An Aldol-Based Build/Couple/Pair Strategy for the Synthesis of Medium- and Large-Sized Rings: Discovery of Macrocyclic Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

Chemical Biology Platform, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, United States.
Journal of the American Chemical Society (Impact Factor: 12.11). 11/2010; 132(47):16962-76. DOI: 10.1021/ja105119r
Source: PubMed


An aldol-based build/couple/pair (B/C/P) strategy was applied to generate a collection of stereochemically and skeletally diverse small molecules. In the build phase, a series of asymmetric syn- and anti-aldol reactions were performed to produce four stereoisomers of a Boc-protected γ-amino acid. In addition, both stereoisomers of O-PMB-protected alaninol were generated to provide a chiral amine coupling partner. In the couple step, eight stereoisomeric amides were synthesized by coupling the chiral acid and amine building blocks. The amides were subsequently reduced to generate the corresponding secondary amines. In the pair phase, three different reactions were employed to enable intramolecular ring-forming processes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S(N)Ar), Huisgen [3+2] cycloaddition, and ring-closing metathesis (RCM). Despite some stereochemical dependencies, the ring-forming reactions were optimized to proceed with good to excellent yields, providing a variety of skeletons ranging in size from 8- to 14-membered rings. Scaffolds resulting from the RCM pairing reaction were diversified on the solid phase to yield a 14 400-membered library of macrolactams. Screening of this library led to the discovery of a novel class of histone deacetylase inhibitors, which display mixed enzyme inhibition, and led to increased levels of acetylation in a primary mouse neuron culture. The development of stereo-structure/activity relationships was made possible by screening all 16 stereoisomers of the macrolactams produced through the aldol-based B/C/P strategy.

Download full-text


Available from: Stephen J Haggarty
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: All stereoisomers of a highly functionalized 2,3-unsaturated C-glycoside can be accessed in 10-100 g quantities from readily available starting materials and reagents in 3-7 steps. These chiral scaffolds contain three stereogenic centers along with orthogonally protected functional groups for downstream reactivity.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · The Journal of Organic Chemistry
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alkaloid and terpenoid natural products display an extensive array of chemical frameworks and biological activities. However such scaffolds remain underrepresented in current screening collections and are, thus, attractive targets for the synthesis of natural product-based libraries that access underexploited regions of chemical space. Recently, we reported a systematic approach to the stereoselective synthesis of multiple alkaloid/terpenoid-like scaffolds using transition metal-mediated cycloaddition and cyclization reactions of enyne and diyne substrates assembled on a tert-butylsulfinamide lynchpin. We report herein the synthesis of a 190-membered library of alkaloid/terpenoid-like molecules using this synthetic approach. Translation to solid-phase synthesis was facilitated by the use of a tert-butyldiarylsilyl (TBDAS) linker that closely mimics the tert-butyldiphenysilyl protecting group used in the original solution-phase route development work. Unexpected differences in stereoselectivity and regioselectivity were observed in some reactions when carried out on solid support. Further, the sulfinamide moiety could be hydrolyzed or oxidized efficiently without compromising the TBDAS linker to provide additional amine and sulfonamide functionalities. Principal component analysis of the structural and physicochemical properties of these molecules confirmed that they access regions of chemical space that overlap with bona fide natural products and are distinct from areas addressed by conventional synthetic drugs and drug-like molecules. The influences of scaffolds and substituents were also evaluated, with both found to have significant impacts on location in chemical space and three-dimensional shape. Broad biological evaluation of this library will provide valuable insights into the abilities of natural product-based libraries to access similarly underexploited regions of biological space.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Structurally diverse libraries of novel small molecules represent important sources of biologically active agents. In this paper we report the development of a diversity-oriented synthesis strategy for the generation of diverse small molecules based around a common macrocyclic peptidomimetic framework, containing structural motifs present in many naturally occurring bioactive compounds. Macrocyclic peptidomimetics are largely underrepresented in current small-molecule screening collections owing primarily to synthetic intractability; thus novel molecules based around these structures represent targets of significant interest, both from a biological and a synthetic perspective. In a proof-of-concept study, the synthesis of a library of 14 such compounds was achieved. Analysis of chemical space coverage confirmed that the compound structures indeed occupy underrepresented areas of chemistry in screening collections. Crucial to the success of this approach was the development of novel methodologies for the macrocyclic ring closure of chiral α-azido acids and for the synthesis of diketopiperazines using solid-supported N methylmorpholine. Owing to their robust and flexible natures, it is envisaged that both new methodologies will prove to be valuable in a wider synthetic context.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Show more