Arias E. United States life tables, 2006

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Contorl and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.
National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 06/2010; 58(21):1-40.
Source: PubMed


OBJECTIVES:this report presents complete period life tables by age, race, and sex for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 2006. METHODS: Data used to prepare the 2006 life tables are 2006 final mortality statistics, July 1, 2006 population estimates based on the 2000 decennial census, and 2006 Medicare data for ages 66-100. The 2006 life tables were estimated using a recently revised methodology first applied to the final annual U.S. life tables series with the 2005 edition (1). For comparability, all life tables for the years 2000-2004 were reestimated using the revised methodology and were published in an appendix of the United States Life Tables, 2005 report (1). These revised tables replace all previously published life tables for years 2000-2004. RESULTs: In 2006, the overall expectation of life at birth was 77.7 years, representing an increase of 0.3 years from life expectancy in 2005. From 2005 to 2006, life expectancy at birth increased for all groups considered. It increased for males (from 74.9 to 75.1) and females (from 79.9 to 80.2), the white (from 77.9 to 78.2) and black populations (from 72.8 to 73.2), black males (from 69.3 to 69.7) and females (from 76.1 to 76.5), and white males (from 75.4 to 75.7) and females (from 80.4 to 80.6).

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Available from: Elizabeth Arias
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    • "Over the past century, common causes of death in the United States have shifted from a portfolio in which acute, communicable diseases played a prominent role to one dominated by chronic diseases most of which have less obvious involvement with infectious agents [1]. Accompanying this shift has been a dramatic reduction in infant and childhood mortality—by about 90% between 1935 and 2010 [2]—and a substantial lengthening of life expectancy [3]. Even in the modern era of chronic, degenerative diseases of the old age, the " face of death " has been changing. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) profoundly affects the end-of-life experience. Yet, counts of deaths attributable to AD understate this burden of AD in the population. Therefore, we estimated the annual number of deaths in the United States among older adults with AD from 2010 to 2050. Methods We calculated probabilities of AD incidence and mortality from a longitudinal population-based study of 10,802 participants. From this population, 1913 previously disease-free individuals, selected via stratified random sampling, underwent 2577 detailed clinical evaluations. Over the course of follow-up, 990 participants died. We computed age-, sex-, race-, and education-specific AD incidences and education-adjusted AD mortality proportions specific to age, sex, and race group. We then combined these probabilities with US-wide census, education, and mortality data. Results In 2010, approximately 600,000 deaths occurred among individuals aged 65 years or older with AD, comprising 32% of all older adult deaths. By 2050, this number is projected to be 1.6 million, 43% of all older adult deaths. Conclusion Individuals with AD comprise a substantial number of older adult deaths in the United States, a number expected to rise considerably in coming decades.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
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    • "For the age stratum “65 years and over” a life expectancy of 75 years was determined to be the last year for which workplace-related fatality data would apply. This assumption is based on the life expectancy of U.S. males in 2006 [24]. The same method can be used to estimate average number of years remaining for females for each BLS age stratum. "
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    ABSTRACT: Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systems-based method used to determine potential impacts to the environment associated with a product throughout its life cycle. Conclusions from LCA studies can be applied to support decisions regarding product design or public policy, therefore, all relevant inputs (e.g., raw materials, energy) and outputs (e.g., emissions, waste) to the product system should be evaluated to estimate impacts. Currently, work-related impacts are not routinely considered in LCA. The objectives of this paper are: 1) introduce the work environment disability-adjusted life year (WE-DALY), one portion of a characterization factor used to express the magnitude of impacts to human health attributable to work-related exposures to workplace hazards; 2) outline the methods for calculating the WE-DALY; 3) demonstrate the calculation; and 4) highlight strengths and weaknesses of the methodological approach. The concept of the WE-DALY and the methodological approach to its calculation is grounded in the World Health Organization's disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Like the DALY, the WE-DALY equation considers the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years of life lived with disability outcomes to estimate the total number of years of healthy life lost in a population. The equation requires input in the form of the number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and illnesses that occur in the industries relevant to the product system evaluated in the LCA study, the age of the worker at the time of the fatal or nonfatal injury or illness, the severity of the injury or illness, and the duration of time lived with the outcomes of the injury or illness. The methodological approach for the WE-DALY requires data from various sources, multi-step instructions to determine each variable used in the WE-DALY equation, and assumptions based on professional opinion. Results support the use of the WE-DALY in a characterization factor in LCA. Integrating occupational health into LCA studies will provide opportunities to prevent shifting of impacts between the work environment and the environment external to the workplace and co-optimize human health, to include worker health, and environmental health.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Environmental Health
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    • "In every health state, patients were at risk of death not related to liver disease. We modeled this risk by using age-and sex-specific mortality rates from US life tables [32]. In addition, patients with chronic liver disease were at risk of liver disease–related death once decompensation occurred. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Shortened courses of treatment with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for patients with hepatitis C virus infection who experience rapid virologic response can be effective in appropriately selected patients. The cost-effectiveness of truncated therapy is not known.Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of response-guided therapy versus standard-duration therapy on the basis of best available evidence.Methods We developed a decision model for chronic hepatitis C virus infection representing two treatment strategies: 1) standard-duration therapy with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for 48 weeks in patients with genotype 1 or 4 and for 24 weeks in patients with genotype 2 or 3 and 2) truncated therapy (i.e., 50% decrease in treatment duration) in patients with rapid virologic response. Patients for whom truncated therapy failed began standard-duration therapy guided by genotype. We used a Markov model to estimate lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years.ResultsIn the base-case analysis, mean lifetime costs were $46,623 ± $2,483 with standard-duration therapy and $42,354 ± $2,489 with truncated therapy. Mean lifetime quality-adjusted life-years were similar between the groups (17.1 ± 0.7 with standard therapy; 17.2 ± 0.7 with truncated therapy). Across model simulations, the probability of truncated therapy being economically dominant (i.e., both cost saving and more effective) was 78.6%. The results were consistent when we stratified the data by genotype. In one-way sensitivity analyses, the results were sensitive only to changes in treatment efficacy.Conclusion Truncated therapy based on rapid virologic response is likely to be cost saving for treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Cost-effectiveness varied with small changes in relative treatment efficacy.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Value in Health
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