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College knowledge: A critical component of college and career readiness

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Abstract

Policy has traditionally emphasized the completion of academic requirements as the gateway to postsecondary education. There is, however, growing understanding that youth need to develop a wide range of knowledge, skills, abilities, and personal resources for career success, civic engagement, and lifelong learning. It also is necessary to address the social, informational, and financial barriers to college that many first-generation and low-income youth come up against. Allowing youth to participate in programs that provide access to college campuses and classes, through dual or concurrent enrollment, early college models, or expanded learning opportunities, is an effective way to help students gain college knowledge and see themselves as college students. This article offers an expanded definition of college and career readiness and profiles three programs drawn from a larger review of twenty-three programs designed to support college and career success for students from underrepresented groups.

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... For example, Texas has created a P-16 database and implemented innovations with high school counseling (Oliva, 2008). Hooker and Brand (2010), in their study of partnerships and programs directed at increasing college readiness and knowledge of high school students, concluded by recommending that legislators should promote providers sharing common objectives leading to college and career readiness, support programs that help students and families build college knowledge, and assist K-12 schools and colleges to collaborate more extensively. Hooker and Brand also suggested that many community providers can assist with providing the knowledge that students need to succeed in college. ...
... Over 400 questions demonstrated students' thirst for college knowledge (Conley, 2008;Hooker & Brand, 2010) and awareness that transitioning from high school to college would require developing new skills to navigate the college milieu. If one envisions college readiness as a stool upon which students sit to draft their unique blueprint for college success (see Figure 1), high school counselors have done an admirable job advising in terms of academic preparation as well as college and financial aid application. ...
... Partnering so as to provide students with information on how to "do college," what David Conley (2008Conley ( , 2010 and others (see Tierney et al., 2013) refer to as "college knowledge", could assist in a successful college transition. This is not a new or novel revelation (see Hooker & Brand, 2010;Oliva, 2008). The Association for the Study of Higher Education partnered with the Pell Institute on the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education for the express purpose of connecting researchers and practitioners in meaningful dialogue centered on college readiness and success (ASHE, 2016). ...
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This article describes the questions and concerns students from rural communities in a frontier state have about transitioning to college. Findings from the study have resulted in several interactive virtual tools and face-to-face programs to support students' development of college knowledge. The authors advance the need for greater partnerships between college and high school staff in the college readiness domain and suggest admissions, orientation, and transition staff are well-suited to lead such research-to-practice partnerships.
... They found that the K-12 interventions appeared to be most effective in improving students' college access when they provided highquality instruction and academic advisement (Horn & Nunez, 2000). Similarly, Hooker and Brand (2010) reviewed and compared the impacts of interventions that are designed to improve urban students' college readiness. In their program evaluation study, the areas of rigor and academic support appeared to be the most important shared aspects of the programs in terms of promoting college readiness and success. ...
... School leaders are also responsible for creating an academic program and scheduling system that gives equal access to college preparatory and advanced placement courses for all students (Toldson, Braithwaite, & Rentie, 2009). In summary, to improve every student' s academic preparedness for college, school leaders are held responsible for ensuring that every underprivileged urban child receives high quality instruction, a rigorous curriculum, and systematic academic advisement and support (ACT, 2005;Choy, 2001;Gandara & Bial, 2001;Hooker & Brand, 2010;Horn & Nunez, 2000). ...
... Due to a lack of contextual information and guidance about college admission processes, many urban students graduate ready to attend four-year colleges, but never apply or enroll (Dynarski & Scott-Clayton, 2007;Hooker & Brand, 2010). Many urban students find online college application processes very stressful and complicated, and they do not receive sufficient guidance and support during their college application and college transition journey (Griffin, Allen, Kimura-Walsh, & Yamamura, 2007). ...
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Disparities in college access for underrepresented urban students are one of the most urgent educational problems of America’s education system. In response to growing national concern, this longitudinal study investigated how school leaders worked collaboratively with key stakeholders to implement research-supported student services in order to improve college access for underrepresented urban students. The quantitative investigation showed that when educational leaders and key stakeholders worked collaboratively to deliver comprehensive student services, urban students in a high-poverty school district experienced measurable benefits in terms of their college enrolment. This study may be of particular value to policymakers, school leaders, and educators concerned with the low college access rates of students in urban schools, as well as to those who are seeking to understand what works betterto prepare urban students for post-secondary education.
... For example, Texas has created a P-16 database and implemented innovations with high school counseling (Oliva, 2008). Hooker and Brand (2010), in their study of partnerships and programs directed at increasing college readiness and knowledge of high school students, concluded by recommending that legislators should promote providers sharing common objectives leading to college and career readiness, support programs that help students and families build college knowledge, and assist K-12 schools and colleges to collaborate more extensively. Hooker and Brand also suggested that many community providers can assist with providing the knowledge that students need to succeed in college. ...
... Over 400 questions demonstrated students' thirst for college knowledge (Conley, 2008;Hooker & Brand, 2010) and awareness that transitioning from high school to college would require developing new skills to navigate the college milieu. If one envisions college readiness as a stool upon which students sit to draft their unique blueprint for college success (see Figure 1), high school counselors have done an admirable job advising in terms of academic preparation as well as college and financial aid application. ...
... Partnering so as to provide students with information on how to "do college," what David Conley (2008Conley ( , 2010 and others (see Tierney et al., 2013) refer to as "college knowledge", could assist in a successful college transition. This is not a new or novel revelation (see Hooker & Brand, 2010;Oliva, 2008). The Association for the Study of Higher Education partnered with the Pell Institute on the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education for the express purpose of connecting researchers and practitioners in meaningful dialogue centered on college readiness and success (ASHE, 2016). ...
Article
This study explores the relationships between a students’ family communication environment and factors that facilitate a successful transition into higher education. Results from 423 first-year students suggest that coming from a family that encourages open communication is related to how confident they feel about their academic performance, growing up, and managing their personal finances (i.e., transition efficacy). Coming from a family that celebrates communication is also related to the degree to which students are skilled at talking with others. Taken together, transition efficacy and communication skill are important factors for student success. Practical implications of this study are promising for both student affairs professionals and family members who want to help their students succeed.
... Other widely used research or practitioner models oriented toward preparing youth for life after high school typically focus on college-going interventions (see Hooker & Brand, 2010;Knight & Marciano, 2013), college and career readiness (see Conley, 2007), or the C3 Framework (e.g., college, career, civic life; National Council for the Social Studies, 2014). Another framework considers how youth forge pathways between college, career, and their cultural identities (Cooper, 2011). ...
... Black and Latino family members (e.g., parents, extended family, fictive kin) support and encourage postsecondary educational ambitions in spite of systemic barriers (Sánchez et al., 2006), limited "college knowledge" (i.e., understandings of the college admission process) (Hooker & Brand, 2010), and minimal understandings of financial aid (Carey, 2016(Carey, , 2018(Carey, , 2019aGoings & Sewell, 2019). Black and Latino adolescent boys also rely heavily on fictive kin to serve as proximal college and career role models and motivators (Carey, 2016;Scott & Deutsch, 2021). ...
... Assuredly, schools are both academically formative contexts and sites of "possibility" (Gibbs Grey, 2018), where postsecondary future selves are imagined and enacted. However, simply inserting "college knowledge" (Hooker & Brand, 2010) into programs and curricula is neither comprehensive nor developmentally appropriate (Savitz-Romer & Bouffard, 2012;Schneider & Stevenson, 1999). Instead, if schools are to be successful in fully supporting the postsecondary future selves of adolescents from marginalized communities, educators must develop programs that reinforce and thread the overlapping domains of college, career, and condition that youth absorb from home. ...
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As researchers and school stakeholders determine ways to best support Black and Latino adolescent boys from low-income communities in actualizing their postsecondary future ambitions, more attention is needed on the types of futures these boys imagine and how family members influence this process. Guided by future orientations and possible selves frameworks, this school-based ethnographic study investigated the ways families influenced what the author calls the “postsecondary future selves” of Black and Latino (i.e., U.S.-born Salvadoran) 11th-grade boys ( N = 5). Described as what youth conceptualize as possible, likely, and expected for their lives after high school, postsecondary future selves considers three future domains: “college” (postsecondary education), “career” (postcollege employment trajectory), and “condition” (expected financial stability, relational and familial prospects, future living arrangements, happiness, and joy). Findings indicate that families built their boys’ capacities for envisioning and making strides toward ideal futures. Finding “success,” “being somebody,” and “having a future” underscored familial messages that emphasized the salience of college going in obtaining a career and life condition that would lead their boys to finding pride and fulfillment. Implications support stakeholders in building adolescents’ efficacy for threading linkages between college going and college majors, career trajectories, and expected life conditions, thus complementing familial-based supports.
... For example, Texas has created a P-16 database and implemented innovations with high school counseling (Oliva, 2008). Hooker and Brand (2010), in their study of partnerships and programs directed at increasing college readiness and knowledge of high school students, concluded by recommending that legislators should promote providers sharing common objectives leading to college and career readiness, support programs that help students and families build college knowledge, and assist K-12 schools and colleges to collaborate more extensively. Hooker and Brand also suggested that many community providers can assist with providing the knowledge that students need to succeed in college. ...
... Over 400 questions demonstrated students' thirst for college knowledge (Conley, 2008;Hooker & Brand, 2010) and awareness that transitioning from high school to college would require developing new skills to navigate the college milieu. If one envisions college readiness as a stool upon which students sit to draft their unique blueprint for college success (see Figure 1), high school counselors have done an admirable job advising in terms of academic preparation as well as college and financial aid application. ...
... Partnering so as to provide students with information on how to "do college," what David Conley (2008Conley ( , 2010 and others (see Tierney et al., 2013) refer to as "college knowledge", could assist in a successful college transition. This is not a new or novel revelation (see Hooker & Brand, 2010;Oliva, 2008). The Association for the Study of Higher Education partnered with the Pell Institute on the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education for the express purpose of connecting researchers and practitioners in meaningful dialogue centered on college readiness and success (ASHE, 2016). ...
... First-year seminars are a high-impact practice shown to help incoming first-year students orient and transition to college (Kuh, 2008). Often, these courses target students' college knowledge, or understanding of the expectations of higher education (Hooker & Brand, 2010). Lack of college knowledge (i.e., expectations, language, values, beliefs, behaviors) may hinder student success (Oliveri, Funke, Clark, & Seifert, 2018). ...
... Lack of college knowledge (i.e., expectations, language, values, beliefs, behaviors) may hinder student success (Oliveri, Funke, Clark, & Seifert, 2018). Another obstacle may be a scarcity of mentors to help students understand how the academic demands of college differ from those of high school (Hooker & Brand, 2010). Cultural navigators (i.e., faculty, staff, coaches, advanced students) with experience in higher education can help students apply their own cultural backgrounds to navigate the rigors of college (Strayhorn, 2015). ...
... In addition, undergraduate institutions might consider undertaking efforts to build college knowledge earlier through outreach programs and/or formal initiatives with area high schools. For example, Hooker and Brand (2010) describe programs that build college knowledge (e.g., Early College High Schools and Citizen Schools) in order to introduce and reinforce higher education's norms and expectations so that high school graduates are prepared to apply their college knowledge upon transitioning to postsecondary institutions. ...
Article
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Most college orientation programs include sessions on diversity-related topics (NODA, 2014). Yet, bias-motivated behavior continues to affect post-secondary institutions. Heterosexual White college men are often responsible for this behavior and also disengage from campus diversity efforts more than any other student group. The Straight White College Men Project, a multi-institutional qualitative research study with 92 participants, explored what attracts or repels students from campus diversity efforts. Findings directly inform the ways orientation professionals can challenge heterosexual White college men to engage in diversity efforts during and after orientation programs. Recommendations for orientation professionals are presented.
... Current literature often documents challenges that unique populations face in being college and career ready. For example, first-generation students as well as black boys and men are likely to be academically underprepared and may lack critical knowledge on college-going processes, all of which make it difficult to persist in higher education (Ahram et al., 2011;Hooker andBrand, 2010, Vega et al., 2012). Although this information is helpful, current literature is limited as it relates to decision-making processes related to enrolling postsecondary opportunities. ...
... Similarly, first-generation college students do not have the same sources of support as non-first-generation students such as parents who understand the process of adjusting to college (Woosley and Shepler, 2011). Research has found that all students need to understand the complex college admission and selection process, the academic requirements for college work, the options available to them, how to pay for postsecondary education and the cultural differences that exist between high school and postsecondary education (Hooker and Brand, 2010). ...
... Although many students aspire to attend a four-year college and understand the opportunities an advanced degree will allow, some, particularly first-generation college students, have little understanding of the academic and social preparation necessary to actually enter a four-year college and to be successful in such a setting. Also, the majority of these students do not receive college and career counseling on the range of postsecondary options or are given limited guidance on how their individual academic plan matches their postsecondary aspirations (Hooker and Brand, 2010). This important information, or "college knowledge," includes a thorough understanding of college admissions, testing and curricular requirements, application processes, college options and choices, tuition costs and financial aid, college culture and course rigor and expectations and necessity of increased higher education (Conley, 2007). ...
Article
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Purpose Little attention is given to black male experiences and decision-making process around college-going. A qualitative study (interpretive phenomenological analysis [IPA]) was conducted using a strengths-based perspective to understand the experiences of three first-generation black men college students attending a predominately white institution. Superordinate themes include perceived benefits to attending college, barriers to college admission and attendance and influential programs and supports. Recommendations for school counselors helping black males are included. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a narrative approach to illustrate the stories and experiences captured by the three young men who participated in the study. Hays and Singh (2012) suggested using a narrative approach for telling the stories of marginalized groups. IPA (Smith, 1996) was the approach used to identify superordinate themes, because the authors wanted to better understand the participants’ K-16 experiences. As a qualitative approach, IPA provides detailed examinations of personal lived experiences on its own terms rather than pre-existing theoretical preconceptions. Findings The participants’ accounts clustered around three superordinate themes: perceived benefits to college, barriers to college admission and attendance and influential programs and supports. Originality/value Although there are studies that provide insight on the factors that impact first-generation, black men’s success in attending college, there are few studies that have used a strengths-based perspective to investigate key experiences that lead to college enrollment. Those experiences that lead first-generation black male to attend college are pivotal and provide insight into important points of intervention and support. School counselors and other educators can use these insights to inform practices and the creation of supports for black men in their respective schools.
... Students more involved in planning their educational and career futures are also more likely to be engaged in school, succeed academically, and pursue postsecondary education (Plasman, 2018). Providing students with resources can support the process of establishing future goals, which can inform post-school planning and also enhance their high school experience (Hooker & Brand, 2010). Most research, to date, has focused on FGCSs and their academic or career development experiences after they arrive at college, mostly 4-year university settings (e.g., Garriott et al., 2015;Ma & Shea, 2019). ...
... Informational and emotional supports are critical to academic and career development and can influence decisions regarding college attendance (Bell et al., 2009;Moschetti & Hudley, 2015). Providing students with information about college and careers enhances the relevance of their high school experience, increases school engagement, and informs them of the necessary steps to prepare for postsecondary education and future careers (Gibbons et al., 2006;Hooker & Brand, 2010). Knowledge about college may include practical information about how to plan for and enroll in college, such as academic requirements, college application, college costs, and financial aid (Bell et al., 2009); it may also include applied learning opportunities and exposure to the world of postsecondary education, such as college-level coursework and college campus tours (Hooker & Brand, 2010). ...
... Providing students with information about college and careers enhances the relevance of their high school experience, increases school engagement, and informs them of the necessary steps to prepare for postsecondary education and future careers (Gibbons et al., 2006;Hooker & Brand, 2010). Knowledge about college may include practical information about how to plan for and enroll in college, such as academic requirements, college application, college costs, and financial aid (Bell et al., 2009); it may also include applied learning opportunities and exposure to the world of postsecondary education, such as college-level coursework and college campus tours (Hooker & Brand, 2010). Information about and exposure to different careers during high school can help students decide on a career and understand educational requirements to obtain that career (Gibbons et al., 2006). ...
Article
Data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 were used to describe and compare postsecondary education enrollment patterns of first- and continuing-generation students. Social cognitive career theory was used to explain the processes of educational and career pursuit and attainment, as well as personal, behavioral, and contextual/environmental factors influencing these processes. Postsecondary educational self-efficacy (i.e., a belief or confidence in future educational success) had a significant positive influence on establishing higher postsecondary educational goals for all adolescents. Postsecondary educational self-efficacy and goals, together, also had a substantial positive influence on postsecondary enrollment patterns of both groups. Self-efficacy exerted a stronger total effect for first-generation students. Contextual supports and barriers directly influenced students’ goals but played different roles depending on generational status.
... It is important to recognize that first-generation Latinx students are more likely than their peers to not know how to pick, apply for, enroll in, and pay for college (Hooker & Brand, 2010;Karp, 2012;Perna, 2006;Perna & Jones, 2013;Valadez, 2008;Vargas, 2004). Valadez (2008) found that first-generation Latinx immigrant students were less likely to enroll in college even when they were academically prepared because neither they nor their family understood the steps required to complete financial aid paperwork, college entrance exams, or college applications. ...
... 24). Hooker and Brand (2010) argued that because the communities that firstgeneration students live in are less likely to possess knowledge of the college enrollment process, these students often lack access to social networks that can help them to understand the process. ...
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Capitalizing on Latinx students’ aspirational, linguistic, social, navigational, familial, resistant, perseverant, and spiritual community cultural wealth (CCW) can help school counselors empower Latinx students. We outline and integrate critical race theory and CCW and demonstrate how communities of color bring assets and protective factors with them to their educational settings. We also examine how school counselors can utilize these eight forms of CCW to promote postsecondary opportunities for Latinx youth. Aprovechar las ventajas que ofrece la riqueza cultural de la comunidad (CCW, por sus siglas en inglés) de estudiantes latinxs y su capital aspiracional, lingüístico, social, familiar, espiritual, de navegación, de resistencia y de perseverancia puede ayudar a los consejeros escolares a empoderar a estudiantes latinxs. Perfilamos e integramos la teoría crítica de la raza y el modelo de CCW y demostramos cómo las comunidades de color aportan recursos y factores de protección a sus entornos educativos. También examinamos cómo los consejeros escolares pueden utilizar estas ocho formas de CCW para potenciar las oportunidades disponibles para jóvenes latinxs después de su educación secundaria.
... College-ready students practice proacademic behaviors such as time management, self-advocacy, and studying (Sullivan & Guerra, 2007), and hone social-emotional skills like teamwork and cultural sensitivity (Achieve, 2004). Third, college knowledge refers to familiarity with the procedural and cultural expectations of postsecondary education (Hooker & Brand, 2010). For instance, students should know how to complete applications and secure financial aid. ...
... Students' sensemaking echoed many aspects of current CR research. What students reported about navigating the admission process-registering for the SAT, researching college options, completing applications, and submitting financial aid forms-embodies what researchers have termed college knowledge (Hooker & Brand, 2010). Consistent with the literature on CR indicators (Porter & Polikoff, 2012), participants recognized the importance of courses, grades, and test scores. ...
Article
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Policy efforts to enhance postsecondary access and completion often emphasize the construct of college readiness (CR). While most research has focused on defining and measuring CR, less has examined the perspectives of first generation students and the urban high school contexts in which many prepare for college. This study utilizes data from an ethnography of college preparation in a low-performing urban high school. Drawing on sensemaking theory, I explore how high-achieving college-bound seniors make sense of CR and what factors shape their sensemaking. Findings offer insight into how CR discourses manifest at the local level to shape opportunity for urban youth.
... Best practices include encouraging academic achievement, building students' college aspirations, informing students of college options, helping students with the admission and financial aid processes, and providing access to college counseling. Guidance with the logistical aspects of college admission is particularly important to enhance the college knowledge of first-generation students, who may be unfamiliar with the application process (Bell, Rowan-Kenyon, & Perna, 2009;Hooker & Brand, 2010). Research has also highlighted the need to cultivate students' social, emotional, and behavioral skills to help them navigate college campuses and the cultural expectations of postsecondary settings (Conley, 2014). ...
... Since early colleges do not include athletics or theater programs, principals went out of their way to provide nonacademic enrichment opportunities. Research on college readiness has implicitly addressed the value of social and emotional development by emphasizing, for example, how students must be able to navigate a college campus (Hooker & Brand, 2010). However, the research on college-going cultures does not explicitly emphasize opportunities for extracurricular involvement (Corwin & Tierney, 2007). ...
Article
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Early college high schools, which allow underrepresented students to earn up to an associate’s degree during 9th through 12th grades, have been lauded for their potential to increase college access and opportunity. Yet little is known about the role of the principal. Using data drawn from 10 administrators in the borderlands of West Texas, this qualitative study uses an instructional leadership framework to explore how early college principals support students’ college preparation at the intersection of secondary and postsecondary education.
... The publication window for the identified articles was between 1999 and 2018, with "college readiness" descriptions emerging in the literature in 2007 (Conley, 2007a(Conley, , 2007b. The term "college and career readiness" was not used in articles until 2010 (Hooker & Brand, 2010). ...
... As evidenced by the dates of publications using the term CCR (the earliest being Hooker and Brand (2010)), the concept of CCR is rather new to education policy as well as in the scholarly literature. Previous to this, the terms "work readiness" and "college readiness" had been used (see Conley, 2007b). ...
Article
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A systematic review was conducted to understand the extent of empirical support for College and Career Readiness (CCR) frameworks and whether or not students with disabilities (SWD) are included in these frameworks. We identified 26 articles that showed a complex set of domains with both academic and nonacademic skills. Findings showed few studies reported empirical research concerning CCR frameworks for SWD and there was a strong emphasis on college and academic outcomes. Suggestions for future research include studies that further support or identify areas of weakness in proposed CCR frameworks, better clarification of CCR nonacademic skills, and the development of accompanying measures to broaden the understanding of CCR and ultimately inform policy and practice.
... Also important is college knowledge, which refers to the skills needed to navigate the admissions process, including registering for required exams, researching colleges and scholarships, completing applications and seeking help when needed, submitting financial aid forms, and so forth. These tasks may exhaust or frustrate students who do not have an immediate support network, particularly low-income, first generation college students (Bell, Rowan-Kenyon, & Perna, 2009;Hooker & Brand, 2010). Byrd and MacDonald (2005) identified 10 aspects of college-readiness organized around three categories of skills, among them college readiness skills (e.g., academic skills, time management, goal focus, self-advocacy). ...
... In Study 2, most of the themes that emerged from the dialogues between students and advisers over the summer resonate with the theme of college knowledge (Bell et al., 2009;Hooker et al., 2010). Students may not feel that they have had the opportunities for academic preparation to attend college (Duncheon, 2018) and may question whether they have both the organizational and self-regulation skills to balance the increased academic workload and lack of direct supports in college (McAlister & Mevs, 2012). ...
... Defining college and career readiness (CCR) is not a straightforward task due to both the wide variability in state-level definitions and conceptions of what it means for students to be "ready" for their chosen postsecondary paths and the evolution of terminology and aspects of readiness that are considered in the extant literature (Hooker & Brand, 2010;Monahan et al., 2020). Despite this variation, however, most conceptions of CCR recognize its multifaceted nature, encompassing academic knowledge, awareness of the steps needed to enact postsecondary goals, communication and selfadvocacy skills, and individual aspirations and perseverance (Hooker & Brand, 2010;Lombardi et al., 2013;Martinez et al., 2017;Mishkind, 2014;Monahan et al., 2020). ...
... Defining college and career readiness (CCR) is not a straightforward task due to both the wide variability in state-level definitions and conceptions of what it means for students to be "ready" for their chosen postsecondary paths and the evolution of terminology and aspects of readiness that are considered in the extant literature (Hooker & Brand, 2010;Monahan et al., 2020). Despite this variation, however, most conceptions of CCR recognize its multifaceted nature, encompassing academic knowledge, awareness of the steps needed to enact postsecondary goals, communication and selfadvocacy skills, and individual aspirations and perseverance (Hooker & Brand, 2010;Lombardi et al., 2013;Martinez et al., 2017;Mishkind, 2014;Monahan et al., 2020). ...
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College and career readiness has become a national education policy priority. With more than 9.3 million rural students in the United States, the college and career readiness of rural students is a warranted priority for rural education researchers. Using a combination of Conley’s (2012) college and career readiness model, Perna’s (2006) nested model of college choice, and Social Cognitive Career Theory (Lent et al., 2014), we systematically reviewed and analyzed the extant literature on rural students’ college and career readiness. In addition to providing a comprehensive discussion of the prominent themes in the literature, we provide recommendations for future research on rural students’ college and career readiness as well as changes to college and career readiness standards and practices that would better align with the strengths and needs of rural students, schools, and communities.
... Previous research has documented challenges and barriers to college readiness, access, and retention for underserved youth (Hammond et al., 2007;Hooker & Brand, 2010). However, there is a limited body of research documenting the daily realities and critical perspectives of high school teachers, administrators, and students regarding career and college preparation services and supports available within their school systems and communities (Duncheon, 2018). ...
... Beyond these experiences, focus group participants highlighted the key role of relationships with trusted adults who can mentor and guide youth during their high school years. Teachers, counselors, community members, and other mentors can serve as sounding boards and advocates, and our focus group findings reinforced previous studies that have described the important role of consistent supportive relationships in building confidence and career self-efficacy (Hooker & Brand, 2010;Welton & Martinez, 2014). Individual connections with caring adults in concert with active engaged learning experiences can provide these youth with "a road out of high school" and a clearer pathway to career and college readiness. ...
Article
This study solicited perspectives of underserved youth and educators who serve them regarding college and career readiness. We defined underserved youth as adolescents who experience inequitable access to educational resources. Purposeful sampling was used to select 84 focus group participants including educators and students (9–12th grade). Utilizing grounded theory analysis, focus group data revealed findings in three key categories. First, student and educator participants defined readiness as specific career knowledge and skills to develop concrete postschool plans. Second, both educators and students perceived limited availability of career preparation experiences as a barrier, while educators also provided examples of challenging life circumstances which deter youth from fully realizing their college and career potential. Third, educators and students reported that providing a broad array of career related learning activities, coupled with the presence of trusted adults who serve as mentors and guides, can create capacity for young people to expand career options.
... Researchers contend that being college ready involves not only possessing academic knowledge, but also a set of certain skills and behaviors (i.e. good study habits) needed to survive and complete one semester of college courses successfully without remediation (Hooker & Brand, 2010;Mijares, 2007). In Texas, additional predictors of college readiness are also used via students' high school exit-level exams. ...
... Once this was done, 134 potential participants of the original 407 were selected to participate in this study. The researchers contacted these potential participants to verify if they had indeed completed one semester of college, thus proving to be "college ready" as defined by Mijares (2007), as well as Hooker and Brand (2010). One hundred and eight students were contacted through telephone calls, using the contact information given to the researchers by the school district. ...
... A substantial consequence of this approach is that it privileges information over the process of using it. College planning is reduced to information, treated as bankable currency, rather than a meaningful experience (Brown et al., 2016;Chajet & Stoneman-Bell, 2009;Hooker & Brand, 2010). ...
Article
As high school college counselor caseloads increase, they have less time for consistent one-on-one counseling to support students with college planning. Thus, for many students – particularly those in large or under-resourced schools – the process is depersonalized, focused on simply distributing information. Drawing on narrative and ethnographic research, this paper explores a unique program that positions young people as paid college access professionals in their schools. Findings show that these students – Youth College Counselors (YCC) – make college planning a more student-centered, meaningful experience. Strategies YCCs engage with to support peers are examined to shine a light on how YCCs use their unique position inside schools to rethink college planning. YCCs resist a dominant narrative of young people, particularly those who live in marginalized communities, as objects onto which policy happens, and instead serve as school change actors. Findings suggest that high schools must create space in policy and practice to thoughtfully position students as agents of school change.
... John, Fisher and Hu, 2011). This research has focused predominantly on college-oriented reforms that pertain to academics' or students' knowledge about postsecondary education Hooker and Brand, 2010), and more recently, instructional practices and discourses that enhance college-level rigor (Athanases et al., 2016). ...
Article
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As workforce participation increasingly requires a college degree, ensuring that more students from traditionally underrepresented populations have the opportunity to enter and complete college is an equity imperative. To that end, high school reforms have promoted “college-going cultures” in low-performing high schools through interventions such as rigorous course offerings and college counseling. College access research has focused on issues specific to academics and college-going processes. Yet this research has tended to ignore broader school climate factors such as school safety and extracurricular programming, which may play a critical role in postsecondary opportunity, especially for historically underserved students. The current study applies hierarchical generalized linear modeling to the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 to 2006 to examine the role of college-going culture and high school climate characteristics on college enrollment and persistence. We find that while some components of college-going culture are associated with the likelihood of college enrollment and persistence, that relationship is moderated by school climate factors. We conclude that efforts to implement a college-going culture may struggle if extracurricular opportunities, school safety, and overall school climate issues are ignored.
... Colleges need to truly develop students' career readiness through an integrated curriculum such as fundamental courses in math, literacy, and science (Park, Pearson & Richardson, 2017); collaborating with career service training and businesses so that students can develop the right skills employers anticipate (Vito, 2017); while addressing academic performance, helping student engage and stay motivated, while making informed choices (Hooker & Brand, 2010); recognizing cultural and family factors influence students' decision making and career readiness (Fan et al., 2014); offering studentcentered initiatives to identify their needs and challenges and providing relative trainings and workshops (Tchorzynski, 2017). As Student 3 of College A expects, faculty understanding of academic performance might be different from the expectation for such basic skills. ...
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This study aims to bridge the gap between the Millennial college students’ career preparedness and workforce expectations, by hearing Millennials’ voices, and helping university career development offices make necessary changes, thereby assisting the Millennial college graduates’ transition to the workforce.
... "We find that middle school, when students' quests for identity are on overdrive, is an optimal time to help students deeply explore the rich and diverse possibilities for futures that connect to the things that bring them joy" (Burkins et al., 2016, p. 20). Supporting middle school students, including those with disabilities, in developing career knowledge and a college-going identity helps students see the relevance of school and remain engaged throughout middle school and high school (Hooker & Brand, 2010). ...
Article
Engagement and academic success in middle school is critically important to ensure students with disabilities complete high school and have a viable path to and through postsecondary education. Although most middle school students say they want to pursue postsecondary education or training, a significant proportion are not actively engaged in college and career readiness (CCR) activities in middle school. This transition in practice article highlights the importance of early CCR instruction for middle school youth with and without disabilities. Lessons learned from developing an online CCR curriculum and implementing it with middle school youth in inclusive middle school settings will be shared. Access to and comfort with technology, the need for age-appropriate content, and strategies for universally designed curriculum will be addressed. Recommended practices and available resources will be offered to expand educator focus on CCR with middle school youth with a wide range of disabilities.
... They are presented with a chance to align their identities as they relate to their discipline. Acquiring postsecondary knowledge involves not only learning technical content but also understanding how to navigate the social, cultural, and emotional elements of higher education (Hooker and Brand 2010). Developing students' comfort with these social, cultural, and emotional elements of undergraduate student learning can help them develop their sense of belonging within their discipline by making positive relationships and relating to how their discipline is practiced (Dymnicki 2013). ...
Article
The Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) Department at Rowan University is part of a growing and expanding college at Rowan University. The overwhelming majority of CEE students are white, male, and from middle class backgrounds, but previous efforts to increase diversity have been unsuccessful. In June 2016, the CEE Department was awarded a 5-year National Science Foundation (NSF) grant to promote diversity and inclusivity, and has just completed its first year of intensive efforts to accomplish this. Efforts focus on increasing the number of underserved students in the program, including women and underrepresented minorities, addressing both visible (race/ethnicity and sex/gender) and nonvisible elements of diversity (including students who identify as LGBTQ, students who are first-generation-to-college, students with disabilities, and students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds) and promoting inclusivity through its curriculum, pedagogy, and climate. The paper presents results from (1) revisions to the admissions process; (2) a baseline survey of the climate for inclusivity perceived by students and faculty; (3) the development of a peer mentoring program; and (4) the development of inclusive pedagogy in sophomore and junior curriculum offerings.
... Undergraduates are generally in young adulthood, a time of diverse changes and challenges [1,2], it is a crucial time for individuals to decide on and prepare for a suitable occupation [3,4]. The nursing major guarantees high rates of employment, an important factor for Korean nursing students to consider, as they tend to choose their major based solely on recommendations of parents and others, rather than on their own aptitudes or interests [5,6]. ...
Article
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This study aims to evaluate a program promoting character strengths, positive psychological capital, learning flow, and sense of calling for nursing students. We conducted a concurrent embedded mixed methods study with 51 nursing students randomly classified into an intervention or a control group. The intervention group exhibited significantly higher scores than the control group for positive psychological capital, learning flow, and sense of calling. Program participation experiences were categorized as “change of views about oneself”, “change of views about the world”, “stress relief”, and “practice of positivity”. Among nursing students, this program demonstrated change toward a positive, committed, and meaningful life.
... Promoting college knowledge-which Hooker and Brand (2010) defined as the awareness of the college admission and selection process, the options available to assist in paying for postsecondary education, the academic requirements for collegelevel work, and the cultural differences between secondary and postsecondary education-can be regarded as a primary focus for the school counseling profession. ...
Article
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This study examined the self-efficacy of school counselors’ college knowledge in the college process. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five characteristic factors: school counselors’ knowledge related to the college application process, systems advocacy, direct services with disadvantaged populations, direct service with special populations, and coordination of college access events. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that both school counselors’ individual characteristics (e.g., years of experience, race/ethnicity, time engaged in advising, conducting lessons, and using technology and data) and ecological factors (e.g., school level, rate of college-going culture) were significant predictors of school counselors’ self-efficacy for promoting college knowledge. We discuss implications for equity and school counselors’ training.
... Students enter their undergraduate careers with knowledge and skills that help them navigate their college experience (Conley, 2007;Hooker & Brand, 2010); some students will have greater cultural capital that aligns with what is needed to succeed. We hypothesize that students who possess embodied cultural capital related to scientific research are more likely to obtain undergraduate research experiences. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Undergraduate research experiences are becoming essential for pursuing future opportunities in science, but little has been done to identify what factors predict which students get to participate in research and which students do not. In this manuscript, we propose “scientific research capital” and specifically “scientific research cultural capital” as constructs to explain what students may need to know and do in order to successfully engage in an undergraduate research experience. We begin to articulate what comprises one component of scientific research cultural capital, embodied cultural capital, by identifying the knowledge that students may need to have in order to obtain an undergraduate research experience at a large, research-intensive institution where there are many more undergraduates vying for research positions than opportunities available. We interviewed 43 researchers, defined as undergraduates who had participated in research, and 42 non-researchers, defined as undergraduates who were interested in participating in research but had not yet successfully obtained a position, in a biology department at an R1 institution. We analyzed the data using inductive coding. Results We identified 10 “rules of research” or aspects of scientific research cultural capital that undergraduates reported about finding and securing undergraduate research. We used logistic regression to test whether undergraduate researchers were more likely than non-researchers to know particular rules. Researchers were more likely than non-researchers to know rules about securing research opportunities. Conclusions Since researchers were more likely than non-researchers to know rules related to securing research, educating students about how to secure research experiences and encouraging faculty to re-examine the criteria they use to admit students into their labs may be a key step in leveling the playing field for students who are vying for research positions. We propose that the construct of scientific research cultural capital can help publicize the hidden curriculum of undergraduate research so that students can more equitably gain access to undergraduate research.
... Leadership is solving problems and employees lose confidence in leaders who do not have PS skills, and this creates a dangerous environment (Powell & Persico, 2010). Leadership and PS are both widely accepted as skills which high school graduates must possess to be successful in the current workforce and in higher education (Hooker & Brand, 2010). Friedel (2014) postulated that "leadership is dependent on solving a problem" (p. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to unveil the role of leadership styles in problem solving at the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. The participants were 356 bankers who took part in the study voluntarily. Leadership styles (transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire) were measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X (Bass & Avolio, 2000) while Basadur's Simplex Problem-Solving Model was used to measure the problem solving skills of employees at the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. In data collection, a convenience sampling technique was used. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to investigate the relationships between leadership styles and problem solving. Findings revealed that problem solving skills was positively correlated with transformational leadership (r=0.56, p<.01) and transactional leadership (r=0.36, p<.01) while it was negatively correlated with laissez-faire leadership (r=-0.10, p<.01). Results also showed that the demographic characteristics shared a negligible correlation with leadership styles and problem solving skills. An important implication of the study is that adequate training should be provided for developing leadership skills of the bankers so that they can make valuable contributions for finding appropriate solutions to problems. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are also discussed.
... Social capital within the university setting can accrue not only through mentor relationships but also through other personal and family experiences (Aschbacher et al., 2010;Margolis et al., 2000). Consequently, familial and institutional-specific experiences of "collegegoing culture" (Hooker & Brand, 2010) are not as accessible to first-generation students or those who transferred into a particular institution. ...
Article
Full-text available
Disciplinary identity, or connection to a particular academic discipline, is constructed through a developmental process across a scholar’s academic life course. Using unique data from an online survey of students at four different colleges and universities, we investigate the extent to which disciplinary identity among undergraduate researchers reflects motivations for participating in research and varies by student discipline. We document key differences in disciplinary identity based upon two internal motivators, intellectual interest and grit, as well as demographic characteristics. We discuss implications for institutions and undergraduate programs desiring to encourage students to participate in undergraduate research.
... Many students, particularly those from first-generation, low-income, and underrepresented backgrounds lack the knowledge and skills critical for career preparation. As a result, they have limited career readiness (Hooker, & Brand, 2010;Tate, Caperton, Kaiser, Pruitt, White, & Hall, 2015). One way to prepare students is to help them assume the role of human resources professionals who make hiring decisions (i.e., role reversal). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research shows students often do not understand the expectations of employers and, as a result, how to prepare recruiter-relevant career communication. To help our students, we conducted a role reversal exercise where we asked students to put themselves in the shoes of recruiters and to make decisions as if they were actual recruiters hiring candidates who best met the job criteria listed in a job description. The exercise was designed to help students develop effective resumes and to prepare for job interviews. Students reported that the exercise changed the way they usually prepared resumes and approached job interviews. The exercise made them aware of the importance of including specific and relevant information on resumes and gave them insight as to the types of questions they should anticipate in job interviews.
... Inclusive and welcoming environment Online information for parents: listing library hours, printing services, special events Parent session on library services for Orientation or Admit weekend Regular updates: newsletter, social media that parents could subscribe to most commonly cited challenge for first-generation students, 42 and, as a core academic support, libraries should make sure that students know how to use their resources and services. Several of the recommendations listed in table 2.4 focus on ways to make sure these students understand how the library can support them as soon as they start college, including working with first-generation orientations and admissions offices to show the library as a clear and prominent part of the college experience. ...
... Despite systemic and cultural barriers, having minimal "college knowledge," or a grasp of academic and financial requirements for college access (Hooker and Brand 2010), Latinx families from low-income communities deploy cultural logics to support their youths' college going in other ways (Carey 2016;Kiyama 2011;Knight and Marciano 2013;Varghese and Fuentes 2020). Latinx families shape college-going mindsets with "historias familiares" (family stories), "consejos" (cultural narratives providing advice and direction), and "dichos" (proverbs) (Auerbach 2004;Delgado-Gaitan 1994;Marrun 2020;Ramirez et al. 2020;Valdés 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
I investigated how two U.S.‐born Salvadoran eleventh grade boys formulated college‐going mindsets at the nexus of family‐based cultural influences, adolescent development, masculinity, and academic self‐appraisals. With asset‐based theories, findings show how immigrant families encouraged college going by shielding their sons from noneducational responsibilities and conveyed educational messages with words and deeds. Participants formulated mindsets by interpreting family‐ and school‐based messaging and weighing college going against gender‐based responsibilities. Implications for educational anthropologists and practitioners are provided.
... Success in college also depends on students' ability to adapt to a different cultural environment that requires students to be able to operate more independently (Hooker & Brand, 2010). Thus, skills such as time management, organizational management, study skills, the ability to collaborate with others, and the ability to advocate for oneself take on increasing importance (Byrd & MacDonald, 2005;Conley, 2007), but these are areas in which underrepresented populations, such as first-generation college-goers, may struggle (Collier & Morgan, 2008;Roderick et al., 2009). ...
Article
Early colleges are a new model of schooling in which the high school and college experiences are merged, shortening the total amount of time a student spends in school. This study uses a lottery-based experimental design to examine the impact of the model on longer term outcomes, including attainment of a postsecondary credential and academic performance in 4-year institutions. Results show that a significantly higher proportion of early college students were attaining postsecondary credentials. The results also show that early college students were completing their degrees more rapidly but that their performance in 4-year institutions was still comparable with the control students.
... An equally important line of inquiry involves identifying the factors that motivate students to seek out this highimpact activity (e.g., Albertine, 2011; Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University, 1998). Once students arrive on campus, it is important for them to have knowledge of the resources available to them that lay the groundwork for success (Holland & Farmer-Hinton, 2009;Welton & Martinez, 2014); being aware of UR opportunities may be part of that knowledge (Hooker & Brand, 2010). Existing research has suggested that initial interest or personal motivation may be necessary but not sufficient to explain potential differences in UR participation (Hurtado, Cabrera, Lin, Arrellano, & Espinosa, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
The positive impact of undergraduate research experiences on students’ post-secondary success is well-documented. However, these conclusions are drawn from under-graduate students who already participate; very little research has explored the pathways bywhich students enter these experiences. Using data from a multi-institutional survey, weexamined students’ reasons for participating and differences across institutions and demo-graphic groups. Overall, students cited social and experiential reasons as key motivators forparticipation and a perceived lack of research readiness as a key barrier. Differences were alsofound across academic year. Implications from this study address issues of access, preparation,and institutional policies around undergraduate research.
... The article published in 2006 described a paradigm for "work readiness" (Bickel, 2006), while "college readiness" descriptions began emerging in the literature in 2007 (Conley, 2007). The term "college and career readiness" was not used in articles until 2010 (Hooker & Brand, 2010). CCR is a newer concept in the research, and it is important to continue to conduct studies that explore CCR frameworks from a variety of perspectives. ...
Article
For many students with disabilities (SWD) earning a degree is a common aspiration, yet many SWD report difficulty with enrolling and earning credits in postsecondary education and securing and maintaining competitive employment (Lipscomb et al., 2017). In order to address the needs of students who aspire to obtain postsecondary education and competitive employment, federal legislation has highlighted the importance of College and Career Readiness (CCR) and holding high expectations for all students, including those with disabilities (ESSA, 2015). However, there is a paucity of research examining teachers’ post-school expectations of SWD. Therefore the purpose of this study was to develop and validate the CCR-TES, an instrument that measures the post school expectations that educators have for SWD and those without. The CCR-TES has one factor, CCR, which include academic and non-academic skills. The instrument functions similarly for general education and special education teachers. The overall CCR-TES score for items pertaining to SWD showed that teachers “slightly agree” that SWD can acquire these CCR skills. Finally, the following covariates did not act as predictors of CCR expectations: school setting, level of student support need, highest level of teacher education, and number of years the teacher had been teaching. Implications for teachers, researchers, and policymakers are discussed.
... However, this theory does not take into account other factors such as interest, value, aptitude, and achievement (Sharf, 2000). Looking at today's career challenges, a number of other aspects need to be taken into account by individuals in making career choices which include career assurance (Stanley et al., 2014), individual maturity (Mansor and Rashid, 2016) and understanding of job market expectations (Hooker and Brand, 2010), thus enabling individuals to make proper career planning and selection for them to obtain a career that not only suits them and their personality but also provides a source of income for individuals to continue living (Mustapa and Abdullah, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
An important measure of success for a college and career readiness program is the extent to which its participants achieve their higher education and career goals. We examined one such program, Bridge to Employment (BTE), to determine its influence on participants’ educational and career‐related decisions and outcomes after they graduated from high school. The BTE program works with 14‐to‐18‐year‐old students in disadvantaged communities across the globe to increase their awareness and understanding of health careers and higher education opportunities. We interviewed 23 former BTE participants, representing different countries and BTE participation time frames, to provide critical qualitative insights about their experiences, years after the program. Key recommendations for college and career readiness programs include exposing participants to a wide variety of careers, strengthening soft skills, clarifying practical steps to prepare for college and careers, and providing support for interpersonal relationships.
Chapter
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In this chapter, the design, implementation, benefits, and challenges of using a Facebook application, College Connect, are presented. College Connect was designed to address the persistent educational problem of college access in the United States, part of which stems from students’ lack of social capital, the human and information resources available to them in their social networks that can provide needed information, such as how to apply to, enroll in, and pay for college. College Connect, a social networking application which runs on Facebook, the parent platform, was designed to help address this problem by creating a network visualization of each student’s Facebook Friends network and showing the student who within the network has college information in their Facebook profile. In this chapter, we explain the theory and procedures that led to the design of the College Connect application, the process of launching the application, and the benefits and challenges of implementing it with adolescent students preparing for college.
Article
This case study explores the first year college transition experiences of a cohort of eight first generation Latinx students who graduated from the same low-performing urban high school. Drawing on Tara Yosso’s (2005) model of community cultural wealth, I examine the challenges students confronted at their respective postsecondary institutions and highlight connections to their high school preparation. Findings demonstrate how students mobilized aspirational, navigational, social, and familial wealth to overcome barriers and persist. This study suggests the value of applying asset-based frameworks to understand the college pathways of students of color.
Article
Hospitality management schools have to ensure that their graduates are “ready” to start their career; hence, it is important to explore the perceived career readiness of graduates. The research goal of this paper is to explore the attributes contributing to the perceived career readiness of hospitality management students. An online survey was adopted and 302 completed surveys were collected. The results indicate that students’ perception of career readiness is significantly impacted by the curriculum of hospitality management programs. Our finding suggests the need for collaboration between industry and industry training partners (i.e. educational bodies) to make sure the curriculums of hospitality management programs are updated in accordance with industry trends, and students’ are able to learn the requisite skills and knowledge of the industry.
Chapter
Academic advising is at the forefront of conversations in higher education (Drake,2011). The mentoring relationship that occurs between students and advisors can bebeneficial for both students and institutions, yet academic advising programs may notoffer a quality mentoring relationship able to impact student success. When properlyconstructed, quality academic advising can have a positive impact on a student'sundergraduate experience, as well as directly connecting to student persistence. Ifnot constructed properly, the adverse reaction on student success may occur, andparticularly can negatively impact student retention. The following chapter willexplore quality academic advising, the means by which quality academic advisingcan be provided, the connection of quality academic advising to student persistenceand methods to assess the academic advising process.
Article
In the UN climate negotiations, national delegations cannot contribute equally. Scholars have shown that “developed” countries exert greater influence than “developing” nations. This study examines how these inequalities between delegations materialize under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Drawing on 30 interviews and over 200 hours of observation at five UNFCCC meetings, I ask (1) how are institutional structures in the UNFCCC aligned with normative ideals of national development; (2) how do these ideals impact the experiences of national delegations and their negotiators; and (3) what does this reveal about institutional inequality and privilege in this context? Building on institutional and organizational studies of work and literature on Developmental Ideals, I identify four characteristics of an ideal delegation to the UNFCCC that are based in norms of national development and privileged by the structures of the institution: they are large, English-speaking, equipped with Western scientific and legal expertise, and have the ability to send the same negotiators year after year. I demonstrate how non-normative countries that cannot send an ideal delegation find that the institutional structures prohibit them from engaging effectively. Ultimately, they must develop coping mechanisms to creatively compensate for their systemic disadvantages.
Article
Going to college is an expectation for many students, but this is not always the norm for many minority families. The decision to leave the comfort of home for college includes many family discussions and literacy practices that greatly affect a student. Studying family literacy practices such as storytelling and “cuentos y consejos” allows us to understand the concerns families possess as their daughters transition from home to college.
Chapter
Adolescents in high school are faced with many opportunities and challenges, which may direct their future path towards higher education and career development. The future orientation among Bahamian adolescents was looked at from an integral lens. The beliefs and goals Bahamian adolescents had for their future were explored and included present actions and plans students proposed to realize these goals. Further, the expectations adolescents perceived others had for them and the perceptions they held for themselves, including outside influences and systems that impact adolescents' implementation and realization of their goals were identified. The use of Wilber's integral methodological pluralism, supported by mixed methods research, gathered phenomenological, hermeneutical, and empirical data from members of the school and the community involved in a private high school in the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. Studies on future orientation with adolescents in other countries provided a comparison for and offered additional insight into the phenomenon of college and career readiness.
Book
Navigating the Transition from High School to College for Students with Disabilities provides effective strategies for navigating the transition process from high school into college for students with a wide range of disabilities. As students with disabilities attend two and four-year colleges in increasing numbers and through expanding access opportunities, challenges remain in helping these students and their families prepare for and successfully transition into higher education. Professionals and families supporting transition activities are often unaware of today’s new and rapidly developing options for postsecondary education. This practical guide offers user-friendly resources, including vignettes, research summaries, and hands-on activities that can be easily implemented in the classroom and in the community and that facilitate strong collaboration between schools and families. Preparation issues such as financial aid, applying for college, and other long-term planning areas are addressed in detail. An accompanying student resource section offers materials for high school students with disabilities that secondary educators, counselors, and transition personnel can use to facilitate exploration and planning discussions. Framing higher education as a possible transition goal for all students with disabilities, Navigating the Transition from High School to College for Students with Disabilities supports the postsecondary interests of more than four million public school students with disabilities.
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The present work describes the development of a new measure of school counselors' perceived self-efficacy regarding their knowledge of information and processes necessary to effectively guide their students through the college transition process. Researchers developed the School Counselor Efficacy for College Knowledge Questionnaire and examined data from a national sample of 600 school counselors to determine its psychometric properties and factor structure. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported use of a modified five-factor model. Results showed strong internal consistency and preliminary evidence for convergent and divergent validity of the resultant scales.
Article
As educational stakeholders endeavor to prepare more students for postsecondary success, the construct of college readiness has gained national attention. Scholarly perspectives vary regarding what constitutes readiness, but even less is known about the perceptions of secondary educators tasked with preparing college-ready students. Drawing on interview data and sensemaking theory, we explore the perspectives of 108 teachers working in eight early college high schools in a border region of Texas. Findings suggest teachers rely primarily on their personal and professional experience to make sense of college readiness, resulting in wide variation with respect to how they approach it in their classrooms. The article closes with implications for policy and practice.
Article
This study compared the performance of bilingual learners, educated in either a Transitional Bilingual (TB) or Dual Language (DL) program, on the Reading and English portions of the nationally recognized college entrance exam, the American College Test (ACT). A statistically significant difference was found on the t-tests run for the Reading (p > .000) and English (p > .000) portions of the ACT exam. Outlined in the Texas Uniform Admission Policy (TUAP) are recommended minimum scores students should meet in order to be deemed “college ready.” In the area of Reading, the TB comparison group (10.8%) had less than the DL comparison group (51.8%) meet the recommended minimum score outlined in the TUAP. Similar findings were found on the English portion of the ACT exam. A smaller percentage of participants in the TB comparison group (9%) meet the TUAP recommended minimum score for English than the DL comparison group (59.1%). By and large, DL participants out-performed the TB participants in this study.
Article
Background Demographic characteristics are known to influence participation in cocurricular activities. Less studied are the effects of other background characteristics. Purpose We hypothesize that considering college knowledge and students' proactive behaviors in tandem with demographics provides better models for predicting such participation. Method We developed a questionnaire and administered it to 3,618 domestic third‐ and fourth‐year undergraduate engineering students at a large public R1 Midwestern university, yielding 860 responses. Logistic regression models predicting five types of cocurricular participation were constructed with demographic characteristics, college knowledge, and proactive behaviors in all combinations as predictors. Results Four of five types of cocurricular participation were better modeled using factors beyond demographics. Two were better modeled using only proactive behavior as predictors and two were better modeled using demographics in combination with either college knowledge or proactive behavior. Only one type of participation could be best predicted by demographics alone. Conclusions These findings contribute quantitative evidence establishing relationships between participation in engineering cocurricular activities and a wider range of factors than previously reported. Furthermore, they provide guidance for creating intervention programs because, unlike demographics, college knowledge and proactive behavior can be shaped by either the individual or the institution.
Article
Students are seeking ways to enhance their networking and skills to secure employment opportunities after graduation. To facilitate this endeavor, hospitality programs are taking on different initiatives to engage students with the hospitality industry. This study explores student perceptions of the importance of a variety of career engagement initiatives. An online survey was adopted, and 295 completed surveys were collected. The results of this study show that personal preparation, social interaction, and industry participation were perceived as the most important factors in career engagement.
Conference Paper
ABSTRAK Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menguji peranan efikasi kerjaya sebagai pembolehubah perantara kepada faktor personaliti dalam menjangkakan kesediaan kerjaya pelajar universiti. Kajian berbentuk tinjauan secara keratan rentas silang ini dilaksanakan ke atas 311 orang pelajar tahun akhir universiti. Instrumen yang digunakan untuk mengukur personaliti adalah Big Five Inventory (BFI), Self-Efficacy Sources Scale (SESS) untuk mengukur efikasi kerjaya manakala kesediaan kerjaya diukur menggunakan instrumen yang dibangun berdasarkan kemahiran-kemahiran kesediaan kerjaya. Analisis inferensi menerusi model struktural Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling Technique (PLS-SEM) menggunakan SmartPLS 3.2.7 telah diaplikasikan untuk menganalisis hubungan pengantaraan tersebut. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan efikasi kerjaya mempunyai kesan pengantaraan positif yang signifikan berdasarkan hubungan tidak langsung bagi kelima-lima tret personaliti yang dikaji iaitu kesetujuan (β=0.036, t=2.291), kehematan (β=0.045, t=2.462), ekstraversi (β=0.084, t=3.768), kestabilan emosi (β=0.040, t=2.801) dan keterbukaan (β=0.074, t=2.909) dengan kesediaan kerjaya. Dapatan kajian ini menguatkan hujah bahawa efikasi merupakan elemen yang penting dan tidak boleh diabaikan dalam merangka aktiviti pembangunan kerjaya pelajar bagi menghasilkan kesediaan kerjaya mereka. Aktiviti yang dilaksanakan perlu berteraskan sumber-sumber efikasi serta tret personaliti bagi mencapai kesediaan kerjaya pelajar universiti yang lebih baik.
Article
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Since 2004, the Consortium on Chicago School Research (CCSR) has tracked the postsecondary experiences of successive cohorts of graduating Chicago Public Schools (CPS) students and examined the relationship among high school preparation, support, college choice, and postsecondary outcomes. The goal of this research is to help CPS understand the determinants of students' postsecondary success and to identify key levers for improvement. The first report in this series, "From High School to the Future: A First Look at Chicago Public School Graduates' College Enrollment, College Preparation, and Graduation from Four-Year Colleges," [see ED499368] provided a baseline of where CPS stood as a school system. The first report suggested that "high schools must pay attention to guidance and support if students are to translate qualifications into college enrollment," but that report did not provide evidence to help educators think about how to do this. The purpose of this second report is to begin to fill this gap by looking closely at the ways in which students who aspire to attend four-year colleges participate in the college search and application process. It examines whether CPS students who aspire to four-year colleges are effectively participating in the college search and application process and where they encounter potholes on the road to college. Drawing on prior research, it examines both how students manage the college application process and what types of colleges students apply to and ultimately enroll in. First, are CPS students who aspire to attend a four-year college taking the steps they need to enroll in a four-year college? Second, do CPS students effectively participate in college search and get the support they need to make informed choices about what colleges they could apply to and what colleges may best fit their needs? A critical goal of this report is to understand where CPS students encounter difficulty and success as they navigate the college search and application process, as well as the extent to which high school educators can create environments that support students in thoroughly engaging in this process. The following are appended: (1) Description of Selectivity Ratings Used in This Report; (2) Data Used in This Report; (3) Adjusting for Missing NSC [National Student Clearinghouse] Data; (4) Variables Used in This Analysis; (5) Models Used in This Report; and (6) Summary of College Planning Websites. (Contains 2 tables, 35 figures, and 78 endnotes.) [This report was written with Karen Roddie, Jamiliyah Gilliam, and Desmond Patton. For "From High School to the Future: Potholes on the Road to College. Case Studies," see ED500518. For "From High School to the Future: Potholes on the Road to College. Executive Summary," see ED500677.]
Article
This publication describes 23 programs that have been proven to help young people successfully complete high school and be prepared for success in postsecondary education and careers. These programs represent a wide range of interventions, including school-wide reform initiatives, community-based afterschool services, work-based learning opportunities, and college access programs. From an analysis of the included programs, the report identifies common programmatic and structural elements that may contribute to their effectiveness and summarizes key outcomes. The publication also sets forth a logic model that illustrates the complexity of the process for youth to develop the foundational knowledge, skills, abilities, and personal resources required for success in careers, lifelong learning, and civic engagement, as well as the various systems and service providers that support youth at each step of the developmental pipeline. The report concludes with policy recommendations on how policymakers can support college- and career-readiness for all students. (Contains 2 figures and 301 footnotes.)
Article
Changes in the relationship between educational attainment and work-life earnings over the past 25 years were examined by using data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) to construct synthetic work-life earnings. CPS data collected in March 1998, 1999, and 2000 were analyzed by age, sex, full- or part-time work experience, race, Hispanic origin, and educational attainment groupings. The synthetic estimates were created by using the various study groups' 1-year annual earnings and summing age-specific average earnings for people aged 25-64 years. The resultant totals represent what individuals with the same educational level would expect to earn on average in 1999 dollars in a hypothetical 40-year working life. The following were among the key findings: (1) earnings increase with educational level, with average annual earnings ranging from $18,900 for high school dropouts to $25,900 for high school graduates, $45,400 for college graduates, and $99,300 for workers with professional degrees; (2) earnings differences by educational attainment compound over an individual's lifetime; (3) the educational gap between women and men is narrowing; and (4) educational attainment and work-life earnings vary by sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Detailed information about the study assumptions and limitations and the computational procedure are included. (Contains 10 tables/figures.) (MN)
IES poster presen-tation: The study of the effi cacy of North Carolina's Learn and Earn early college high school model—summary of early results
  • J Edmunds
  • L Bernstein
  • E Glennie
Edmunds, J., Bernstein, L.,& Glennie, E. (2009, June). IES poster presen-tation: The study of the effi cacy of North Carolina's Learn and Earn early college high school model—summary of early results. Durham: University of North Carolina.
Achievers and comparison high school study: Year 2 evaluation report
  • D. B. Baker
  • C. A. Gratama
  • H. R. Stroh
  • S. G. Scott
Current population reports, special studies
  • J. Cheeseman Day
  • E. C. Newburger