Application of Phi29 Motor pRNA for Targeted Therapeutic Delivery of siRNA Silencing Metallothionein-IIA and Survivin in Ovarian Cancers

Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Molecular Therapy (Impact Factor: 6.23). 11/2010; 19(2):386-94. DOI: 10.1038/mt.2010.243
Source: PubMed


Ovarian cancer is a highly metastatic and lethal disease, making it imperative to find treatments that target late-stage malignant tumors. The packaging RNA (pRNA) of bacteriophage phi29 DNA-packaging motor has been reported to function as a highly versatile vehicle to carry small interference RNA (siRNA) for silencing of survivin. In this article, we explore the potential of pRNA as a vehicle to carry siRNA specifically targeted to metallothionein-IIa (MT-IIA) messenger RNA (mRNA), and compare it to survivin targeting pRNA. These two anti-apoptotic cell survival factors promote tumor cell viability, and are overexpressed in recurrent tumors. We find that pRNA chimeras targeting MT-IIA are processed into double-stranded siRNA by dicer, are localized within the GW/P-bodies, and are more potent than siRNA alone in silencing MT-IIA expression. Moreover, knockdown of both survivin and MT-IIA expression simultaneously results in more potent effects on cell proliferation in the aggressive ovarian tumor cell lines than either alone, suggesting that therapeutic approaches that target multiple genes are essential for molecular therapy. The folate receptor-targeted delivery of siRNA by the folate-pRNA dimer emphasizes the cancer cell-specific aspect of this system. The pRNA system, which has the capability to assemble into multivalent nanoparticles, has immense promise as a highly potent therapeutic agent.

Download full-text


Available from: Pheruza Tarapore
  • Source
    • "The pRNA molecule can be employed as a novel RNA vector to carry siRNA or an aptamer molecule. Previous reports indicate that the pRNA-siRNA chimera exerts the silencing function of siRNA effectively and that the silencing efficiency of this chimera is similar to or even better than that of free siRNA (Zhang et al., 2009; Tarapore et al., 2011). Similarly, the pRNA-aptamer chimera interacts with the specific receptor, as expected (Guo et al., 2005; Figure 6. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) is a key event in the development of asthma. The potent ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to inhibit the expression of STAT5b mRNA has provided a new class of therapeutics for asthma. However, efficient delivery of siRNAs remains a key obstacle to their successful application. A targeted intracellular delivery approach for siRNA to specific cell types would be highly desirable. We used packaging RNA (pRNA), a component of the bacteriophage phi29-packaging motor, to deliver STAT5b siRNA to asthmatic spleen lymphocytes. This pRNA was able to spontaneously carry siRNA/STAT5b and aptamer/CD4, which is a ligand to CD4 molecule. Based on RT-PCR data, the pRNA dimer effectively inhibited STAT5b gene mRNA expression of asthmatic spleen lymphocytes, without the need for additional transfections. We conclude that the pRNA dimer carrying both siRNA and aptamer can deliver functional siRNA to cells; possibly, the aptamer acts as a ligand to interact with specific receptors. The pRNAs were evaluated with a CCK-8 kit and were found to have little cytotoxicity. We conclude that pRNA as a novel nanovehicle for RNA worth further study.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Genetics and molecular research: GMR
  • Source
    • "Utilizing the novel properties of this pRNA, we constructed pRNA dimers and trimers with potential to serve as parts in nanotechnology. pRNA-derived nanoparticles have small sizes (20–40 nm), making them particularly suited for in vivo systemic delivery; the optimal size range for cell uptake is 10–100 nm.59 Tarapore et al60 explored the potential of pRNA as a vehicle in carrying siRNA to target metallothionein-IIa (MT-IIA) messenger RNA (mRNA) specifically. They found that pRNA chimeras targeting MT-IIA are localized within the GW/P-bodies, and are more potent than siRNA alone in silencing MT-IIA expression. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: RNA interference is a powerful method for the knockdown of pathologically relevant genes. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been widely demonstrated as effective biomedical genetic-therapy applications for many diseases. Unfortunately, siRNA duplexes are not ideal drug-like molecules. Problems hindering their effective application fundamentally lie in their delivery, stability, and off-target effects. Delivery systems provide solutions to many of the challenges facing siRNA therapeutics. Due to some fatal disadvantages of viral vectors, nonviral carriers have been studied extensively. Aside from liposomes, nanoparticles and cationic polymer carriers have exhibited improved in vivo stability, better biocompatibility, and efficiency for gene silencing with less cellular toxicity. They may represent a promising strategy for siRNA-based therapies, especially as nanomaterials. The present review also summarizes other methods of siRNA delivery and the side effects of the nanoparticles.
    Preview · Article · May 2011 · International Journal of Nanomedicine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in RNA nanotechnology have led to the emergence of a new field and brought vitality to the area of therapeutics [P. Guo, The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology, Nat. Nanotechnol., 2010]. Due to the complementary nature of the four nucleotides and its special catalytic activity, RNA can be manipulated with simplicity characteristic of DNA, while possessing versatile structure and diverse function similar to proteins. Loops and tertiary architecture serve as mounting dovetails or wedges to eliminate external linking dowels. Unique features in transcription, termination, self-assembly, self-processing, and acid-resistance enable in vivo production of nanoparticles harboring aptamer, siRNA, ribozyme, riboswitch, or other regulators for therapy, detection, regulation, and intracellular computation. The unique property of noncanonical base-pairing and stacking enables RNA to fold into well-defined structures for constructing nanoparticles with special functionalities. Bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is geared by a ring consisting of six packaging RNA (pRNA) molecules. pRNA is able to form a multimeric complex via the interaction of two reengineered interlocking loops. This unique feature makes it an ideal polyvalent vehicle for nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection, and delivery of siRNA or other therapeutics. This review describes methods in using pRNA as a building block for the construction of RNA dimers, trimers, and hexamers as nanoparticles in medical applications. Methods for industrial-scale production of large and stable RNA nanoparticles will be introduced. The unique favorable PK (pharmacokinetics) profile with a half life (T(1/2)) of 5-10h comparing to 0.25 of conventional 2'-F siRNA, and advantageous in vivo features such as non-toxicity, non-induction of interferons or non-stimulating of cytokine response in animals will also be reviewed.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Methods
Show more