Article

Seeing the Silver Lining: Cognitive Reappraisal Ability Moderates the Relationship Between Stress and Depressive Symptoms

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA.
Emotion (Impact Factor: 3.88). 11/2010; 10(6):783-95. DOI: 10.1037/a0020262
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Individuals differ in their adjustment to stressful life events, with some exhibiting impaired functioning, including depression, while others exhibit impressive resilience. The present study examined the hypothesis that the ability to deploy a particularly adaptive type of emotion regulation-cognitive reappraisal-may be a protective factor. It expands upon existing research in three ways. First, participants' ability to use reappraisal (cognitive reappraisal ability: CRA) was measured by using a behavioral challenge that assessed changes in experiential and physiological domains, rather than questionnaires. Second, all participants had been exposed to one or more recent stressful life events, a context in which emotion regulation may be particularly important. Third, a community sample of 78 women aged 20 to 60 was recruited, as opposed to undergraduates. Results indicate that, at low levels of stress, participants' CRA was not associated with depressive symptoms. However, at high levels of stress, women with high CRA exhibited less depressive symptoms than those with low CRA, suggesting that CRA may be an important moderator of the link between stress and depressive symptoms.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Amanda J Shallcross
  • Source
    • "A study comparing distressed and healthy adolescents found no differences across groups in positive re-appraisals of stressors (Ebata and Moos 1991). Relatedly, one study reported that cumulative stress was unrelated to the positive reappraisal of sad stimuli among adult women (Troy et al. 2010). There is some research to suggest dispositional self-efficacy drives positive appraisal (Jerusalem and Schwarzer 1992), and conjecture that individuals high in temperamental positive emotionality or positive affect might demonstrate consistently high levels of positive appraisal (Folkman 2008; Lengua and Long 2002). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations among cumulative risk, appraisal, coping, and adjustment. Longitudinal path models were tested in a community sample of 316 children in preadolescence to examine hypotheses that threat appraisal and avoidant coping mediate the effects of cumulative risk on child adjustment, whereas positive appraisal and active coping were hypothesized to predict better adjustment independently. Children and their mothers were assessed during in-home interviews at three time points at one-year intervals. Children reported on appraisal and coping strategies. Mothers and children reported on child adjustment problems and positive adjustment. Rank-order changes in appraisal and coping predicted rank-order changes in adjustment. Cumulative risk was concurrently related to higher threat appraisal and avoidant coping at each time point. Threat appraisal and avoidant coping mediated the relations of cumulative risk to rank-order changes in adjustment. There is specificity in the relations of cumulative risk to threat appraisal and avoidant coping, whereas positive appraisal and active coping are independent of risk and operate as individual resource factors.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Child and Family Studies
  • Source
    • "Specifically, we demonstrated that more religious individuals are more effective at regulating their emotions using cognitive reappraisal. Cognitive reappraisal has been associated with a range of benefits , including more positive affect (McRae et al., 2012), less negative affect (Denny & Ochsner, 2014; Gross, 1998; McRae et al., 2012; but see Sheppes & Meiran, 2007) and greater mental health and well-being (Denny & Ochsner, 2014; Troy, Wilhelm, Shallcross, & Mauss, 2010). If religiosity is associated with more frequent and effective cognitive reappraisal, this could lead to more adaptive outcomes, including more adaptive emotional experiences and greater well-being. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although religiosity is often accompanied by more intense emotions, we propose that people who are more religious may be better at using 1 of the most effective emotion regulation strategies-namely, cognitive reappraisal. We argue that religion, which is a meaning-making system, is linked to better cognitive reappraisal, which involves changing the meaning of emotional stimuli. Four studies (N = 2,078) supported our hypotheses. In Study 1, religiosity was associated with more frequent use of cognitive reappraisal in 3 distinct religions (i.e., Islam, Christianity, Judaism). In Studies 2A-2B, we replicated these findings using 2 indices of cognitive reappraisal and in a large representative sample. In Studies 3-4, individuals more (vs. less) religious were more effective in using cognitive reappraisal in the laboratory. We discuss how these findings inform our understanding of the psychology of religion and of emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Emotion
  • Source
    • "Studies have examined the beneficial effects of cognitive reappraisal on self-reported symptoms (e.g., Garnefski and Kraaij 2006), yet have not examined these tendencies in combination with measures of emotional reactivity. Cognitive reappraisal may be particularly important during times of stress, yet little research examines the effects of cognitive reappraisal in paradigms that include a stressor (Hofmann et al. 2009; Troy et al. 2010) to examine whether the tendency to reappraise modulates the effects of emotionality on symptom presentation. Indeed, in their call to advance the field of affective science , Tracy et al. (2014) suggest that research should employ multiple measures of emotional reactivity, focus on the time course of emotional response including rise and return to baseline, assess multiple types of emotion regulation , distinguish between reactivity and regulation, and elucidate disorder-specific patterns of emotional processes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Emotion dysregulation has been associated with increases in many forms of psychopathology in adolescents and adults. The development of effective emotion regulation skills is important during adolescence, especially as stressful life events increase during this time. The current study examined two emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and affective suppression, in interaction with self-report and biological measures of emotional reactivity as predictors of internalizing symptoms. A community sample of adolescents (n = 127), at an age of risk for depression and anxiety, completed self-report measures of emotional reactivity and internalizing symptoms. In addition, they completed a modified social stress task and were assessed on biological measures of reactivity and regulation. Findings suggested that the trait tendency to reappraise was associated with a reduced impact of emotional reactivity on depressive, but not anxiety symptoms. Implications for shared and specific aspects of emotional reactivity and regulation are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Cognitive Therapy and Research
Show more