Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in association between periodontal disease and hyperlipidaemia

ArticleinJournal Of Clinical Periodontology 38(1):8-16 · November 2010with14 Reads
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01644.x · Source: PubMed
The aim of this study was to evaluate serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in association between periodontal disease and hyperlipidaemia. One hundred and twenty-three subjects with hyperlipidaemia and 68 systemically healthy controls (C) were included in the study. Hyperlipidaemic groups were divided into two groups as suggested diet (HD) and prescribed statin (HS). Both groups were divided into three subgroups as healthy (h), gingivitis (g) and periodontitis (p). The clinical periodontal parameters, fasting venous blood and GCF samples were obtained, and serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels were evaluated. The ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL) was associated with gingival index and percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP%) in both hyperlipidaemic groups. In HS group, GCF and serum IL-6 were positively correlated with BOP% and TC/HDL. GCF TNF-α was positively associated with probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, whereas serum TNF-α was associated with BOP% in the HD group. Serum and GCF TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly associated with TC/HDL in the HD group. Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines may play an important role in the association between periodontal disease and hyperlipidaemia.
    • "Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines may orchestrate a vital role in the association between periodontitis and dyslipidemia. It is proposed that periodontitis is not only associated with the severity of the deterioration of lipid metabolism, but also that the aggravation of hyperlipidemic state is linked with periodontal inflammation by the up-regulation of serum and gingival crevicular fluid pro-inflammatory cytokines.[53] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition, which constitutes a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the risk for Coronary Artery Disease, Stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder is found prevalent in the industrialized societies of the world in epidemic proportions. Periodontitis is an oral disease of microbial origin characterized by loss of attachment apparatus of tooth, resulting in edentulism if untreated. Periodontitis has been attributed to produce a low grade systemic inflammatory condition. The link of periodontitis to various systemic disorders has led to the evolution of a new branch termed as "periodontal medicine." Studies reviewed in the present paper have indicated a positive link between the MS and periodontitis and it is suggested that subjects displaying several components of MS should be submitted to periodontal examination. Present studies have displayed coherent relation between the two entities. This review will address the vicious association between MS and periodontitis, depicting the commonality of pathophysiological pathway between the two entities. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis addressing the concerned subject were screened. Whether the systematic periodontal therapy in individuals exhibiting MS has the potential to reduce the incidence of various adverse systemic complications remains a logical proposition. Further, longitudinal and controlled trials with a large population would be imperative to depict the robustness in the association between MS and periodontal disease in human subjects.
    Article · Mar 2014
    • "Patients who develop periodontal disease show increased total cholesterol levels, low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides levels [20, 30]. The results of some studies have shown that treatment of periodontal disease decreases the levels of all the lipid parameters; however, only the decrease in total cholesterol levels [7, 17] or oxidized low-density lipoprotein [31] was found to be statistically significant in the human model. The results of some studies have indicated hypercholesterolemia in diabetic rats, which indicates the development of dyslipidemia in these rats123. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of apical periodontitis (AP) and/or periodontal disease (PD) on serum interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels in a rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM). Eighty male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups of ten animals each: normoglycemic, AP, PD, AP+PD, DM, DM+AP, DM+PD, and DM+AP+PD. DM was induced using streptozotocin, AP by dental pulp exposure to the oral environment, and PD by periodontal ligature. The animals were sacrificed after 30 days, and venous blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture to determine the serum IL-17 and neutrophil levels. The maxillae were dissected and processed for radiographic analysis. The periapical lesion areas were quantified in pixels. The total assessed values were tabulated according to each experimental group and were statistically analyzed using Spearman's correlation and Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05). A significant difference in the serum IL-17 levels was observed between the groups without oral infections and the groups with AP+PD-associated lesions, regardless of the presence of DM (p < 0.05). Diabetes increased the neutrophil levels, regardless of the presence of oral infection. However, a combination of two oral infections increased the neutrophil levels in DM rats (p < 0.05). The level of bone resorption lesions was greater in DM rats than in normoglycemic rats (p < 0.05). The combination of AP and PD increased the serum IL-17 levels in DM and normoglycemic rats and increased the neutrophil levels in DM rats. Diabetes increased the neutrophil levels and bone resorption in rats. AP is capable of potentiating systemic inflammatory changes when associated with PD, and increases in blood glucose can accelerate the pathogenesis of oral infections.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
    • "A complex interaction between these bacteria and the host immune system may induce inflammatory conditions that result in the loss of the collagenous structures that support the teeth (2,3). A number of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in periodontal diseases (4,5). These mediators may affect the activities of leukocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts and promote the tissue remodeling process systemically and locally (6–8). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In periodontal diseases, inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), may promote the degeneration of inflamed periodontal tissues. In previous studies, levels of these three cytokines were demonstrated to be elevated in inflammatory gingival tissues and gingival crevicular fluid. The aim of the present study was to quantify IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels in the human gingival tissues of patients with periodontitis and to assess the correlation of these three cytokines with each other. In this study, human gingival tissues from 19 patients with periodontitis (male, n=14; female, n=5) were collected. The tissues were homogenized, centrifuged and the protein in the supernatant was quantified. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in the measurement of the IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels, and the mean levels were observed to be 8.41±0.25, 34.01±1.09 and 20.70±0.31 pg/ml, respectively. The mean levels of IL-8 were higher than those of the other two cytokines. In each sample, the level of TNF-α expression was consistently high, with little difference between the results, which contrasted with the fluctuations in IL-6 and IL-8 levels. The expression of the two ILs (IL-6 and IL-8) showed a positive correlation (r=0.932, P=0.01), whereas TNF-α levels were not correlated with IL-6 or IL-8 levels. These results suggest that IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α may be relevant in the pathophysiology of periodontitis, and the measurement of these cytokines may be beneficial in the identification of patients with periodontitis.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013
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