Article

Predicting safety culture: The roles of employer, operations manager and safety professional

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Abstract

This study explores predictive factors in safety culture. In 2008, a sample 939 employees was drawn from 22 departments of a telecoms firm in five regions in central Taiwan. The sample completed a questionnaire containing four scales: the employer safety leadership scale, the operations manager safety leadership scale, the safety professional safety leadership scale, and the safety culture scale. The sample was then randomly split into two subsamples. One subsample was used for measures development, one for the empirical study. A stepwise regression analysis found four factors with a significant impact on safety culture (R²=0.337): safety informing by operations managers; safety caring by employers; and safety coordination and safety regulation by safety professionals. Safety informing by operations managers (ß=0.213) was by far the most significant predictive factor. The findings of this study provide a framework for promoting a positive safety culture at the group level.

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... Quality safety climate in an organization can affect the safety performance of an organization (Wu, Lin & Shiau, 2010). Under positive safety climate, employees were found to be more likely to exploit their potential to the maximum, and thus benefitting the organization to achieve its objectives. ...
... Perceived risk can be defined as the perception of workers in relation to the risks in their workplace (Wu, Lin & Shiau, 2010). Indeed, according to Dahl (2013), perceived risk is an important feature as it allows workers to recognize and be mindful of the risk level that is associated with their jobs. ...
... Emergency response is an action taken by an employee in case of an emergency such as fire, explosion, earthquake, and so on (Wu et al., 2010). According to You (2010), accident investigation showed that emergency response was a main contributing factor to the occurrence of a disaster. ...
Article
The current paper aimed at investigating the effects of each dimension of safety climate on safety performance in a Malaysian-based electric and electronic manufacturing plant. The study was carried out as a non-experimental type research which employed questionnaire as the method of collecting data. A total of 313 production workers from a Malaysian-based electric and electronic manufacturing plant participated in the study. The obtained data were analyzed using simple linear regression analysis. The findings of the study demonstrated that each dimension of safety climate played a significant influence on safety performance.
... By the same token, while senior managers are typically the architects of the organisation's OHS policy, middle-level managers are likely to enjoy much closer social proximity to their followers and therefore their cues about safe work practices are likely to be seen as highly salient (Meyer, 1994). This is consistent with the findings of Wu et al. (2010), which indicated that the middle manage- ment group has a primary responsibility for safety interaction or directions, guidance and advice; safety informing or the reinforcement and communication of the organisation's safety policy; and safety decision-making or the implementation of safety strategies through planning, resource allocation, and safety improvement. Indeed, Wu et al. (2010) found that, relative to their junior and senior counterparts, the role played by middle-level managers was the strongest predictor of safety climate. ...
... This is consistent with the findings of Wu et al. (2010), which indicated that the middle manage- ment group has a primary responsibility for safety interaction or directions, guidance and advice; safety informing or the reinforcement and communication of the organisation's safety policy; and safety decision-making or the implementation of safety strategies through planning, resource allocation, and safety improvement. Indeed, Wu et al. (2010) found that, relative to their junior and senior counterparts, the role played by middle-level managers was the strongest predictor of safety climate. ...
... The safety leadership measure used in this study was the operations manager safety leadership scale developed by Wu et al. (2010). This is a 12-item scale that is intended to measure aspects of safety leadership. ...
... However, the AJ. Reviewing and up-dating accident investigation AJ 1 : The number of accidents reports investigated (Basso et al., 2004;BSI, 2007;Fernandez-Muniz et al., 2007;Chang and Liang, 2009;Costella et al., 2009;Reiman and Pietikainen, 2012 (Robson et al., 2007;Wu et al., 2010) geometric means of the expert judgments for each pair of criteria were entered in priority matrices which SuperDecision software had constructed based on a research model and sets of pairwise comparisons. Fig. 3b depicts the matrix for the four criteria of management review (MA1eMA4). ...
... This factor reflects the importance of management attitude and behavior toward OHS. In fact, the more committed management provides enough support and resources to safety, helps to create a safe environment, participates in meetings and injury investigation committees, communicates the importance of safety and so on (Wu et al., 2010). ...
... These components of OHSMS increase workers' awareness about risks and hazards of workplace and improve workers' safety knowledge and safety skills (Wu et al., 2010). Therefore, workers participate in OHS activities more actively and do safe acts and these have significant effects on success of OHSMS. ...
Article
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Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 standard has been recommended as a tool for managing and controlling occupational risks through a systematic and structured management. However, controversy exists as to the effectiveness of OHSAS 18001 in reducing occupational risks at workplace. The current study introduces an integrated decision making approach by merging two techniques including Analytical Network Process (ANP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to assess and improve the effectiveness of OHSAS 18001 standard. Our findings indicate that the most influential factors to be taken into account to improve the effectiveness of OHSAS 18001 standard are management commitment, workers' participation, allocation financial resources, training, risk assessment, definite responsibility, communication and dissemination of occupational health and safety results and activities. The study offers this approach as a tool to evaluate and promote the effectiveness of OHSAS 18001 standard.
... This, in turn, affects their behaviors in encouraging subordinates' safety compliance and voluntary participation in safety. Safety informing by middle-level managers is recognized as a significant predictive factor for promoting safety culture that drives safe behaviors in the telecommunications industry [51]. Safety informing refers to the dissemination of information regarding safety, which means that middle managers need to acquire safety-related information through a monitoring system, and continuously circulate information so that subordinates can receive important updates regarding safety issues [51]. ...
... Safety informing by middle-level managers is recognized as a significant predictive factor for promoting safety culture that drives safe behaviors in the telecommunications industry [51]. Safety informing refers to the dissemination of information regarding safety, which means that middle managers need to acquire safety-related information through a monitoring system, and continuously circulate information so that subordinates can receive important updates regarding safety issues [51]. Furthermore, middle managers need to frequently attend safety committee meetings and offer suggestions on safety policies and practice [51]. ...
... Safety informing refers to the dissemination of information regarding safety, which means that middle managers need to acquire safety-related information through a monitoring system, and continuously circulate information so that subordinates can receive important updates regarding safety issues [51]. Furthermore, middle managers need to frequently attend safety committee meetings and offer suggestions on safety policies and practice [51]. It is also argued that middle managers should ensure effective coordination and team performance, and engage in actions that demonstrate the importance of safety [38]. ...
Article
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Recent years have witnessed a growing concern for safety and highlighted the importance of leadership in safety practice within high-risk organizations. By following up and integrating the state-of-art research trends, this study aims at (1) bridging a gap in safety leadership research – i.e., the lack of a holistic understanding of safety leadership contribution at all managerial levels within high-risk organizations; (2) developing and validating a weighted safety leadership model in the context of shipping which incorporates key safety leadership behaviors that may enable researchers and practitioners to better understand and exercise safety leadership in shipping organizations. To systematically fulfill the research aims, this study integrates both numerical and descriptive data by sequentially applying three interdependent research techniques – namely inductive analysis of literature, modified Delphi method and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The study results in a holistic weighted model with concrete safety leadership behaviors at each managerial level, which contributes to the building of theoretical foundations in the domain of safety leadership research and serves as practical standards for accelerating safety leadership development in shipping organizations.
... Employers are part of management. The higher the person status in an organization, the individual actions will affect the outcome of the organization (Wu, Lin and Shiau, 2010). Wu et al., (2010) also stated that leadership and safety have a relationship where different level of managers have their own roles in implementing safety in the workplace. ...
... The higher the person status in an organization, the individual actions will affect the outcome of the organization (Wu, Lin and Shiau, 2010). Wu et al., (2010) also stated that leadership and safety have a relationship where different level of managers have their own roles in implementing safety in the workplace. The majority supported the relationship with their literatures regarding leadership and safety, however they emphasized more on the lowerlevel managers; supervisors, and very little roles of senior or mid-level managers (O'Dea and Flin, 2003). ...
... Employers or top management participation gives an impact to the management because each has their roles and safety leadership aspects consist of safety caring, safety coaching and safety controlling (Wu et al., 2010). Rundmo and Hale (2003) mention that the ideal attitude of managers to control hazard occurrence are to detect hazards, find ways to control hazards, identify priority hazards, choose a good solution then implement and monitor as well as learn them. ...
Conference Paper
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This study was conducted to investigate the occupational accidents and injuries towards the staff at an Automative Industrial Plant (AIP). Focusing on the population of 266 local staff, a total of 157 respondents participated in this study using self-administered questionnaires. The researchers used simple random sampling method in order to select the respondents. In order to measure the relationships with the occupational accidents and injuries, three independent variables were selected concerning employee's behavior, management commitment and the working environment. Four objectives were achieved and five hypotheses were tested. T-test analysis showed that the nature of technical and non-technical works had no difference in perceptions towards the occupational accidents and injuries at the selected AIP. However the staff perceived that employees' behavior was the most influential factor that leads to the accidents in organization since it had the lowest value of standard deviation for the descriptive analysis. This perception was proven from the highest Beta value of 0.373 as compared to the value for management commitment and working environment by using multiple regression analysis. Based on the results of correlation analysis, there were positive relationships among the identified variables with the occupational accidents and injuries.
... T.-C. Wu, Lin, and Shiau (2010) conducted an empirical study in the telecommunications industry and found that safety informing by middle-level operational managers was recognized as the most significant predictive factor for promoting safety culture that drives safe behaviors. ...
... According to T.-C. Wu et al. (2010), Safety informing refers to monitor and disseminate the information regarding safety, which means that middle managers need to acquire safety-related information through a monitoring system, and continuously circulate information so that employees can receive important updates regarding safety issues. Furthermore, middle managers -as a representative of the department -need to frequently attend safety committee meetings and make possible suggestions on safety policies and practice (T.-C. ...
... Furthermore, middle managers -as a representative of the department -need to frequently attend safety committee meetings and make possible suggestions on safety policies and practice (T.-C. Wu et al., 2010). Petersen (2000) have further emphasized the important role of middle management for safety management systems, ...
Thesis
A growing safety concern within high-risk industries has highlighted the importance of leadership in safety practice. As the safety performance of a high-risk organization is largely affected by the economic benefits, regulations as well as the legal systems, leadership undoubtedly have vital influences on the attainment of an acceptable level of risk control for the organization. Initiating or contributory factors to near misses or accidents-such as poor situation awareness, insufficient communication, inadequate procedural compliance-can often be traced back to the failure of leadership to institute systemic solutions to ensure safety. By following up and integrating the state-of-art research trends, this study seeks to: (1) Bridge a gap in safety leadership research-the lack of a holistic approach to the understanding of safety leadership behavior in high-risk organizations; (2) Develop a Safety Leadership Model (SLM) in the context of shipping which enables researchers and safety professionals to better understand and exercise safety leadership in shipping organizations. To systematically fulfill the research aim, this thesis integrates both numerical and descriptive data by sequentially applying three research techniques-namely inductive analysis (coding) of theoretical data, modified Delphi method and Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP). Drawing upon the extensive literature conducted in high-risk industries-which has contributed to identify a wide range of important leadership behaviors for safety, a Safety Leadership Model (SLM) based on Delphi survey and AHP approach is further constructed. The model may serve as the "safety leadership" standards to facilitate and generate collaborations among the leadership groups to achieve desirable safety performance in shipping organizations.
... Safety climate is often understood as the surface expression of safety culture, and is said to be measured directly through the perceptions and attitudes of the employees (Flin et al., 2000). One has never clearly distinguished these two terms, and indeed, many authors use them interchangeably (Wu et al., 2010). "A Guide to measuring health & safety performance" (HSE, 2001) is a guide document for employers who understand the principles of health and safety (H&S) management and wish to improve the measurement of H&S in their organizations. ...
... Today (Wu et al., 2010), the middle management plays a more important role in safety than lower level supervisors. The management's three roles in creating a good safety climate at the enterprise are: collection of information, dissemination of information and creating an open environment in which safety issues can be discussed (Peterson, 2000). ...
Article
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The safety management system in 16 Estonian manufacturing companies (eight certified and eight noncertified in OHSAS (occupational health and safety management systems standard) 18001; four of the last corporated to the foreign firms) were investigated using the MISHA method. The results showed that if the advanced safety methods (like proposed by OHSAS 18001) are implemented by the initiative of the employers of the locally-owned Estonian SMEs, the level in safety performance, comparable with OHSAS certified companies could be achieved. The regression analysis showed strong correlation between the personnel management, safety activities in practice, communication, physical work environment, psychological working conditions, hazards analysis procedures and the safety level, R2= 0.7312-0.9596; medium correlation between the participation, personnel safety training, occupational accidents and illnesses, social work environment and the safety level (R2=0.3133-0.6044). Low correlation (R2= 0.2139) was recorded between the safety policy and the safety level and there was no correlation between the work ability of the employees and the safety level. The methods to improve the locally-owned enterprises’ safety level up to the corporated and OHSAS 18001 certified level are proposed. The cost of suitable safety measures is calculated. The MISHA method improvement possibilities for the use in the SMEs (small and medium size companies) are presented.
... In relation to construction, the safety culture can be defined as an assembly of individual and group beliefs, norms, attitudes and technical practices that concerned with minimising the risks and exposure of employees and public to unsafe acts and conditions in a construction environment (Zou et al, 2007). Wu et al (2010) using a stepwise regression model analyses the influence of higher level managers (employers), mid-level or operations managers and safety professionals on various factors that shape safety culture. They found that four(4) safety leadership factors significantly affect safety culture. ...
... Safety monitoring means collecting relevant safety information through a monitoring system. It is vital that this information is then continuously (Wu et al, 2010). Lingard and Rowlinson (2005) described that past experiences and anticipated obstacles contribute to a person's perception about whether certain behaviours are within their control. ...
... Scale name Scale type Abdullah et al. (2009) Safety climate assessment scale Safety climate Amick et al. (2000) Organizational policies & practices (OPP-19) Safety climate Bahari and Clarke (2013) Safety climate scale Safety climate Brondino et al. (2013) Integrated organizational safety climate Safety climate Chen and Chen (2012) Safety management system Safety management Cheyne et al. (2003) Attitudes to safety Safety climate Clarke (2006a) Safety climate Safety climate Cox and Cheyne (2000) Safety climate assessment tool Safety climate Cui et al. (2013) Management commitment to safety Safety climate DeJoy et al. (2004) Organizational safety climate Safety climate Díaz and Cabrera (1997) Organizational safety climate Safety climate Fernández-Muñiz et al. (2009) Safety management system Safety management Frazier et al. (2013) Safety culture Safety culture Gittleman et al. (2010) Safety climate Safety climate Glendon and Litherland (2001) Safety climate Safety climate Grabowski et al. (2007) Perceived safety Leading indicators Griffin and Neal (2000) Safety climate Safety climate Grote and Kunzler (2000) Operational safety Safety culture Hahn and Murphy (2008) Safety climate Safety climate Hon et al. (2013) Safety climate index Safety climate Huang et al. (2006) Safety climate Safety climate Huang et al. (2012) Management commitment to safety Safety climate IWH (2013) Organizational performance metric Leading indicators Keren et al. (2009) Safety climate Safety climate Kines et al. (2011) Nordic safety climate questionnaire Safety climate Mitchell (2000) Positive performance indicators Positive performance indicators Nja and Fjelltun (2010) Manager attitudes to health, environment & safety Safety management Payne et al. (2009) Process safety climate Safety climate Prussia et al. (2003) Safety efficacy Safety efficacy Rundmo (2000) Safety climate Safety climate Seo et al. (2004) Safety climate Safety climate Silva et al. (2004) OSCI: Safety climate questionnaire (4 scales) Safety climate Tang et al. (2011) Organizational policies & practices (OPP-11) Safety climate Vinodkumar and Bhasi (2010) Safety management practices Safety management Vredenburgh (2002) Management safety practices Safety culture Walker (2010) Employer obligations scale Safety obligations (2008) Safety leadership OHS leadership Wu et al. (2008) Safety leadership OHS leadership Wu et al. (2010) Operations manager safety leadership OHS leadership Wu et al. (2010) Employer safety leadership OHS leadership Zohar and Luria (2005) Safety climate Safety climate ...
... Scale name Scale type Abdullah et al. (2009) Safety climate assessment scale Safety climate Amick et al. (2000) Organizational policies & practices (OPP-19) Safety climate Bahari and Clarke (2013) Safety climate scale Safety climate Brondino et al. (2013) Integrated organizational safety climate Safety climate Chen and Chen (2012) Safety management system Safety management Cheyne et al. (2003) Attitudes to safety Safety climate Clarke (2006a) Safety climate Safety climate Cox and Cheyne (2000) Safety climate assessment tool Safety climate Cui et al. (2013) Management commitment to safety Safety climate DeJoy et al. (2004) Organizational safety climate Safety climate Díaz and Cabrera (1997) Organizational safety climate Safety climate Fernández-Muñiz et al. (2009) Safety management system Safety management Frazier et al. (2013) Safety culture Safety culture Gittleman et al. (2010) Safety climate Safety climate Glendon and Litherland (2001) Safety climate Safety climate Grabowski et al. (2007) Perceived safety Leading indicators Griffin and Neal (2000) Safety climate Safety climate Grote and Kunzler (2000) Operational safety Safety culture Hahn and Murphy (2008) Safety climate Safety climate Hon et al. (2013) Safety climate index Safety climate Huang et al. (2006) Safety climate Safety climate Huang et al. (2012) Management commitment to safety Safety climate IWH (2013) Organizational performance metric Leading indicators Keren et al. (2009) Safety climate Safety climate Kines et al. (2011) Nordic safety climate questionnaire Safety climate Mitchell (2000) Positive performance indicators Positive performance indicators Nja and Fjelltun (2010) Manager attitudes to health, environment & safety Safety management Payne et al. (2009) Process safety climate Safety climate Prussia et al. (2003) Safety efficacy Safety efficacy Rundmo (2000) Safety climate Safety climate Seo et al. (2004) Safety climate Safety climate Silva et al. (2004) OSCI: Safety climate questionnaire (4 scales) Safety climate Tang et al. (2011) Organizational policies & practices (OPP-11) Safety climate Vinodkumar and Bhasi (2010) Safety management practices Safety management Vredenburgh (2002) Management safety practices Safety culture Walker (2010) Employer obligations scale Safety obligations (2008) Safety leadership OHS leadership Wu et al. (2008) Safety leadership OHS leadership Wu et al. (2010) Operations manager safety leadership OHS leadership Wu et al. (2010) Employer safety leadership OHS leadership Zohar and Luria (2005) Safety climate Safety climate ...
Article
There is growing interest in advancing knowledge and practice on the use of leading indicators to measure occupational health and safety (OHS) performance in organizations. In response we present psychometric analysis of the Organizational Performance Metric – Monash University (OPM-MU), which is a recently developed measure of leading indicators of OHS with several adaptations made as part of our investigation. Based on a national survey conducted with 3605 employees in 66 workplaces from several major organizations in Australia, we applied classical test (exploratory factor analysis) and item response (Rasch model analysis) theories to conduct a psychometric evaluation of the OPM-MU. Results revealed that the OPM-MU displayed good psychometric properties and evidence for both construct and criterion validity at employee and workplace levels. The OPM-MU could be used as an initial ‘flag’ of the leading indicators of OHS and has the potential to be a benchmarking tool for workplaces both within and across organizations. This paper represents an important advancement in the field of leading indicators of OHS performance and demonstrates that the OPM-MU is a promising new tool with demonstrated reliability and validity.
... Reiman and Pietikainen (2014) identified tensions that exist between different safety functional roles in the organization, for example, OHS and process safety. A formally structurally integrated group of safety professionals is more likely to ensure alignment between all the safety professionals and this synchronization across an organization positively influences overall culture (Wu, Lin et al. 2010). In a further study that supports safety professional's reporting outside line management, Hinze (2002) found that sites, where the safety professional reported to the site manager, had on average higher accident rates than those who reported to a more senior safety professional or a head office manager. ...
... Management knowledge and skills are useful for safety professionals to create an alliance between their advice and the people, objectives, and programs of the organization. A safety professional requires both technical and management skills to be effective and they are equally important (Ryan 1989, Adams 2000, Leemann 2002, Swuste and Arnoldy 2003, Blair 2004, Wu, Lin et al. 2010). However, commonly safety professionals are unable to speak the language of the business (Hill 2006) and due to a lack of broader management capabilities are isolated from mainstream decision-making (Leemann 2002). ...
Article
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Safety professionals have been working within organizations since the early 1900s. During the past 25 years, societal pressure and political intervention concerning the management of safety risks in organizations has driven dramatic change in safety professional practice. What are the factors that influence the role of safety professionals? This paper reviews more than 100 publications. Thematic analysis identified 25 factors in three categories: institutional, relational, and individual. The review highlights a dearth of empirical research into the practice and role of safety professionals, which may result in some ineffectiveness. Practical implications and an empirical research agenda regarding safety professional practice are proposed.
... All of the aforementioned factors, undoubtedly, have an obvious role in the OSH performance. Nevertheless, the presence of competent safety specialists has a significant impact on the safety culture of organizations (Wu et al., 2010;Wu et al., 2007;Wu, 2004;Tweeddale, 2001), which is "the attitude, beliefs, perceptions and values that employees share in relation to safety in the workplace (Cox and Cox, 1991)." The presence of competent safety specialists is a key component of any OSH management systems. ...
... Furthermore, the awareness of the importance of personal abilities is probably low although many studies found that they are among the most important competencies of the safety professionals (Chang et al., 2012;Leemann, 2005;Blair, 2004). The low quality of the qualifications' component constitutes a serious weakness in the safety awareness of the Saudi companies as it means that they will not hire the appropriate safety professionals to hire (Wu et al., 2010). Many plant owners or managers underestimate the importance of hiring qualified safety professionals as they think that it is an easy task that can be handled by technical staff from other departments such as maintenance department (Noweir et al., 2013). ...
Article
The poor occupational safety and health (OSH) performance of many sectors in Saudi Arabia necessitates studying the reasons behind this performance. While other studies addressed many potential reasons, the objective of the current study is to investigate the quality of job descriptions of the safety jobs in Saudi Arabia. A sample of 69 job descriptions for several safety job titles and from different industrial or service sectors were analyzed to discover the important factors that may have an impact. The results revealed that there are some gaps in the design of the sampled job descriptions' components, particularly in the job information and the required qualifications for the jobs. The quality of job descriptions varied from one industrial sector to another, with oil & gas, petrochemicals and utilities sectors being in the top, and manufacturing, education/training, construction, and service/retail/distribution in the bottom in terms of job descriptions quality. There was no clear relationship between the safety job title and the quality of job descriptions. However, the required experience had positive impact on the quality of job descriptions of safety jobs. It is recommended that further studies covering a larger sample size of job descriptions to be conducted to obtain results that can be generalized and utilized in setting proper policies to improve the practices of the Saudi companies in the design of job descriptions of safety jobs and, hence, hiring the appropriate safety professionals.
... Turvallisuuden ylläpitäminen ja kehittäminen, turvallisuuskulttuuri, on käytännön toimintaa, jossa opettajan tulisi tiedostaa turvallisuuden keskeisiä elementtejä, huolehtia niiden implementoinnista puuttumalla turvallisuushaasteisiin omalla toiminnallaan (Lindfors, 2012;Wirth & Sigurdsson, 2008). Turvallisuuskulttuurilla on suoraa vaikutusta turvallisuuden toteutumiseen käytännössä (He, Xu, & Fu, 2012;Lanne, 2007;Wu, Lin & Shiau, 2010) ja toimijoiden käyttäytymisellä ja rooleilla sekä proaktiivisilla toimenpiteillä on suora yhteys turvallisuuskulttuurin kehittymiseen (Ek, Runefors & Borell, 2014). ...
... OPETURVA-hanke 2013-2015), opiskelijat saisivat opintojen aikana esimerkin turvallista oppimisympäristöä ylläpitävästä ja kehittävästä toiminnasta. Tällaisia käytännön sovelluksia ovat esimerkiksi turvakävelyt, poistumisharjoitukset ja vaarojen arviointi, joiden yhteys oppimisympäristön turvallisuuden kehittämiseen on ilmeinen aikaisempien tutkimusten perusteella (Ek ym., 2014;Waitinen, 2011;He, 2012;Köiv, 2014;Wu, Lin & Shiau, 2010;Lindfors, 2013;Somerkoski, 2012). Myös uudet Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet (2014) (1945-1969), product planning (1970-1994) and pupils' initiative and inventiveness (1994)(1995)(1996)(1997)(1998)(1999)(2000)(2001)(2002)(2003)(2004) (Marjanen, 2012;. ...
Chapter
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Artikkelissa kuvataan poikien lukutaitoa, lukemisen arvostusta ja lukuasenteita ja pohditaan syitä poikien tyttöjä heikompaan lukutaitoon, motivaation ja lukuasenteisiin. Tutkimusosuus perustuu useisiin lukutaitoa ja lukuasenteita koskeviin mittauksiin vuosina 2010–2015. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että poikien lukutaito on lähes kaikilla alakoulun luokilla tilastollisesti merkitsevästi tyttöjä heikompi sekä tietotekstien, kaunokirjallisten tekstien että oppikirjatekstien kohdalla. Myös lukemisasenteet ja opiskeluasenteet ovat pojilla merkitsevästi huonommat kuin tytöillä. Merkittävää poikien lukutaidon ja lukemisasenteiden kehittymisen kannalta on sekin, että poikien käsitykset itsestään lukijoina ovat tyttöjä korkeammat, mikä voi johtaa haluttomuuteen kehittää lukutaitoa. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että oppilaat, joilla on hyvä itsetunto ja jotka pitävät lukemisesta, on hyvä lukutaito. Kouluissa tulisikin pyrkiä luomaan positiivinen ilmapiiri ja kannustaa oppilaita lukemaan mielekkäiden materiaalien ja työtapojen avulla sekä antaa heille mahdollisuus osallistua aktiivisesti opiskelun suunnitteluun
... Organizational factors, including driving style, training, and safety culture, could also be effective in traffic safety (Naevestad, Phillips, & Elvebakk, 2015). Organizational culture affects employees' decision-making and behaviors in an organization (Casey, Griffin, Flatau Harrison, & Neal, 2017;Wu, Lin, & Shiau, 2010). This factor reflects shared values (what is important) and beliefs (how things work) that interact with organizational structures and control systems to produce behavioral norms (the way things are done) (Sharpanskykh & Stroeve, 2011;Yousefi et al., 2016). ...
... This factor also influences the attitudes and safety-related behaviors of the members of an organization and reduces violations (Cooper Ph. D, 2000;Wu et al., 2010). Organizational safety culture is an important factor in terms of personnel's safety (Dorn, 2012;Özkan & Lajunen, 2005). ...
... It is often highlighted that a positive safety culture demands top management commitment in particular (Zhu et al., 2016;Wu, Lin and Shiau, 2010). This would then lead to mutual trust and credibility between management and employees, continuous monitoring, system review, and continual improvements in corrective and preventive actions and arrangements (Choudhry, Fang and Mohamed, 2007). ...
Book
https://www.routledge.com/The-Crisis-Management-Cycle/Pursiainen/p/book/9781138643888
... Another result of this study is that the level of employee training is higher in certified, than non-certified companies. This also confirms earlier work [29]. It is important to understand that OHS training is fundamental for safety behavior. ...
Article
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Background: Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems are becoming more widespread in organizations. Consequently, their effectiveness has become a core topic for researchers. This paper evaluates the performance of the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001 specification in certified companies in Iran. Methods: The evaluation is based on a comparison of specific criteria and indictors related to occupational health and safety management practices in three certified and three noncertified companies. Results: Findings indicate that the performance of certified companies with respect to occupational health and safety management practices is significantly better than that of noncertified companies. Conclusion: Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001-certified companies have a better level of occupational health and safety; this supports the argument that Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems play an important strategic role in health and safety in the workplace.
... The first studies in the field of safety culture began with the report published by the International Atomic Energy Agency after the Chernobyl accident. In this report, lack of safety culture was pointed out as the cause of the accident [2,3]. Safety climate and safety culture studies began first of all with the definition of Zohar in 1980 [4]. ...
... At the last count, there were 51 separate original definitions of the safety culture construct, and 30 original safety climate definitions in use (Vu & De Cier, 2014)! The safety climate construct (Zohar, 1980) is a very close cousin to the safety culture construct (with the former thought to be a manifestation of the latter at a particular moment in time) and are often used interchangeably in the literature (Gadd & Collins, 2005;Wu et al., 2010). ...
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objective This review has considered the extant literature surrounding safety culture published since 1986. The focus of the review was to ascertain the utility of the safety culture construct in preventing process safety incidents and serious injuries and fatalities (SIFs). The purpose of this report is to summarise the main findings to provide an evidence-based guide in the development of robust Safety Cultures in industry. Theoretical Findings Findings show a plethora of definitions are causing confusion within both academe and industry. There is an urgent need for consensus on this issue, and a need for academics to stop re-inventing the wheel. Three influential models of safety culture were examined: Guldenmund/Schein (2000), Cooper (2000), and Reason (1998). The Guldenmund/Schein three-layered model focusing on visible artefacts, espoused values, and basic assumptions is not supported by the evidence. Cooper’s reciprocal model of safety culture encompassing psychological, behavioural and situational elements is supported by large scale studies, while Reason’s model using inter-locking sub-cultures that lead to an informed culture (equivalent to a safety culture) is also supported by evidence from safety management system research. Using the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (1991) original definition of safety culture as a framework to anchor the review shows: • Consensus between academe and the results of public enquiries into disasters about the main safety culture characteristics. These should be the main targets to improve organisational safety cultures • Psychological factors such as attitudes, values, and norms are rarely assessed correctly • Common significant safety issues to avoid process safety disasters and SIFs are well known, and provide a tangible and robust focus for assessing the safety culture construct. The above findings are used to provide a clear pathway for improving, assessing, and researching safety culture. Practical Findings The extant evidence was subjected to a ‘survival of the fittest’ test to ascertain any relationships to actual safety outcomes (i.e. incidents and injuries and actual safety behaviour). This shows: • attitudinal and safety climate surveys exhibit non-existent to weak relationships to actual safety outcomes • no published studies have assessed the relationships between Values or Norms and actual safety outcomes • Situational and behavioural factors demonstrate strong and consistent relationships with actual safety outcomes. It is concluded that the sole use of psychological factors (e.g. attitudinal or safety climate surveys) as a proxy for safety culture is fatally flawed. The research evidence shows organisations should concentrate 80 percent or more of their safety culture improvement efforts on situational (e.g. safety management systems) and behavioural (i.e. managerial safety related behaviours) factors to prevent process safety and SIF incidents.
... Thus, the ILS helped create a culture where all team members look for ways to mistake-proof the system or make the process more efficient. A self-sustaining positive safety culture is marked by employees who feel responsible for their own, their peers', and their patients' safety [23][24][25]. Unfortunately, we do not have a safety culture survey baseline with which to compare our current practice with the original practice. ...
... Safety culture is a subset of organizational culture (Cooper, 2000) which is the values shared among organization members about policies and regulation, safety-related behaviours and how people feel (Cooper, 2000;Wiegmann et al., 2007). Safety culture affects attitudes and safety-related behaviour of the members of an organization (Cooper, 2000;Wu et al., 2010), employees' health and safety (Fernandez-Muniz et al., 2007) and safety consequences such as injuries, fatalities and other incidents (Wu and Chen, 2009). ...
... Thus, the ILS helped create a culture where all team members look for ways to mistake-proof the system or make the process more efficient. A self-sustaining positive safety culture is marked by employees who feel responsible for their own, their peers', and their patients' safety [23][24][25]. Unfortunately, we do not have a safety culture survey baseline with which to compare our current practice with the original practice. ...
Article
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Background and purpose: Health leaders have advocated for incident learning systems (ILSs) to prevent errors, but there is limited evidence demonstrating that ILSs improve cancer patient safety. Herein, we report a long-term retrospective review of ILS reports for the brachytherapy practice at a large academic institution. Material and methods: Over a nine-year period, the brachytherapy practice was encouraged to report all standard operating procedure deviations, including low risk deviations. A multidisciplinary committee assigned root causes and risk scores to all incidents. Evidence based practice changes were made using ILS data, and relevant incidents were communicated to all staff in order to reduce recurrence rates. Results: 5258 brachytherapy procedures were performed and 2238 incidents were reported from 2007 to 2015. A ramp-up period was observed in ILS participation between 2007 (0.12 submissions/procedures) and 2011 (1.55 submissions/procedures). Participation remained stable between 2011 and 2015, and we achieved a 60% (p<0.001) decrease in the risk of dose error or violation of radiation safety policy and a 70% (p<0.001) decrease in frequency of high composite-risk scores. Significant decreases were also observed in incidents with root causes of poor communication (60% decrease, p<0.001) and poor quality of written procedures (59% decrease, p<0.001). Conclusions: Implementation of an ILS in brachytherapy significantly reduced risk during cancer patient care. Safety improvements have been sustained over several years.
... Thus, the ILS helped create a culture where all team members look for ways to mistake-proof the system or make the process more efficient. A self-sustaining positive safety culture is marked by employees who feel responsible for their own, their peers', and their patients' safety [23][24][25]. Unfortunately, we do not have a safety culture survey baseline with which to compare our current practice with the original practice. ...
... Several researchers claimed that SC is a measurable facet of safety culture (Clarke, 2010b;Guldenmund, 2000). After a few decade SC has been studied, no standardized definitions and scope are found (Alhemood, Genaidy, Shell, Gunn, & Shoaf, 2004;Fleming & Larder, 2002;Landstrom, 2015;Palmieri, Peterson, Pesta, Flit, & Saettone, 2010;Wu, Lin, & Shiau, 2010), even the terms of safety culture, SC and perhaps safety management used interchangeably (Choudhry, Fang, & Mohamed, 2007). ...
Article
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SME is a backbone of Malaysian economic development, however high number of occupational accident and injuries are major financial issues. Many meta-analysis of the safety climate and safety performance consistently indicated that associate with the reduction in the number of accident occurrence in the organization. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the mediating effects of on psychological safety climate in the relationship between psychological factors and individual safety performance in the Malaysian manufacturing small enterprise. Quantitative research using self-administrative questionnaires have been conducted on 377 employees from 11 small manufacturing enterprise firms based on stratified random sampling. The response rate was at 65 % from 240 returned questionnaires. The results of a preliminary validation showed that the scale is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the essential elements of psychological safety climate for Malaysian manufacturing small enterprise. The result confirmed that here were strong positive correlations between psychological safety climate and individual safety performance. As predicted, psychological safety climate found to be directly influenced by psychological factor but psychological factor not directly correlated with individual safety performance. Besides that, the findings of this study revealed that psychological safety climate significantly mediated the relationship between psychological factor and individual safety performance. Finally, the implications and suggestions for future studies and practice are discussed.
... In consistency with (Carthey, 2018)'s view, safety culture in this study applies to the employees, perception of safety conditions at the workplace; which then affecting organizational safety effectiveness. The safety culture in this study refers to employee involvement, perceiving risk, and emergency response which will be measured using the Safety Culture Scale by (Wu, Lin, & Shiau, 2010). Researchers in onshore health and safety management practices have also argued that the idea of safety culture has the ability to provide a shield for both individual and organizational safety issues (SJ Cox & Cheyne, 2000) and can be used as a tool for further improvements framing. ...
Article
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Many companies continuously improve safety procedures to reduce and eliminate exposure to danger in the workplace. However unexpected incidents might happen and consequences sometimes are catastrophic, which will cause potential loss of lives or severe injury, stop operation and non-productive time, undesirable cost and expenses, destruction of equipment and defame of company reputation. Therefore, it is inevitable to measure and reduce the accident at the workplace in upstream oil and gas industries. The number of accidents, injury rates, and job losses is an important indicator of a given workplace's safety. On the other hand, leading indicators focus on the processes designed primarily to prevent an accident or loss. Measurement of occupational health and safety (OHS) relies heavily on lagging metrics, such as workplace injury reports, since these measures provide important feedback on defects and safety incidents that have occurred. Leading and lagging indicators can encourage sustained improvement in overall workplace safety efforts when used in combination. This study focuses on improving safety performance in the upstream oil and gas industry by using leading and lagging indicators.
... Wiegand (2007) explained that safety coaching refers to the efforts of leaders in managing the safety performance and that these efforts involve interpersonal interaction and communication. Safety caring refers to the level of concern and attention amongst leaders towards safety issues and involves efforts to ensure the quality of safety in the workplace (Wu et al., 2010;Cooper, 1998). Both Wu et al. (2008) and Cooper (1998) have propounded that safety controlling is the use of power in outlining the safety rules and regulations to be complied with by the employees in order to achieve safe performance. ...
Article
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In the new global economy, workplace safety has assumed central importance among companies across the world: this has been evident in Malaysia, especially the manufacturing sector. The worrying lack of workplace can be discerned from the increasing number of workplace accidents in manufacturing companies as reported by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia. In recent years, researchers have shown an interest in studying the role of safety leadership in reducing workplace accidents. It is found that safety leadership plays a significant role in ensuring a safe and sound workplace. Against this background, this paper attempts to conceptualize safety leadership from the perspective of Malaysia’s manufacturing sector. It is hypothesized that the higher level of safety leadership will reduce the occurrence of workplace accidents. A questionnaire from Wu et al.(2008) will be adopted to explore and explain the conceptualization of safety leadership. It is expected that safety leadership practiced in Malaysia’s manufacturing sector is conceptualized in a manner similar to the perspective of western researchers.
... Wiegand (2007) explained that safety coaching refers to the efforts of leaders in managing the safety performance and that these efforts involve interpersonal interaction and communication. Safety caring refers to the level of concern of leaders towards safety issues and involves efforts to ensure the quality of safety in the workplace (Wu et al., 2010). Wu et al. (2008) proposed that safety controlling is the use of power in outlining the safety rules and regulations to be complied with by the employees in order to achieve safe performance. ...
... Learning to perform tasks better on the shop floor is contingent on the proactive participation of workers (Letmathe, Schweitzer, & Zielinski, 2012). This resonates with the work done on the factors directly impacting occupational safety including the involvement of a plant's management team (e.g., Wu, Lin, & Shiau, 2010;Cornelissen, Van Hoof, De Jong, 2017). Similar to Fruhen, Griffin, and Andrei (2019) managers must be seen to be leading by their actions that demonstrate they are committed to safety. ...
Article
Introduction: Safe production is a sustainable approach to managing an organization's operations that considers the interests of both management and workers as salient stakeholders in a productive and safe workplace. A supportive culture enacts values versus only espousing them. These values-in-action are beliefs shared by both management and workers that align what should happen in performing organizational routines to be safe and be productive with what actually is done. However, the operations and safety management literature provides little guidance on which values-in-action are most important to safe production and how they work together to create a supportive culture. Method: The researchers conducted exploratory case studies in 10 manufacturing plants of 9 firms. The researchers compared plant managers' top-down perspectives on safety in the performance of work and workers' bottom-up experiences of the safety climate and their rates of injury on the job. Each case study used data collected from interviewing multiple managers, the administration of a climate survey to workers and the examination of the plant's injury rates over time as reported to its third party health and safety insurer. Results: The researchers found that plants with four values-in-action -a commitment to safety, discipline, prevention and participation-were capable of safe production, while plants without those values were neither safe nor productive. Where culture and climate aligned lower rates of injury were experienced. Discussion and conclusion: The four value-in-actions must all be present and work together in a self-reinforcing manner to engage workers and managers in achieving safe production. Practical application: Managers of both operations and safety functions do impact safety outcomes such as reducing injuries by creating a participatory environment that encourage learning that improves both safety and production routines.
... Surveys such as that conducted by Wu et al. [36] that personal traits explained about 12% of variance scale of the original 12 items (a detailed description of this was selected regarding to job designation (30 % scale development and its psychometric) properties can supervisor and 70% employee) proportionate to the total be found in previous researches [23,46,47]. Scale items number of each job designation in the population. ...
Article
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Small Medium Enterprises have been recognized as a back bone of Malaysia economic. Instead of significant contribution to the national economy, their contribution to the total occupational accident substantially high. This present work aims to investigate the role of psychological work ownership and psychological factors in the relationship between safety climate and safety performance (individual level) in the Malaysian manufacturing small enterprise. Random stratified sampling design was successfully implemented in Malaysian manufacturing small enterprise involving 11 firms in seven districts of the East Coast Region of Malaysia. The model revealed a significant positive relationship between psychological safety climate positively and individual safety performance. Results based on a sample of 240 employees supported the conceptual framework, indicating that the effect of psychological factors and psychological work ownership has an essential practical role in, encourages psychological safety climate, with subsequent prediction of individual safety performance events mediated by psychological safety climate. Implications for theory, practical and recommendation research on psychological climate, ownership, and performance for further research are discussed.
... The first surveys in the sphere of safety culture began with the report issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) after the Chernobyl accident (1986). And in this report, lack of safety culture was pointed out as the cause of the accident (Wu et al., 2010). Safety culture has been a matter of great concern ever since the Piper Alpha disaster that caused a very big disaster to the company both in reputation and financial damages (IAEA, 1991 as cited in Bordin et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Purpose The degree to which accidents happen or are prevented in any organisation is the function of both the health and safety culture and the safety culture maturity level of the organisation. Therefore, this paper aims to determine the state of health and safety culture in the construction industry in developing economies and to assess their category on the safety maturity ladder using the Ghanaian construction industry as an example. This is to help construction companies in developing countries become conscious of the state of health and safety in the industry so they can be motivated to improve along the ladder. Design/methodology/approach In total, 250 contractors made up of 155 building contractor,s and 95 road contractors took part in the survey. The sample size was determined by Yamane’s (1967) formula with stratified simple random sampling technique adopted in selecting the companies in the survey. This paper also uses (Guttman Scale) Scalogram analysis to measure the state of health and safety culture in the Ghanaian construction industry. Findings The results show that health and safety culture of the Ghanaian construction industry is at the first level, the pathological stage. Even though Ghanaian contractors have health and safety policies and codes of conduct in place, safety is not seen as a key business risk. Consequently, management and most frontline staff do not emphasise the importance of integration of safety measures in the various activities on the site. Thus, safety is not seen as unavoidable and a part of the construction activity. Practical implications The findings of this study inform state authorities, consultants and contractors of areas that they need to focus more on improving health and safety culture in developing countries. This would go a long way in protecting construction workers in the industry. Originality/value This study, to the best of the authors’ current knowledge, is the first of its kind in the Ghanaian construction industry. The study brings to the fore the actual state of health and safety in the construction industry in developing countries such as Ghana. The value of the findings lies in the fact that it will provide the motivation for construction companies in developing countries to develop a commitment to safety, and to provide appropriate and effective safety improvement techniques to progress to the subsequent stages of the safety culture maturity ladder.
... [16][17][18] Employers have an important role for creating a safety culture and in the prevention of accidents at work in the workplace. 19 There are some studies that examine the relationship between economic factors and work accidents, but these studies have generally only discussed this in relation to a single country. In these studies, it was observed that there was a decrease in job accidents in developed countries. ...
Article
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Objectives Industrial advances, as a result of globalization, causes many threats to the working life. These threats are generally associated with the level of economic development of countries. While threats from industrialization are decreasing in developed countries, developing countries are still faced with these threats. Therefore, this study aims to examine the relationship between fatal work accidents (FWA), and independent variables which are national income (NI) and employment rate (ER) in a number of selected countries. Methods In this study the relationship between FWA and independent variables which are NI and ER of 18 developed and developing countries and a region, between 2006 and 2015, was analyzed by applying panel data analysis. Results According to panel data analysis, whilst a 1% increase in the NI reduces the FWA rate by 1.1%, a 1% increase in the ER results in an increase of approximately 4% in the rate of FWA. Conclusions As a result, there was a negative relationship between the FWA and NI growth and a positive relationship with the ER
... Over the past decade, many studies focused on providing empirical evidence of the relationship between safety climate and safety performance (Nael et al., 2000;Glendon and Litherland., 2001;Mohamed, 2002). Furthermore, as noted by Wu et al. (2010), safety performance can be assessed, and safety culture can be promoted by acquiring accurate safety knowledge quickly and efficiently. There are two types of relevant safety knowledge that industrial enterprises must manage. ...
... Research shows that there were a few studies about the safety climate in the workplace that involved the responsibility of top managers (Wu et al., 2010) and supervisors (Kapp, 2012). The more effective in managing safety are decentralized safety management structure and participative management style of supervisors. ...
Research
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This study aims to determine the relationship between the safety climate factors (positive workforce safety attitude, acceptance of safety rules and regulation and reasonable production schedule) towards safety performance among workers who work under the cold storage company at Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. A survey methodology was used in this study. This research involves the utilization of questionnaire which was administered among one-hundred and fifty workers. The relationship between the safety climate factors (Positive workforce safety attitude, acceptance of safety rules and regulation and reasonable production schedule) were analyzed using the Pearson's Correlation analysis test. The results of this study revealed that there is a significant relationship between (positive workforce safety attitude and acceptance of safety rules and regulation) and safety performance. Meanwhile, result showed that there is no significant relationship between reasonable production schedule and safety performance. Hence, this study hoped to raise the awareness of organization about the importance of safety climate in the workplace.
... A greater commitment to preserve hearing in the nightclub industry could involve the policing of the compulsory hearing-protection use policy, the provision of best-fit, individually chosen equipment and regular educational programmes. A culture of safety can be fostered if every level of management has an input in polices and effective communication strategies to promote wellness in workplaces (Provan et al., 2017;Wu et al., 2010). ...
Article
Objective Sound levels in nightclubs are dangerously high. We administered the Dangerous Decibels hearing-health intervention to nightclub staff to test its efficacy. Design In a single group, repeated measures were taken before training, a week after training and at 3 months after training. Setting A nightclub in the city of Auckland, New Zealand. Method We delivered training to 20 people who work in nightclubs: bar staff, disc jockeys (DJs), security staff and police. We assessed supports and barriers towards hearing-health behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviour at the three time points. Results The ratio of supports to barriers for good hearing-health behaviour improved 1 week after training and continued to improve at 3 months. Participants’ knowledge increased after training and was maintained 3 months later. Attitudes and self-reported behaviour did not change. Conclusion The continued improvement in supports-to-barriers ratio at 3 months post-training has not been observed previously and may reflect a change in participants’ thinking as a result of the intervention. The lack of change in self-reported behaviour implies that the effect of acculturation to loud music in nightclubs was not wholly overcome.
... It is often highlighted that a positive safety culture demands top management commitment in particular (Zhu et al., 2016;Wu, Lin and Shiau, 2010). This would then lead to mutual trust and credibility between management and employees, continuous monitoring, system review, and continual improvements in corrective and preventive actions and arrangements (Choudhry, Fang and Mohamed, 2007). ...
Book
The Crisis Management Cycle is the first holistic, multidisciplinary introduction to the dynamic field of crisis management theory and practice. By drawing together the different theories and concepts of crisis management literature and practice, this book develops a theoretical framework of analysis that can be used by both students and practitioners alike. Each stage of the crisis cycle is explored in turn: •Risk assessment •Prevention •Preparedness •Response •Recovery •Learning. Stretching across disciplines as diverse as safety studies, business studies, security studies, political science and behavioural science, The Crisis Management Cycle provides a robust grounding in crisis management that will be invaluable to both students and practitioners worldwide.
... This quasi-experimental design with a control group study implemented PSM to reduce potential selection bias between unionized and non-unionized US adult workers. Given the evidence that increased illness and injury reporting is a positive aspect of a positive safety culture (Shannon, Mayr, & Haines, 1997;Vredenburgh, 2002;Wu, Lin, & Shiau, 2010), and aforementioned past findings and that states with higher union density also had higher than national average self-reported non-fatal injury and illness rates, it was hypothesized that US adult workers in a union were more likely to have positive perceptions of their workplace safety climate compared to workers that were not part of a union. ...
Article
Objectives: An individual’s perceptions of their workplace safety climate can influence their health and safety outcomes in the workplace. Even though union membership has been declining in the US, union members still comprise 10% of the working population and have higher-than-industry average non-fatal illness and injury rates. Due to limited research focused in this area, this study examined whether union membership was associated with worker perceptions of safety climate. Methods: This was a secondary data analysis study utilizing data from the Quality Work Life module from the General Social Survey centered on US workers aged 18 and above. Propensity-score matching was implemented to reduce potential selection bias between unionized and non-unionized workers. Linear regression explored the association between union membership and perceptions of safety climate, controlling for age, sex, education, industry, resource adequacy, supervisor support, co-worker support, and workload. Results: For perceived safety climate (on a 0–16 scale, the higher the more positive), those in union had a lower mean of perceived safety climate (12.44) compared to those not in a union (13.20). Based on the regression results, those who were in a union reported more negative perceptions of their workplace safety climate in a 12- month period (β = -0.61, p < .001). Conclusions: By demonstrating a commitment to proactive injury prevention and bolstering the business’s overall safety performance indicators, businesses who are open to collaborations with unions may see some long-term benefits (e.g. return on investment, increased job satisfaction) and enhance union workers’ perceptions of safety climate.
Article
Leadership is a key factor impacting construction safety, but previous research merely investigated the single-level relationship between safety leadership and safety performance and ignored the leadership interaction between different project stakeholders. To fill this gap, this paper aims to examine the relationships between safety leaderships of project owners, contractors and subcontractors and discover leadership dimensions which significantly impact construction safety performance. An impacting mechanism involving owner safety leadership, contractor safety leadership and subcontractor safety leadership are hypothetically proposed and empirically tested. The results show that significant relationships exist between safety leaderships of the three key stakeholders. Project safety culture acts as a significant mediator in these relationships. In addition, among all leadership dimensions of owners and contractors, safety influence and role modeling has the widest range of influence on project safety culture and other stakeholders' safety leadership. As such, it is suggested that owners and contractors should cultivate charisma and the ability of being influential about ideals in project managers and require them to behave as role models for others. The results also show that the caring dimension of leadership is more required in the frontline environment. Supervisors need more attention and support from the contractor in their well-being and organizational identification for the project. In conclusion, this paper establishes clear leadership impacting paths from owners to site supervisors of subcontractors in construction projects, which provides insights into effective ways to implement managerial measures and publicize policies and values to construction sites.
Chapter
At a time of significant developments in the use of ionizing radiation in medicine and power generation, the radiation protection profession is facing the challenge of enhancing safety culture throughout the world. As the voice of radiation protection professionals, the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) has initiated a process for promoting radiation protection and safety culture. This chapter presents general theories of organizational culture and discussions from three IRPA workshops organized in Europe, Asia and the United States. We present an outline of how these theories correspond to specific values and beliefs underlying a safety culture. We posit that there is no difference in the basis of a radiation protection culture among the various radiation-using sectors, whether it is medicine, nuclear power generation or industry. Radiation protection focuses on people and behavior (culture) to prevent harm to individuals when radiation or radioactive materials are being used; radiation safety focuses on system design to allow the use of hazardous equipment or materials without harming individuals and the environment. A radiation protection culture is an underlying requirement to successful implementation of radiation safety.
Article
Forming strong interpersonal relationships enables an organization or individual to achieve more favorable outcomes. The objectives of this study were to examine the frequency of interpersonal interactions among safety professionals (SPs) employed at Taiwanese universities and the factors that affected this frequency. To accomplish these objectives, we mailed questionnaires to a simple random sampling of 200 university SPs. Moreover, an interpersonal relationship scale was developed in this study; exploratory factor and internal consistency analyses revealed that the scale was valid and reliable. Results derived from the questionnaire revealed that in SP interpersonal relationships, general affairs department personnel, laboratory or internship unit supervisors, and teaching staff ranked highest in frequency of interactions. Multivariate analysis of variance results showed that establishing a safety department exerted a statistically significant effect on SP interpersonal relationships. SPs employed by universities with safety departments interacted more frequently with both internal and external relationships. Therefore, we suggest that universities without a safety department establish such a department to strengthen the labor safety and health structure, thereby benefitting SPs in fulfilling responsibilities to promote safety and health management.
Conference Paper
Safety culture is an essential requirement for nuclear industry. Nuclear engineering educational programs have a vital role in building, assessing, and evaluating the attainment of the attributes of this culture. For the time being, assessment in such programs is considered in the cognitive domain rather than the use of direct assessments techniques that are involved in the affective domain. In nuclear organizations, on the other hand, security and safety cutlers are measured mainly during practice by monitoring of the professionalism and the deviations from safe or secure environment. In the present work a project-based active cooperative learning course is designed to develop and measure the students' attainment of the attributes of safety culture. The key elements of the course depend mainly on assessing the confidentiality, transparency, best practices, and other elements of the cutlers through monitoring of the student's performance and attitudes in real open-ended problems. The assessment methodology relies mainly on behavior and attitude rather than gaining of the knowledge. The course methodology is not limited to nuclear academic programs but could be applied to other industrial training activities.
Article
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Rapid development in industrialization and global economy has contributed to the increased number of workplace injuries and accidents. Nowadays, with the advancement and the reliability of technology, accidents caused by equipment and machinery failures seem to be on decline. However, human element tends to feature as a significant contributor to workplace accidents: statistical reports and evidence indicate that around 80 to 90 percent of work-related accidents can be attributed to human factors. Meanwhile, effective safety communication is believed to play a vital role in human factor accidents at the workplace. Effective communication among the workers and leaders is believed to help in the attenuating the risk of human factor accidents. Against this background, this research examines 394 sets of questionnaires with 89.14% response rate from respondents of manufacturing companies in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Based on the results, the interaction between safety communication and human factor accident is found to be significant. In addition, this study investigates the mediating effect of safety culture between safety communication and human factor accident. The results show that safety culture significantly mediates by the relation of safety communication and human factor accident.
Thesis
Dissertation: Safety climate is a vital part of oil-and-gas restoration industry where oil-and-gas activities are completed with agricultural restoration to return the lands back to their original or better conditions. Both agriculture and energy sectors have a high incident and injury rate for their industries and their safety climate has not been researched. Using the reliable and validated NOSACQ-50 instrument and causal-comparative methodology, the largest oil-and-gas restoration employer within the western United States was surveyed to determine if their safety climate dimension scores (dependent variable) were statistically significant between direct and/or indirect employee groups (independent variable). ANOVA was used to determine if there were any statistically significant differences and there were none found between direct and indirect employees, nor between workers, supervisors and managers. Using ANCOVA with demographics as a covariant, there was still no statistically significant differences between safety climate perceptions between direct workers, supervisors and managers, nor between direct and indirect employees when adjusted for demographic variables. Future work includes additional studies on this population and implementing changes to the current organization based upon these safety perception findings. Keywords: NOSACQ-50, pipeline safety climate, agricultural safety climate, safety culture, organizational cultural assessment, NOSACQ-50 questionnaire, and safety perceptions.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the role of supervisors and managers on employee safety behavior. It critically examines the leadership models studied in the context of safety, and discusses the organizational and individual mediators and moderators involved. The chapter also talks about the role of active transactional leadership as a positive influence in relation to safety; other complementary models of leadership, such as “empowering leadership”, which focuses on the role of leaders developing self-management skills in their subordinates; and the role of leader-member exchange (LMX) where a high LMX relationship between leader and subordinate facilitates the influence of leaders on employee safety behaviors. It introduces the S.A.F.E.R. Leadership Model that can be used as a framework for future research and application. The key behaviors under this model are: speaking about safety, acting safely, focusing on safety, engaging others in safety initiatives, and recognizing safe performance at work.
Thesis
Despite continual technological advancements and heightened safety standards in the merchant shipping industry, catastrophic accidents in recent years (e.g., Sanchi, Sewol ferry, Costa Concordia) have again reminded the world of the importance of safety in this industry. Investigation into maritime accidents has often revealed limited technical malfunctions but a series of organizational, managerial and leadership issues that influenced the safety culture and enabled the system to drift toward a state of higher risk. Achieving and sustaining a safe workplace demands right and strong leadership. Considering the research conducted in various high-risk industrial settings (e.g., aviation, nuclear, healthcare, coal mining), the importance of leadership on safety has been well acknowledged and studied for many years (as elaborated in Section 2.3 and Table 8). However, there has been limited crossover of this body of work into the maritime arena. A leadership style characterized by a primary focus on promoting safety—safety leadership—has not been thoroughly explored in the maritime context. The current research lacks empirically tested theoretical models—with a validated and reliable scale—for describing and measuring safety leadership in daily operations. This, in turn, has limited our theoretical understanding and practice of maritime safety leadership. In light of this knowledge gap, this thesis is carried out through a series of individual studies, with a total of 517 respondents from various merchant shipping sectors, aiming to explore and understand the safety leadership phenomenon in this context. This thesis presents five research articles, as briefly introduced in the following Figure (1). Article 1 is a background study to this PhD work, conducted to gain insights into maritime accidents and to understand the importance of human and organizational influences in maritime safety. Articles 2 and 3 are empirical studies that focus on exploring the effective safety leadership behaviors and influence tactics of shipboard officers. By considering the results derived from these two empirical studies, Article 4 focuses on developing the first Safety Leadership Self-Efficacy Scale (SLSES) in the merchant shipping context. The SLSES is developed through sequentially applying three interdependent analytical processes. Taken together, these empirical studies have resulted in a weighted model incorporating key safety leadership behavioral categories and a safety leadership measurement scale that may facilitate the maritime researchers and practitioners to better understand, exercise and train safety leadership.As global shipping sails into a more autonomous future, Article 5 presents an empirical analysis regarding if and how the leadership model will be changed in the future era of shipping. It identifies and prioritizes the leadership competences that should be developed by the personnel involved in autonomous ship operations. Each of these articles presents an independent but interlinked study supported by a variety of qualitative and/or quantitative research methods. Amid all the pressing priorities in today’s shipping business, the safety of the crews, passengers, cargos and ocean are the foremost moral and ethical obligations. It is one of the ultimate duties as well as challenges of today’s leaders to effectively manage technology and lead people for safe and efficient ship operations. This thesis explored safety leadership behaviors and an assessment instrument as well as future leadership for safety at sea. The outcomes of this research have the following theoretical, policy and practical contributions to the maritime safety leadership field. First, the thesis contributes to bridging a gap in the safety leadership literature, specifically the lack of an overall understanding of safety leadership in the maritime domain. It extends the existing safety leadership knowledge on how specific leaders’ behaviors might affect subordinates’ safety-related activities. It also provides an initial clarification regarding the leadership behaviors that are likely to motivate and promote different aspects of subordinates’ safety behaviors. It further identifies which of these leadership behaviors is likely to have the most important impact on safety performance in ship operations. Second, a measurement scale, the Safety Leadership Self-Efficacy Scale (SLSES), is formulated to serve as an instrument to facilitate an understanding of the safety leadership performance or potential of the current and future shipboard officers. Without measurement, we will have no visibility over performance and no direction for improvement. The SLSES formulated in this thesis contains 24 measurement items and three dimensions, including shipboard leaders’ efficacy in safety management, motivation facilitation and safety initiatives. The scale can be used in practice by shipboard leaders to diagnose their own safety leadership levels, by subordinates to assess their leader’s safety leadership performance, or by Maritime Education and Training (MET) institutes to perform more objective performance assessments. To the best of the author’s knowledge, such an initiative is innovative in the current maritime safety leadership literature. Third, no research to date has explored the impact of autonomous shipping on leadership behaviors and the leadership competence requirements specified on the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW), 1978, as amended. Article 5 of this thesis took the initiative to explore if the disruptive changes with regard to implementing Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) will influence safety leadership behaviors and STCW leadership competence requirements. The results have shown that the current STCW leadership framework is not fully relevant for MASS. The leadership competences that should be accrued by the personnel involved in autonomous ship operations were discussed and prioritized according to their relative importance for safe operations under two different configurations of MASS. This thesis could have policy implications for STCW Table A-II/2 (for masters and chief mates), Table A-III/2 (for chief engineer officers and second engineer officers), Table A-II/1 (for officers in charge of a navigational watch) and Table A-III/1 (for officers in charge of an engineering watch), as well as other tables that specify the same leadership Knowledge, Understanding and Proficiency (KUP). The results could contribute to professional seafarers, policy-makers and MET institutes interested in improving leadership training as well as other non-technical skill development programs. The findings generated and presented in this thesis may also, hopefully, shed light on further thoughts and research discussions for improving the safety of future ship operations.
Article
Purpose This study’s objective is to identify individual and contextual influences on in-house safety trainers’ role orientation toward the transfer of training (TT). Design/methodology/approach We tested a model where felt-responsibility for TT mediates the influence of job resources (i.e. autonomy, access to resources, access to information, and organizational support) on trainers’ definition of their role and where training safety climate exerts a moderator effect. Data was collected from 201 Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) professionals, all in-house safety trainers, of large public and private companies. Structural equation modelling was used to test our hypotheses. Findings The model highlighted (1) the mediating influence of felt-responsibility in the interplay between job resources and role orientation, (2) the moderating influence of safety climate on the relationship of autonomy, and organizational support on role definition, but not access to resources and access to information on role definition in the TT. Results suggest that how much safety trainers consider supporting the TT as a part of their overall role is affected by autonomy and organizational support through a sense of responsibility regarding training results and these effects are influenced by the perceived importance of safety training to the organization. Research limitations/implications The study is cross-sectional and used self-reported data, meaning that causal inferences should be carefully drawn. Further studies should explore other sources of influence over felt-responsibility as, for example, supervisors’ support for transfer; the relationship between how in-house safety trainers define their role in the transfer process, and trainees' effective application of their new knowledge and skills. Practical implications Companies should overtly signal the importance of safety training to in-house safety trainers because it will elicit, by reciprocity, a greater sense of personal responsibility and increased efforts concerning training success. Originality/value No previous research looked at how in-house trainers define their role in the transfer of training, as well as the individual and contextual factors that influence their efforts towards the efficacy of training.
Article
The construction industry has always been infamous due to its staggering numbers of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS)-related injuries, resulting from overlooking all the crucial aspects endangering the involved workers’ lives. Considering this, there has been dearth of a study including all the essential Risk Parameters (RPs) for comprehensively assessing the OHS in the construction industry. Theretofore, a Holistic Occupational Health and Safety Risk Assessment Model (HOHSRAM) is developed in the current study to assess the safety and health of the Construction Workers (CWs’). The developed model is based on the integration of logarithmic fuzzy ANP, interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy TOPSIS, and grey relational analysis. Based on the application of the developed HOHSRAM to a case of sustainable construction project, the following contributions have been noted; (1) calculating weights related to the safety decision makers having different backgrounds involved in the study using logarithmic-fuzzy-based constrained optimization algorithm, (2) involving the individual biases of the decision makers in the assessment stage, (3) determining all the essential RPs to comprehensively assess the OHS within the construction projects in a systematic way, (4) obtaining the final rankings of the identified safety risks under an interval-valued-Pythagorean fuzzy environment coupled with grey relational analysis. Additionally, it is discerned that the proposed model in this research outperforms the existing assessment methods used in the construction industry, through conducting a comprehensive comparative analysis. The developed HOHSRAM is verified to be beneficial for safety professionals by providing them with an inclusive ranking system, improving the well-being of the involved CWs.
Article
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Organisational culture is a concept often used to describe shared corporate values that affect and influence members’ attitudes and behaviours. Safety culture is a sub-facet of organisational culture, which is thought to affect members’ attitudes and behaviour in relation to an organisation's ongoing health and safety performance. However, the myriad of definitions of ‘organisational culture’ and ‘safety culture’ that abound in both the management and safety literature suggests that the concept of business-specific cultures is not clear-cut. Placing such ‘culture’ constructs into a goal-setting paradigm appears to provide greater clarity than has hitherto been the case. Moreover, as yet there is no universally accepted model with which to formulate testable hypotheses that take into account antecedents, behaviour(s) and consequence(s). A reciprocal model of safety culture drawn from Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986. Social Foundation of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.) is offered so as to provide both a theoretical and practical framework with which to measure and analyse safety culture. Implications for future research to establish the model's utility and validity are addressed.
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There is a great need for health and safety advisers/managers to act as agents of change, both in respect to the technology of the company and the design of its workplaces, and in the organisation of the company health and safety management system. This article reports on the development of training to meet these increasing needs. The postgraduate masters course ‘Management of Safety, Health and Environment’ of the Delft University of Technology has now introduced a course-module of 1 week, addressing the issue of the learning organisation and the specific role of the safety adviser/manager. The course-module starts from the assumption that for a health and safety adviser/manager his or her personal effectiveness and ability to influence and stimulate others are qualities as important to a company as the quality of a safety and health management system. This paper will describe the development in the role of the safety adviser/manager and the mainstream thinking on change management and training. The consequence for the content and programme features of the course-module is presented as well as the results of the evaluation of its effectiveness.
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In order to test the social mechanisms through which organizational climate emerges, this article introduces a model that combines transformational leadership and social interaction as antecedents of climate strength (i.e., the degree of within-unit agreement about climate perceptions). Despite their longstanding status as primary variables, both antecedents have received limited empirical research. The sample consisted of 45 platoons of infantry soldiers from 5 different brigades, using safety climate as the exemplar. Results indicate a partially mediated model between transformational leadership and climate strength, with density of group communication network as the mediating variable. In addition, the results showed independent effects for group centralization of the communication and friendship networks, which exerted incremental effects on climate strength over transformational leadership. Whereas centralization of the communication network was found to be negatively related to climate strength, centralization of the friendship network was positively related to it. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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The authors developed, tested, and replicated a model in which safety-specific transformational leadership predicted occupational injuries in 2 separate studies. Data from 174 restaurant workers (M age = 26.75 years, range = 15-64) were analyzed using structural equation modeling (LISREL 8; K. G. Jöreskog & D. Sörbom, 1993) and provided strong support for a model whereby safety-specific transformational leadership predicted occupational injuries through the effects of perceived safety climate, safety consciousness, and safety-related events. Study 2 replicated and extended this model with data from 164 young workers from diverse jobs (M age = 19.54 years, range = 14-24). Safety-specific transformational leadership and role overload were related to occupational injuries through the effects of perceived safety climate, safety consciousness, and safety-related events.
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Organizational climates have been investigated separately at organization and subunit levels. This article tests a multilevel model of safety climate, covering both levels of analysis. Results indicate that organization-level and group-level climates are globally aligned, and the effect of organization climate on safety behavior is fully mediated by group climate level. However, the data also revealed meaningful group-level variation in a single organization, attributable to supervisory discretion in implementing formal procedures associated with competing demands like safety versus productivity. Variables that limit supervisory discretion (i.e., organization climate strength and procedural formalization) reduce both between-groups climate variation and within-group variability (i.e., increased group climate strength), although effect sizes were smaller than those associated with cross-level climate relationships. Implications for climate theory are discussed.
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The authors measured perceptions of safety climate, motivation, and behavior at 2 time points and linked them to prior and subsequent levels of accidents over a 5-year period. A series of analyses examined the effects of top-down and bottom-up processes operating simultaneously over time. In terms of top-down effects, average levels of safety climate within groups at 1 point in time predicted subsequent changes in individual safety motivation. Individual safety motivation, in turn, was associated with subsequent changes in self-reported safety behavior. In terms of bottom-up effects, improvements in the average level of safety behavior within groups were associated with a subsequent reduction in accidents at the group level. The results contribute to an understanding of the factors influencing workplace safety and the levels and lags at which these effects operate.
Article
Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
Article
The manner in which the concept of reciprocity is implicated in functional theory is explored, enabling a reanalysis of the concepts of "survival" and "exploitation." The need to distinguish between the concepts of complementarity and reciprocity is stressed. Distinctions are also drawn between (1) reciprocity as a pattern of mutually contingent exchange of gratifications, (2) the existential or folk belief in reciprocity, and (3) the generalized moral norm of reciprocity. Reciprocity as a moral norm is analyzed; it is hypothesized that it is one of the universal "principal components" of moral codes. As Westermarck states, "To requite a benefit, or to be grateful to him who bestows it, is probably everywhere, at least under certain circumstances, regarded as a duty. This is a subject which in the present connection calls for special consideration." Ways in which the norm of reciprocity is implicated in the maintenance of stable social systems are examined.
Article
‘Safety Culture’ may be defined as ‘that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in an organization and the individuals in it which determines the extent to which safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance.’ It is widely recognized that safety culture, while intangible, greatly affects the tangible level of plant safety achieved, regardless of the design of the physical plant and the procedures used to operate, maintain and manage it. Examples of management actions and initiatives are briefly described which have either positively or negatively affected the safety culture of the organizations involved, the underlying principles are discussed, and conclusions reached about approaches for nurturing a strong safety culture, and traps to be avoided which will poison it. The case is made for distinguishing between ‘safety culture’ which must be nurtured at the factory by the factory manager, and ‘safety climate’ which determines the upper level of safety culture achieved, and which must be nurtured throughout the organization, particularly at senior managerial levels, by the Board and the Chief Executive Officer (CEO).
Article
In UK industry, particularly in the energy sector, there has been a movement away from ‘lagging’ measures of safety based on retrospective data, such as lost time accidents and incidents, towards ‘leading’ or predictive assessments of the safety climate of the organisation or worksite. A number of different instruments have been developed by industrial psychologists for this purpose, resulting in a proliferation of scales with distinct developmental histories. Reviewing the methods and results from a sample of industrial surveys, the thematic basis of 18 scales used to assess safety climate is examined. This suggests that the most typically assessed dimensions relate to management (72% of studies), the safety system (67%), and risk (67%), in addition themes relating to work pressure and competence appear in a third of the studies.
Article
Satisfactory safety climate and performance are necessary characteristics of a work environment where excellence is sought. Sound leadership is a prerequisite for both these elements. In the context of social systems theory, safety leadership behavior is the result of interaction between organizational and individual factors. Nevertheless, no evidence drawn from empirical investigations has yet been brought forward to support such an argument. The purpose of this study is to explore the interactive effects of organizational and individual factors on safety leadership in college and university laboratories. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 754 employees at four colleges and universities in central Taiwan. From them, 465 usable questionnaires were returned, corresponding to a 61.67% response rate. The results indicated that the correlation between safety leadership and individual factors varied according to organizational factors. Hence, the safety leadership perception of employees with various individual characteristics was found to vary with organizational factors.
Article
Tests of significance of the sample squared multiple correlation ( R–2) in stepwise multiple regression have not been possible because its distribution is unknown. The present study used Monte Carlo simulation and least squares smoothing to construct tables of the upper 95th and 99th percentage points of the sample R–2 distribution in forward selection. A survey of published psychological research that used stepwise regression found a substantial inflation of reported significance levels when compared to the tabled values. Recommendations are given for use of these tables in evaluating results from forward selection and other stepwise methods. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The book offers a full range of practical guidelines, charts, and self-assessment exercises designed to help business leaders overcome blocks to high performance and develop the skills needed to prosper in today's business environment. These tools will help managers understand and balance the polarities that are part of every organization; develop a more comprehensive, flexible logic for coping with unfamiliar problems and demands; learn to see problems from a variety of perspectives; make reliable business decisions that successfully integrate conflicting priorities; and chart a course for self-improvement that will lead to mastery of management. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Electronic computers facilitate greatly carrying out factor analysis. Computers will help in solving the communality problem and the question of the number of factors as well as the question of arbitrary factoring and the problem of rotation. "Cloacal short-cuts will not be necessary and the powerful methods of Guttman will be feasible." A library of programs essential for factor analysis is described, and the use of medium sized computers as the IBM 650 deprecated for factor analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Andriessen, J.H.T.H., 1978. Safe behaviour and safety motivation. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 1: 363–376,This article is a report of an empirical study of the nature and determinants of safety motivation, particularly of employees in the construction industry. The study was based on the expectancy-theory of motivation. The extent of safety in work behaviour was measured by means of a checklist responded to by the employees themselves. Through questionnaires, motivation aspects, leadership style, group characteristics and safety standards were measured.Results indicated the following: (i) It is necessary to distinguish between two more or less independent aspects of safe behaviour, i.e., carefulness and safety initiative, (ii) People are more careful when they recognize that it does not hinder working speed, and that safer behaviour really does contribute to accident reduction, (iii) People show more safety initiative when the supervisor and colleagues react positively to it. (iv) Personality traits do not seem to influence strongly behaviour and motivation elements, (v) Safety motivation is strongly determined by leadership and safety standards of the leader, (vi) Safety behaviour and safety motivation are also determined by group standards and group cohesion.
Article
This study is based on three premises: (a) Leadership style affects the level of concern for subordinate safety; (b) Concern for safety, operationalized with supervisory practices, provides the source for safety climate perceptions; and (c) Safety priority as assigned by higher superiors influences supervisory safety practice independently of leadership style. Assigned safety priority was expected to moderate the relationship between leadership style and injury rate in organizational subunits, with safety climate mediating this leadership–injury relationship due to its demonstrable effect on safety behavior. A within-group split-sample analysis of 42 work groups, coupled with prospective design, indicated that transformational and constructive leadership predicted injury rate, while corrective leadership provided indirect, conditional prediction. Leadership effects were moderated by assigned safety priorities and mediated by commensurate safety-climate variables. The results suggest that transformational and transactional leadership provide complementary modes of (mediated and moderated) influence on safety behavior of group members. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This paper discusses safety culture in the petrochemical sector and the causes and consequences of safety culture. A sample of 520 responses selected by simple random sampling completed questionnaires for this survey, the return rate was 86.75%. The research instrument comprises four sections: basic information, the safety leadership scale (SLS), the safety climate scale (SCS), and the safety performance scale (SPS). SPSS 12.0, a statistical software package, was used for item analysis, validity analysis, and reliability analysis. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that (1) SLS abstracted three factors such as safety caring, safety controlling, and safety coaching; (2) SCS comprised three factors such as emergency response, safety commitment, and risk perception; and (3) SPS was composed of accident investigation, safety training, safety inspections, and safety motivation. We conclude that the SLS, SCS, and SPS developed in this paper have good construct validity and internal consistency and can serve as the basis for future research.
Article
A general formula (α) of which a special case is the Kuder-Richardson coefficient of equivalence is shown to be the mean of all split-half coefficients resulting from different splittings of a test. α is therefore an estimate of the correlation between two random samples of items from a universe of items like those in the test. α is found to be an appropriate index of equivalence and, except for very short tests, of the first-factor concentration in the test. Tests divisible into distinct subtests should be so divided before using the formula. The index [`(r)]ij\bar r_{ij} , derived from α, is shown to be an index of inter-item homogeneity. Comparison is made to the Guttman and Loevinger approaches. Parallel split coefficients are shown to be unnecessary for tests of common types. In designing tests, maximum interpretability of scores is obtained by increasing the first-factor concentration in any separately-scored subtest and avoiding substantial group-factor clusters within a subtest. Scalability is not a requisite.
Article
The role and training of occupational health and safety professionals is a continuing subject of debate in the light of recent European legislation. This paper discusses the possible roles of professionals in the context of the complexities of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) management. It presents the roles using the metaphor of parent-adult-child relationships (Harris, 1970) and discusses the ways in which different relationships can lead to different problems of functioning. It concludes with presenting the possible role of training in tackling these problems.
Article
There has not been much consensus on the causality of safety climates in the past 25 years. Moreover, there is an overall lack of models specifying the relationship among safety leadership, safety climate and safety performance. On the grounds of social system theory, this study has investigated the potential correlation among them. Self-administered questionnaires that included a safety leadership scale, a safety climate scale and a safety performance scale were used to collect data in four universities in central Taiwan. The survey was conducted among 754 subjects selected via simple random sampling. The number of returned valid questionnaires was 465, and the response rate was 61.67%. Path analysis showed that safety climate partially mediated the relationship between safety leadership and safety performance. Canonical correlation analysis showed that safety controlling, one factor of safety leadership, had main influence on CEOs and managers’ safety commitment and action in safety climate, and on safety organization and management, safety equipment and measures, and accident investigations in safety performance. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that organizational leaders would do well to develop a strategy by which they improve the safety climates within their organizations, which will then have a positive effect on safety performance.
Article
Causal attributions represent an important link between workplace safety problems and the actions that are taken to manage them. In fact, actions to manage safety derive more from attributions than from actual causes. This paper begins with brief discussions of attribution theory and causal analysis in workplace safety. An attributional model of the safety-management process is then proposed, which describes the formation of safety-related attributions and the various individual and organizational factors that are likely to complicate and/or bias these causal inferences. Both event-attribution and attribution-remedy linkages are examined, and relevant findings from safety and organizational behavior research are highlighted. In the final section, several safety program recommendations are offered based on this analysis.
Article
Actively caring refers to individuals caring enough about the health and safety of others to act accordingly. Actively caring behavior in an industrial context can take the form of looking for environmental hazards and unsafe work practices and implementing appropriate corrective actions when unsafe conditions or behaviors are observed. Individuals presumed most likely to actively care are those high in self-esteem (i.e., feel valuable), optimism (i.e., feel they can make a difference), and group belongingness or cohesiveness (e.g., feel close to members of their work group). In order to test the actively caring model, this study assessed the relationship between self-esteem, group cohesion, and optimism with employees' self-reports of willingness to actively care. In addition to self-report data, we assessed the occurrence of certain actively caring behaviors in the work setting. Specifically, actively caring was measured by counting the number of “actively caring thank-you cards” given or received for actively caring behaviors. Self-esteem, group cohesion, and optimism scores predicted significant and independent variance in self-reported willingness to actively care. Furthermore, those workers who either gave or received thank-you cards scored significantly higher on measures of self-esteem and group cohesiveness than those workers who did not give or receive thank-you cards. Implications for future research and application of the actively caring concept are discussed.
Article
Management commitment to safety is recognised as a fundamental component of an organisation's safety culture (Reason, 1997. Managing the Risks of Organisational Accidents. Ashgate, Aldershot, UK). However, the role and experiences of site managers in relation to safety have rarely been examined. A survey questionnaire was conducted of 200 Offshore Installation Managers (OIMs) from 157 offshore oil and gas installations belonging to 36 organisations operating on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf. The questionnaire gathered data relating to OIMs' level of experience and style of leadership as well as their knowledge and experience of safety and leadership within the industry. The aims of the study are twofold. The first aim is to investigate the relationship between managers' level of experience and style of leadership with their safety attitudes and behaviour. The second aim is to investigate managers' perceptions of best practice in safety leadership and their beliefs about the key outstanding safety issues. Findings suggest that experience is not the dominant factor in determining leadership style or attitudes to safety, however, the less experienced OIMs and those with more directive styles of leadership were found to overestimate their ability to influence and motivate the workforce. It seems that although managers are aware of best practice in safety leadership, they do not always act in ways consistent with this. They report having considerable difficulty in motivating and controlling some safety crucial aspects of workforce behaviour such as getting workers to accept ownership of safety and getting workers to report near misses. In terms of outstanding safety issues, it appears that improvements still need to be made in a number of areas such as the standardisation of safety culture; the harmonisation of safety practices and procedures across the industry; improved workforce competency and increased workforce involvement in safety activities and decision making.
Article
Sumario: Safety concepts (Historical framework. The changing scene. Safety management's principles) -- Managing safety (Roles. Drivers. Measurement) -- Proactive system elements (Changing behavior. Changing physical conditions. Using ergonomics. Changing the management system) -- Reactive system elements (Records. Statistical safety control) -- Other system elements (Complying with OSHA. Other programs. Safety in the adjunct fleet. Product safety) -- Appendixes (How to analyze your company. Sample management safety policies. A special emphasis program. Ergonomic information. Sources of help)
Article
An index of factorial simplicity, employing the quartimax transformational criteria of Carroll, Wrigley and Neuhaus, and Saunders, is developed. This index is both for each row separately and for a factor pattern matrix as a whole. The index varies between zero and one. The problem of calibrating the index is discussed.
Article
An analytic criterion for rotation is defined. The scientific advantage of analytic criteria over subjective (graphical) rotational procedures is discussed. Carroll's criterion and the quartimax criterion are briefly reviewed; the varimax criterion is outlined in detail and contrasted both logically and numerically with the quartimax criterion. It is shown that thenormal varimax solution probably coincides closely to the application of the principle of simple structure. However, it is proposed that the ultimate criterion of a rotational procedure is factorial invariance, not simple structure—although the two notions appear to be highly related. The normal varimax criterion is shown to be a two-dimensional generalization of the classic Spearman case, i.e., it shows perfect factorial invariance for two pure clusters. An example is given of the invariance of a normal varimax solution for more than two factors. The oblique normal varimax criterion is stated. A computational outline for the orthogonal normal varimax is appended.
Article
Safety has always been one of the principal goals in teaching laboratories. Laboratories cannot serve their educational purpose when accidents occur. The leadership of department heads has a major impact on laboratory safety, so this study discusses the factors affecting safety leadership in teaching laboratories. This study uses a mail survey to explore the perceived safety leadership in electrical and electronic engineering departments at Taiwanese universities. An exploratory factor analysis shows that there are three main components of safety leadership, as measured on a safety leadership scale: safety controlling, safety coaching, and safety caring. The descriptive statistics also reveals that among faculty, the perception of department heads' safety leadership is in general positive. A two-way MANOVA shows that there are interaction effects on safety leadership between university size and instructor age; there are also interaction effects between presence of a safety committee and faculty gender and faculty age. It is therefore necessary to assess organizational factors when determining whether individual factors are the cause of differing perceptions among faculty members. The author also presents advice on improving safety leadership for department heads at small universities and at universities without safety committees.
Article
Safety culture relates to injuries and safety incidents in organizations, but is difficult to asses and measure. We describe a preliminary test of assessing an organization's safety culture by examining employee interpretations of organizational safety artifacts (safety signs). We collected data in three organizations using a new safety culture assessment tool that we label the Safety Artifact Interpretation (SAI) scale; we then crossed these data with safety climate and leadership evaluations. SAI were interpreted by employees in accordance with two conceptually distinct themes that are salient in the literature on organizational safety culture: safety compliance and commitment to safety. A significant correlation exists between SAI scores and the organizational safety climate. A similar (though insignificant) relationship was observed between SAI scores and leadership ratings. Employee perceptions and interpretations of safety artifacts can facilitate assessments of safety culture and can ultimately lead to understanding of and improvements in the level of organizational safety.
Article
Fatal occupational injuries in a new development region in Shanghai in east China are described. All occupational deaths in the East Pujiang New Area during the period 1991 through 1997 were abstracted from multiple, overlapping source documents. There were 426 deaths and a crude mortality rate of 9.1 per 100,000 workers. The death rate was highest in 1995 (14.6%), when expansion in the area was most rapid. The construction sector accounted for 55% of the deaths, followed by manufacturing (23%) and transport, storage, and telecommunications (11%). Falls, collisions, struck by/against incidents, and electrocutions accounted for 80% of all deaths. Falls led all other causes of deaths (33%) and were particularly prevalent in the construction industry (46% of all deaths in construction). The development of ongoing, comprehensive injury surveillance systems in the People's Republic of China will be essential to target and evaluate injury prevention activities in the future.
Article
Given the lack of a consistent factor structure of safety climate, this study tested the stability of a factor structure of a safety climate scale developed through an extensive literature review using confirmatory factor analytic approach and cross-validation. A cross-sectional sample of 722 U.S. grain industry workers participated in the questionnaire survey. The safety climate scale developed through the generation of an item pool based on a table of specifications, subsequent scientific item reduction procedures, reviews from experts, and pilot test yielded adequate reliabilities for each dimension. Each item showed proper discriminative power based on both internal and external criteria. Criterion validity was manifested by the significant positive correlation of the scale with five criteria. Evidence of construct validity was provided by both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Both calibration and validation samples supported a consistent factor structure. Management commitment and supervisor support were found to influence other dimensions of safety climate. This study provides an insight into the primary reason why previous attempts have failed to find a consistent factor structure of safety climate: No specification of the influence of management commitment and supervisor support on other dimensions of safety in their models. The findings of this study provide a framework upon which accident prevention efforts can be effectively organized and underscore the importance of management commitment and supervisor support as they affect employee safety perceptions.
Article
This study examines the effect of leader influence tactics on employee safety participation in a U.K.-based manufacturing organization, examining the role of safety climate as a mediator. Structural equation modeling showed that leader influence tactics associated with a transformational leadership style had significant relationships with safety participation that were partially mediated by the safety climate (consultation) or fully mediated by the safety climate (inspirational appeals). In addition, leader influence tactics associated with a transactional leadership style had significant relationships with safety participation: rational persuasion (partially mediated by safety climate) and coalition tactics (direct effect). Thus, leaders may encourage safety participation using a combination of influence tactics, based on rational arguments, involvement in decision making, and generating enthusiasm for safety. The influence of building trust in managers is discussed as an underlying mechanism in this relationship. Practical implications are highlighted, including the design of leadership development programs, which may be particularly suited to high-reliability organizations.
Article
Universities and colleges serve to be institutions of education excellence; however, problems in the areas of occupational safety may undermine such goals. Occupational safety must be the concern of every employee in the organization, regardless of job position. Safety climate surveys have been suggested as important tools for measuring the effectiveness and improvement direction of safety programs. Thus, this study aims to investigate the influence of organizational and individual factors on safety climate in university and college laboratories. Employees at 100 universities and colleges in Taiwan were mailed a self-administered questionnaire survey; the response rate was 78%. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that organizational category of ownership, the presence of a safety manager and safety committee, gender, age, title, accident experience, and safety training significantly affected the climate. Among them, accident experience and safety training affected the climate with practical significance. The authors recommend that managers should address important factors affecting safety issues and then create a positive climate by enforcing continuous improvements.
An " actively caring " model for occupational safety: A field test A cross-validation of safety climate scale using confirmatory factor analytic approach The safety professional's role in corrective action management
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Measuring safety climate: Identifying the common features Ten principles for achieving a total safety culture Safety coaching: Key to achieving a total safety culture The psychology of safety: How to improve behaviors and attitudes on the job
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The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement 161−178. Guidelines of Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems for Taiwan
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