Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Its aetiology is still unknown.
To determine risk factors for genital LS in men.
In a case-control study, 73 patients with LS, consecutively diagnosed at the City Dispensary for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade, were compared with 219 male patients visiting the same institution because of tinea cruris. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for analysis of data collected.
According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors for male LS were as follows: a personal history of genital injury [odds ratio (OR) 28·1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5·2-150·8], vitiligo (OR 23·1, 95% CI 2·2-240·2), alopecia areata (OR 8·8, 95% CI 1·1-68·5) and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 3·1, 95% CI 1·1-8·2), and a family history of alopecia areata (OR 24·3, 95% CI 2·1-280·7), diseases of the thyroid gland (OR 9·1, 95% CI 2·3-36·2) and other autoimmune diseases (OR 8·6, 95% CI 1·3-58·6).
The results of the present study are in line with the hypothesis that trauma of the penis is a possible trigger of symptoms in genetically predisposed individuals and that personal and family histories of autoimmune disorders are risk factors for male LS.