Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics from 2000 to 2009 in Shanghai.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200001, China.
World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 10/2010; 16(40):5118-21.
Source: PubMed


To investigate the resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to 6 commonly used antibiotics from 2000 to 2009 in Shanghai.
A total of 293 H. pylori strains were collected from 2000 to 2009 in Shanghai and tested for their susceptibility to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, furazolidone, levofloxacin and tetracycline using agar dilution.
The resistant rates of H. pylori to clarithromycin (8.6%, 9.0% and 20.7%) and levofloxacin (10.3%, 24.0% and 32.5%) increased from 2000 to 2009 in Shanghai. The resistant rate of H. pylori to metronidazole remained stable (40%-50%). Only one strain of H. pylori isolated in 2005 was resistant to tetracycline. All strains were sensitive to amoxicillin and furazolidone. The resistant rate of H. pylori to antibiotics was not related with the sex, age and clinical outcome of patients.
Resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics plays an important role in making treatment strategies against H. pylori-associated diseases.

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    • "For example, in Shanghai, levofloxacin resistance increased from 10.3% in 2000 to 32.5% in 2009. A study from Beijing reported an increase from 27% in 2006–2007 to 63.5% in 2009 [6] [7]. BMT quadruple therapy has been recommended as a second-line therapy in European H. pylori treatments guidelines and many studies have reported good results with this quadruple schedule given for 10–14 days. "
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    ABSTRACT: To test the efficacy of lansoprazole, bismuth, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin therapy compared to bismuth metronidazole tetracycline (BMT) quadruple therapy for second-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. A total of 284 patients who failed prior H. pylori eradication were randomized to receive 14-day regimens containing lansoprazole 30 mg twice a day (b.i.d.), bismuth subcitrate 240 mg b.i.d., and either amoxcillin, 1 g b.i.d. and levofloxacin 500 mg once daily (qd) (levofloxacin/bismuth therapy) or metronidazole 400 mg four times daily (q.i.d.) and tetracycline, 500 mg q.i.d. (BMT quadruple therapy). Endoscopy and culture were performed before treatment. Antimicrobial susceptibility was by agar dilution. H. pylori status was determined 6 weeks after the end of therapy using a (13)C-urea breath test. The metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin resistance rates were 85.3%, 40.2%, 1.1%, and 0.5%, respectively. The intention-to-treat and per-protocol (PP) eradication rates were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 75.9-88.3%) and 88.1% (95% CI: 81.2-92.4%) (p = 0.22) for levofloxacin-bismuth (levo-bismuth) versus BMT quadruple, respectively, and PP rates were 85.4% (95% CI: 78.5-90.3%) and 90.6% (95% CI: 84.6-94.5%) (p = 0.18). Moderate and severe side effects were significantly higher with BMT quadruple than levo-bismuth (22.4% vs. 5%, p < 0.001) and higher in women (28.4%) than men (10.4%) in BMT quadruple therapy group (p = 0.015). Increasing fluoroquinolone resistance has undermined levo-bismuth quadruple therapy making BMT quadruple therapy a better choice empiric second-line therapy for H. pylori infection. However, compliance was significantly higher with levo-bismuth quadruple therapy, especially among women.
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is the single most important determinant of treatment success. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori resistance to clarithromycin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, tetracycline, levofloxacin, rifabutin, and furazolidone in our local bacterial strains. Samples from consecutive ninety patients were obtained for culture and sensitivity testing. Resistance to individual antibiotics were tested using the E-test and MIC(90) read from the strips. Resistance to rifampicin and nitrofurantoin were used as a surrogate for rifabutin and furazolidine. There was a high prevalence of resistance to metronidazole 68/90 (75.5%). No male (34/45 (75.5%) versus female (35/45 (77.7%) difference in frequency of metronidazole resistance was noted (p = 1.000). There was zero resistance (0) to clarithromycin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, and nitrofurantoin/furazolidone. Resistance to rifampicin/rifabutin was for breakpoints of 1 and 4 μg/mL of 14.4 and 2.2% respectively. Although there was high bacterial resistance to metronidazole, the absence of resistance particularly to the key antibiotics used in H. pylori eradication therapy: clarithromycin and levofloxacin is reassuring to note. Continued monitoring of antibiotic resistance should be carried out.
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