Iloperidone: Chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and metabolism, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability, regulatory affairs, and an opinion
Iloperidone is a newly commercialized second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic approved for the acute treatment of schizophrenia in adults.
the purpose of this review is to describe the pharmacokinetic profile of iloperidone and its clinical implications in the treatment of schizophrenia. Background information is also provided regarding chemistry, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy and safety data, and regulatory affairs.
the reader will have an understanding of the pharmacokinetics and overall metabolism of iloperidone within the context of efficacy and safety.
time to peak plasma concentration occurs in 2 - 4 h but elimination half-life is 18 h for extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers and 33 h for poor CYP2D6 metabolizers, suggesting that once or twice daily dosing would be feasible. Dizziness and/or postural hypotension are the limiting factors for how fast iloperidone can be titrated, and is explained by iloperidone and its metabolites' norepinephrine alpha 1 antagonism. Efficacy of iloperidone appears similar to that for ziprasidone and haloperidol, but iloperidone may be inferior in efficacy to risperidone. Iloperidone can prolong the ECG QT interval. The tolerability profile of iloperidone is noteworthy in terms of modest weight gain, no medically important changes in lipid and glucose, little in the way of prolactin elevation, and an absence of extrapyramidal adverse effects, including akathisia.
Available from: Jian Wu
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a super family of phase I enzyme in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and medications. Most medications undergo deactivation by CYP, and then are eliminated through either bile or kidneys from the body. CYP isozymes play a crucial role in drug interactions that may result in enhanced toxicity, reduced efficacy or onset of adverse reactions. On the other hand, many agents affecting CYP expression and activity may alter metabolic rate of different medications co-administrated. Therefore, the molecular basis, regulation by inducers or inhibitors, and pharmacologic reaction of specific CYP isozymes are the key issues of biochemical mechanisms, pharmaceutical development and safe use of various medications. This book is to meet the needs from basic molecular biochemists, pharmacologists, pharmacists, medical students, clinical practitioners and scientists, as well as broad readers who wish to understand how an herbal extract, medication or natural supplement is metabolized or transformed in the liver or other sites for deactivation and elimination. Special focuses are paid to herbal extracts and medications in the treatment of neuro-psychiatric or cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and viral hepatitis. Detailed dissection of drug interactions in a particular field intends to provide rationales for useful guidance of safe drug use in daily practice. The contributing authors are basic scientists, pharmacists, pharmacologists and on-service physicians in cardiovascular, neuro-psychiatric, gastroenterologic and hepatologic fields from Europe (Germany, France, Portugal), Australia, the US and China. Thus, the book is the collection of master pieces by well-known experts from various regions of the world, and represents the current understanding of CYP enzyme reaction and a contemporary coverage of possible drug interactions in involved fields. The featured chapters are scientific elucidation of basic biochemistry, pharmacology and clinical investigations in the interest of drug metabolism, interaction and safe use guidance in the single focus of this microsomal enzyme with multi-facet metabolic function.
Available from: Philip G Janicak
- "Its elimination half-life (t1/2) ranges from 18 hours for extensive cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizers to 33 hours for poor metabolizers. The bioavailability of iloperidone is 96%.6 It is metabolized in the liver by the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzyme pathways and circulates 95% bound to serum proteins.6 "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disease with a worldwide prevalence of approximately 0.5%-1%. Since many patients do not achieve adequate symptom relief from available agents, alternate pharmacotherapeutic approaches are needed. In this context, iloperidone was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper first reviews its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles, emphasizing their clinical relevance. Next, it summarizes the literature on its acute and maintenance efficacy, safety, and tolerability. It then considers pharmacogenetic data which may help to predict response and risk of cardiac arrhythmias with this agent. Finally, it critically positions iloperidone relative to other first- and second-generation antipsychotics.
Available from: Leslie Citrome
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this article we investigate the post-launch retail prescription trends of asenapine (Saphris(®), Merck and Co.) and iloperidone (Fanapt(®), Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc./Novartis), two new atypical antipsychotics to launch in the United States market in October 2009 and January 2010, respectively. In the first 12 months following the asenapine launch, and in the nine months since the iloperidone launch, asenapine and iloperidone have secured 0.22 and 0.10 percent of the total prescription market; however, both products nearly double those respective shares when total prescriptions are isolated to new patient prescriptions (0.44% for asenapine and 0.17% for iloperidone). Since launch, asenapine has shown stronger signs of growth, largely attributed to its approval in multiple indications as compared to iloperidone's single indication.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.