The expression of bipolar spectrum psychopathology in daily life

University of North Carolina at Greensboro, United States.
Journal of Affective Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.38). 11/2010; 130(1-2):166-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.10.025
Source: PubMed


Bipolar psychopathology has traditionally been defined by categorical diagnoses. However, these disorders may simply reflect the extremes of a broader spectrum of clinical and subclinical bipolar psychopathology.
The present study examined the validity of the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) as a measure of bipolar spectrum psychopathology in 305 young adults using experience sampling methodology. The participants completed the HPS and were signaled randomly eight times daily for seven days to complete brief questionnaires on their current experiences.
High HPS scores were associated with elevated energetic-enthusiasm, irritability, dysphoria, flight of ideas, mild grandiose beliefs, and risky behavior, as well as increased variability in affect in daily life. High HPS scores were also associated with greater reactivity in negative affect and behavior in response to viewing themselves as unsuccessful in their activities.
It is not clear to what extent the participants had diagnosable bipolar disorders.
The findings support a broader spectrum of bipolar psychopathology and the validity of the HPS as a measure of this construct.

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Available from: Thomas Kwapil, Mar 14, 2014
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    • "The PDAs signaled participants to complete questionnaires eight times a day between the hours of noon and midnight for 7 days. The ESM items and indices used were developed to tap affect, behavior, and cognitions in daily life and have been validated in previous studies (e.g., Kwapil et al., 2011). Items and coefficient alpha for indices are presented inTable 1. Participants were instructed to rate items based upon how they felt at the moment they were signaled on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much). "
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is a key personality and psychopathology construct that is best conceptualized as multidimensional. The UPPS model is a comprehensive multidimensional framework which defines four impulsivity facets: negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. Although these facets have unique predictive value in laboratory based correlational studies, the validity and expression of these facets have not been examined in daily life. The present study employed experience sampling methodology (ESM) to examine associations of UPPS impulsivity facets with affect, cognition, and behavior in daily life in a non-clinical sample of 299 young adults. The impulsivity facets were differentially expressed in daily life. Negative urgency was associated with negative affect, poor sense of self, and thought disruption; lack of premeditation was associated with negative but energetic affect; lack of perseverance was characterized by difficulty putting forth effort and completing activities; and sensation seeking was associated with positive affect and enjoying oneself. All UPPS facets with the exception of sensation seeking were associated with increased troublesome behavior in daily life. Overall, these results support the validity of the multidimensional UPPS model of impulsivity in daily life and suggest that ESM is a useful tool for examining the expression of impulsivity.
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    • "This spectrum includes subclinical symptoms of dysregulated mood, cognition, behavior, and sense of self (Angst et al., 2003; Walsh, Royal, Brown, Barrantes-Vidal, & Kwapil, 2012). For example, Kwapil et al. (2011) assessed the expression of subclinical bipolar spectrum traits in daily life and found associations with elevated energy-enthusiasm, irritability, dysphoria, flight of ideas, mild grandiose beliefs, risky behavior, and variability in affect. Those who experience subclinical symptoms may suffer impairment and distress (Angst et al., 2003) and are at heightened risk for the development of clinical bipolar disorders (Kwapil et al., 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) is used to investigate hypomanic traits and risk for bipolar spectrum disorders; however, the length of the HPS (48 items) may be prohibitive for clinical research and screening purposes. Meads and Bentall (2008) developed a promising 20-item version of the HPS; however, the psychometric properties and validity of the short form have not been thoroughly examined. The present study investigated the construct validity and psychometric properties of the short HPS. A sample of 2713 non-clinically ascertained young adults was used to assess psychometric properties of the short form relative to the original scale. Two non-overlapping subsamples (n = 522; n = 145) were used to investigate the validity of the short HPS using personality and temperament questionnaires and clinical interviews of bipolar psychopathology and diagnoses. The short and original HPS generally had comparable correlations with measures of temperament, personality, impulsivity, borderline personality, grandiosity, psychosocial functioning, and alcohol use, and comparably predicted DSM bipolar and bipolar spectrum diagnoses. Overall, the short HPS was found to be both reliable and valid. However, the short HPS tended to be more strongly correlated with pathological components of hypomanic personality and less strongly correlated with exuberant and potentially adaptive aspects of the construct.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    • "At Level 2, we estimated a main effect of hypomania, measured with the Hypomanic Personality Scale (Eckblad & Chapman, 1986), on PA (shown as the path from Hypomania to PA Intercept), as well as a cross-level interaction between solitude and hypomania (shown as a path from Hypomania to PA Slope). The Hypomanic Personality Scale measures a continuum of traitlike variability in bipolar spectrum psychopathology (see Kwapil et al., 2011). Hypomania was grand-mean centered using the observed scores. "
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    ABSTRACT: Experience-sampling research involves trade-offs between the number of questions asked per signal, the number of signals per day, and the number of days. By combining planned missing-data designs and multilevel latent variable modeling, we show how to reduce the items per signal without reducing the number of items. After illustrating different designs using real data, we present two Monte Carlo studies that explored the performance of planned missing-data designs across different within-person and between-person sample sizes and across different patterns of response rates. The missing-data designs yielded unbiased parameter estimates but slightly higher standard errors. With realistic sample sizes, even designs with extensive missingness performed well, so these methods are promising additions to an experience-sampler's toolbox.
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