CdGAP is required for transforming growth factor Β- and Neu/ErbB-2-induced breast cancer cell motility and invasion
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Oncogene
(Impact Factor: 8.46).
11/2010; 30(9):1032-45. DOI: 10.1038/onc.2010.477
RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42, the best-characterized members of the Rho family of small GTPases, are critical regulators of many cellular activities. Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein (CdGAP) is a serine- and proline-rich RhoGAP protein showing GAP activity against both Cdc42 and Rac1 but not RhoA. CdGAP is phosphorylated downstream of the MEK-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway in response to serum and is required for normal cell spreading and polarized lamellipodia formation. In this study, we found that CdGAP protein and mRNA levels are highly increased in mammary tumor explants expressing an activated Neu/ErbB-2 (Neu-NT) receptor. In response to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) stimulation, Neu-NT-expressing mammary tumor explants demonstrate a clear induction in cell motility and invasion. We show that downregulation of CdGAP expression by small interfering RNA abrogates the ability of TGFβ to induce cell motility and invasion of Neu-NT-expressing mammary tumor explants. However, it has no effect on TGFβ-mediated cell adhesion on type 1 collagen and fibronectin. Interestingly, protein expression of E-Cadherin is highly increased in Neu-NT-expressing mammary tumor explants depleted of CdGAP. In addition, complete loss of E-Cadherin expression is not observed in CdGAP-depleted cells during TGFβ-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Downregulation of the CdGAP expression also decreases cell proliferation of Neu-NT-expressing mammary tumor explants independently of TGFβ. Rescue analysis using re-expression of various CdGAP deletion-mutant proteins revealed that the proline-rich domain (PRD) but not the GAP domain of CdGAP is essential to mediate TGFβ-induced cell motility and invasion. Finally, we found that TGFβ induces the expression and phosphorylation of CdGAP in mammary epithelial NMuMG cells. Taken together, these studies identify CdGAP as a novel molecular target in TGFβ signaling and implicate CdGAP as an essential component in the synergistic interaction between TGFβ and Neu/ErbB-2 signaling pathways in breast cancer cells.
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- "Mutations in cdGAP are causative for defects in vasculogenesis, heart formation, skin wound closure and limb formation that comprise the syndrome known as Adams-Oliver disease, a disorder which may be the result of altered rigidity sensing or dysregulated stem cell migration and differentiation , . CdGAP also plays a role in cancer, where changes in ECM stiffness and rigidity sensing promote metastasis , –. "
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ABSTRACT: Motile cells are capable of sensing the stiffness of the surrounding extracellular matrix through integrin-mediated focal adhesions and migrate towards regions of higher rigidity in a process known as durotaxis. Durotaxis plays an important role in normal development and disease progression, including tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying focal adhesion-mediated rigidity sensing and durotaxis are poorly understood. Utilizing matrix-coated polydimethylsiloxane gels to manipulate substrate compliance, we show that cdGAP, an adhesion-localized Rac1 and Cdc42 specific GTPase activating protein, is necessary for U2OS osteosarcoma cells to coordinate cell shape changes and migration as a function of extracellular matrix stiffness. CdGAP regulated rigidity-dependent motility by controlling membrane protrusion and adhesion dynamics, as well as by modulating Rac1 activity. CdGAP was also found to be necessary for U2OS cell durotaxis. Taken together, these data identify cdGAP as an important component of an integrin-mediated signaling pathway that senses and responds to mechanical cues in the extracellular matrix in order to coordinate directed cell motility.
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprised of at least five major tumor subtypes that coalesce as the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Although metastasis clearly represents the most lethal characteristic of breast cancer, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern this event remains inadequate. Clinically, ~30% of breast cancer patients diagnosed with early-stage disease undergo metastatic progression, an event that (a) severely limits treatment options, (b) typically results in chemoresistance and low response rates, and (c) greatly contributes to aggressive relapses and dismal survival rates. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates all phases of postnatal mammary gland development, including branching morphogenesis, lactation, and involution. TGF-β also plays a prominent role in suppressing mammary tumorigenesis by preventing mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation, or by inducing MEC apoptosis. Genetic and epigenetic events that transpire during mammary tumorigenesis conspire to circumvent the tumor suppressing activities of TGF-β, thereby permitting late-stage breast cancer cells to acquire invasive and metastatic phenotypes in response to TGF-β. Metastatic progression stimulated by TGF-β also relies on its ability to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the expansion of chemoresistant breast cancer stem cells. Precisely how this metamorphosis in TGF-β function comes about remains incompletely understood; however, recent findings indicate that the initiation of oncogenic TGF-β activity is contingent upon imbalances between its canonical and noncanonical signaling systems. Here we review the molecular and cellular contributions of noncanonical TGF-β effectors to mammary tumorigenesis and metastatic progression.
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ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a ubiquitous cytokine playing an essential role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, adhesion and invasion, as well as in cellular microenvironment. In malignant diseases, TGF-β signaling features a growth inhibitory effect at an early stage but aggressive oncogenic activity at the advanced malignant state. Here, we update the current understanding of TGF-β signaling in cancer development and progression with a focus on breast cancer. We also review the current approaches of TGF-β signaling-targeted therapeutics for human malignancies.
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