa between 2005 and 2007. The SEER-based measure of incident BM was cross-tabulated with three separate Medicare claims approaches to assess concordance. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated to assess the concordance between registry- and claims-based measures. Based on 2,708 PCa patients in SEER-Medicare, there is low to moderate concordance between the SEER- and claims-based measures of incident BM. Across the three approaches, sensitivity ranged from 0.48 (0.456 - 0.504) to 0.598 (0.574 - 0.621), specificity ranged from 0.538 (0.507 - 0.569) to 0.620 (0.590 - 0.650) and PPV ranged from 0.679 (0.651 - 0.705) to 0.690 (0.665 - 0.715). A comparison of utilization patterns between SEER-based and claims-based measures suggested avenues for improving sensitivity. Claims-based measures using BM ICD 9 coding may be insufficient to identify patients with incident BM diagnosis and should be validated against chart data to maximize their potential for population-based analyses.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Medical Research Methodology
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    • "Costs associated with fractures and antiresorptive agents are also important considerations when determining the use of these therapies. Indeed, bone fractures in patients with BC (advanced or early) are associated with increased health care costs.65,66 However, ZOL has been shown to be a cost-effective treatment option in both the advanced and early BC settings for preventing SREs and bone loss and subsequent fractures due to bone metastases or CTIBL.43,45,47 "
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    ABSTRACT: Maintaining bone health is important for patients with breast cancer (BC), the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women. Indeed, bone loss is common throughout the BC disease continuum. In the metastatic BC setting, patients are likely to develop bone metastases, a painful complication that can lead to potentially debilitating skeletal-related events. Bone health is equally important for patients with early BC. During adjuvant therapy for early BC, the largest challenge to bone health is from accelerated bone mineral density (BMD) loss. Although decreased BMD is well recognized in older, postmenopausal women, it may be underestimated in younger, premenopausal women undergoing endocrine therapy for BC. The rate and extent of cancer therapy-induced bone loss (from chemotherapy or endocrine therapy) are substantially greater than normal decreases in BMD during menopause. Bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid (ZOL) are antiresorptive agents indicated for the treatment of bone metastases from BC. Clinical trials over the past few years suggest that, although not yet approved for this indication, ZOL can prevent cancer therapy-induced bone loss and improve BMD in premenopausal women receiving adjuvant (endocrine or chemo-) therapy for BC. Furthermore, the benefits of ZOL therapy may go beyond maintaining bone health and include potential anticancer benefits together with favorable tolerability and cost/benefit profiles. This review will focus specifically on the role of ZOL in preserving the bone health of premenopausal women with BC.
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