Hepatitis C virus prevalence and serotypes associated with HIV in The Gambia
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) serotypes are important in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of HCV-related disease, but little is known of this connection in West Africa. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HCV and its serotypes associated with HIV in The Gambia. A total of 1500 individuals referred to the Royal Victoria Teaching Hospital for HIV serology between July and December, 2002 were screened for antibodies to HIV and subsequently for HCV, and seropositive samples were typed. This study shows HIV and HCV prevalence of 6.7% and 1.6%, respectively, with a co-infection rate of 0.6%. Serotype 2 showed the highest prevalence (58.1%), followed by serotype 1 (19.4%). Prevalence of HCV serotype 3 was 6.5% and five samples were untypeable. Co-infection of HIV-1 with HCV serotype 1 showed a prevalence of 44.4%, and with HCV serotype 2 of 33.3%. The findings support the evidence to suggest the West African subregion as the origin of HCV serotype 2. It also demonstrates the need for routine HCV screening of HIV-infected persons and blood donations, and calls for further studies to elucidate the sources of the HCV virus.
Available from: Samoel A Khamadi
- "Three patients (1%) were found co-infected with trio HIV, HBV and HCV infections in this study. These findings were similar to those obtained previously in Kenya
 and Ethiopia
 indicating a maintained low rates of these trio infections
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infections among HIV-1 infected individuals are growing worldwide health problems characterized by lack of effective vaccines, need for expensive treatment, chronicity of morbidity and associated mortality. Their prevalence and distribution patterns continue to vary across geographical locations with high prevalence being detected among high risk populations. To determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV among HIV-1 infected individuals, blood samples were collected from consenting study subjects visiting comprehensive HIV clinics in Nairobi during the period between October and December 2009.
Blood samples from volunteers were screened with ELISA tests for detecting HIV, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies.
In a total of three (300) hundred infected individuals consisting of 129 (43%) males and 171 (57%) females 15.3% (46/300) were HIV-1 co-infected with either HBV or HCV or both, 10.3% (31/300) with HIV-1 and HCV and 6% (18/300) with HIV-1 and HBV infections. However, only three individuals (1%) were coinfected with the three viruses (HIV/HBV/HCV).
Though, low levels of co-infection with all three viruses were reported, there could be higher prevalence rates than reported here especially among high risk populations.
Available from: Vincent Okoth
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ABSTRACT: HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses coinfection is common in Sub-Saharan Africa due to similar routes of transmission and high levels of poverty. Most studies on HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses have occurred in hospital settings and blood transfusion units. Data on Hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV-1 coinfection in informal urban settlements in Kenya are scanty, yet they could partly explain the disproportionately high morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1 infections in these slums.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C dual infection in urban slums in Nairobi.
Blood samples were collected from residents of Viwandani and Korogocho between 2006 and 2007. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data from participants. Samples were screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1. Statistical analysis was done using STATA.
Samples were successfully collected from 418 (32%) men and 890 (68%) females. The HIV-1, HBV and HCV prevalence was 20.4%, 13.3% and 0.76% respectively at the time of the study. Of the 268 (20.4%) HIV-1 positive participants, 56 (4.26%) had HBV while 6 (0.46%) had HCV. Of the 1041 HIV-1 negative participants, 117 (8.9%) had HBV while 4 (0.31%) had HCV. Only two people (0.15%) were co-infected with all the three viruses together.
The odds of getting hepatitis infection were higher in HIV-1 participants (for HBV OR 2.08,p<0.005 and for HCV OR 5.93, p<0.005). HIV prevalence rates were similar in both informal settlements. HIV infection was highest in age group 35-39 years and among the divorced/separated or widowed. Prevalence of all viruses was highest in those who did not have any formal education.
The HIV prevalence in these informal settlements suggests a higher rate than what is observed nationally. The prevalence rates of HBV are significantly higher in the HIV-1 positive and negative populations. HCV as well as triple HIV-1, HBV and HCV coinfection are uncommon in Korogocho and Viwandani. This clearly indicates the need for HIV-1 control programmes and hepatitis B virus vaccination to be promoted through public awareness as preventive strategy.
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART).
We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab) at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection.
Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2%) were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4%) were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be <40 years (84.4% vs. 61.4%; P=0.01) when compared to those who were not coinfected. Patients with active hepatitis B were more likely to have mild to moderately elevated AST/ALT (40-199 IU/L, 15.8% vs. 5.4%; P=0.003). Highly elevated liver enzymes (>200 IU/L) was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5). We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease.
HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.
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