Neighborhood Protective Effects on Depression in Latinos
Neighborhood social ecologies may have protective effects on depression in Latinos, after adjusting for demographic risk factors, such as nativity and length of stay in the US. This study examines the effects of neighborhood collective efficacy and linguistic isolation on depression in a heterogeneous urban Latino population from 1,468 adult respondents in Los Angeles County. We used multilevel models to analyze how major depression is associated with socioeconomic background, length of stay in the U.S., neighborhood collective efficacy and linguistic isolation among Latinos. A significant cross-level interaction effect was found between collective efficacy and foreign-born Latinos who resided in the US ≥ 15 years. We report cross-level interaction effects between linguistic isolation and nativity for U.S.-born and nativity and duration of residence for foreign-born Latinos who had lived in the U.S. at least 15 years. The moderating effects reported in this study suggest that the benefits of neighborhood collective efficacy and linguistic isolation vary by Latino subgroup and are conceptually discrete forms of social capital and offer insights for community based interventions.
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- "Other researchers found that a high concentration of immigrants in one area may shield individuals from the detrimental effects of poverty . The prevailing thought is that ethnic/immigrant enclaves are protective of Latino health as enclaves provide opportunities to foster social relationships  . A recent study found that Latinos living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were more socially integrated and had large, diverse networks . "
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ABSTRACT: Despite the availability of effective early detection technologies, more than half (61%) of colorectal cancers in the United States and 55% in California are identified at an advanced stage. Data on colorectal cancer patients (
,030) diagnosed from 2005 to 2007 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Multivariate analyses found a relationship among neighborhood concentration of recent immigrants, neighborhood rates of limited English proficiency, and late-stage colorectal cancer diagnosis. Hispanics living in neighborhoods with a greater percentage of recent immigrants (compared to the lowest percentage) had greater odds (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.22, 2.02) of late-stage diagnosis whereas Hispanics living in neighborhoods with the highest percentage of limited English proficiency (compared to the lowest percentage) had lower odds (OR .71, 95% CI .51, .99) of late-stage diagnosis. These relationships were not observed for other ethnic groups. Results highlight the complex relationship among race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics, and colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis.
- "Indeed, Sampson (2013) suggests that residents in neighborhoods of high collective efficacy (i.e., where there are shared expectations about norms and behavior) are better able to achieve common goals and are more likely to engage in (and benefit from) socially altruistic behaviors. 1 Such benefits are unsurprisingly associated with better mental health— collective efficacy, for instance, has been found to reduce depression among long-term Latino immigrants in the United States (Vega et al. 2011) as well as among older adults (Ahern and Galea 2011), and is associated with other socially altruistic behaviors such as bystander intervention (Edwards et al. 2014). It is necessary to account for neighborhood disadvantage when examining the impact of neighborhood protective factors, however, because disadvantage can impede the quality and quantity of the helping mechanisms which are available (Goodman et al. 2009; Sampson 2003). "
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ABSTRACT: This study examines the direct effects of neighborhood supportive mechanisms (e.g., collective efficacy, social cohesion, social networks) on depressive symptoms among females as well as their moderating effects on the impact of IPV on subsequent depressive symptoms. A multilevel, multivariate Rasch model was used with data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to assess the existence of IPV and later susceptibility of depressive symptoms among 2959 adult females in 80 neighborhoods. Results indicate that neighborhood collective efficacy, social cohesion, social interactions, and the number of friends and family in the neighborhood reduce the likelihood that females experience depressive symptoms. However, living in areas with high proportions of friends and relatives exacerbates the impact of IPV on females' subsequent depressive symptoms. The findings indicate that neighborhood supportive mechanisms impact interpersonal outcomes in both direct and moderating ways, although direct effects were more pronounced for depression than moderating effects. Future research should continue to examine the positive and potentially mitigating influences of neighborhoods in order to better understand for whom and under which circumstances violent relationships and mental health are influenced by contextual factors.
Available from: Corey Shepard Sparks
- "Racial segregation appears to be beneficial for the health of Asians and Hispanics in multiple dimensions including mental health (Vega et al., 2011), physical health (Osypuk et al., 2009), access to health care (Gresenz, Rogowski, & Escarce, 2009; Osypuk et al., 2009) and birth outcomes (Walton, 2009). That is, Asians and Hispanics living in a racially segregated area are more likely to have fewer depressive symptoms (Vega et al., 2011), and to have better self-reported health and fewer chronic conditions (Osypuk et al., 2009). This protective association between racial segregation and health of Asians and Hispanics is often attributed to ethnic enclaves , which may provide increased social support and social engagement among families and friends, enhance integration into the community, provide better access to educational and occupational resources, and minimize the exposure to discrimination (Berkman & Glass, 2000; Leclere, Jensen, & Biddlecom, 1994; Walton, 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: Drawing from both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives, we use multilevel modeling to investigate the relationships between women's race/ethnicity (i.e., non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Asian, and Hispanic) and maternal smoking during pregnancy, and examine if these relationships are moderated by racial segregation in the continental United States. The results show that increased interaction with whites is associated with increased probability of maternal smoking during pregnancy, and racial segregation moderates the relationships between race/ethnicity and maternal smoking. Specifically, living in a less racially segregated area is related to a lower probability of smoking during pregnancy for black women, but it could double and almost triple the probability of smoking for Asian women and Hispanic women, respectively. Our findings provide empirical evidence for both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives.
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