Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN (Impact Factor: 4.18). 11/2010; 8(10):1112-46.
Source: PubMed


Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women with 209,060 and 54,010 estimated cases of invasive breast cancer and female carcinoma in situ, respectively, in 2010. Approximately 39,840 women will die of breast cancer in the United States in 2010.(1) Risk factors for the development of breast cancer can be grouped into categories, including familial/genetic factors (family history, known or suspected BRCA1/2, TP53, PTEN, or other gene mutation associated with breast cancer risk); factors related to demographics (e.g., age, ethnicity/race); reproductive history (age at menarche, parity, age at first live birth, age at menopause); environmental factors (prior thoracic irradiation before age 30 years [e.g., to treat Hodgkin disease], hormone replacement therapy [HRT], alcohol consumption); and other factors (e.g., number of breast biopsies, atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS], breast density, body mass index). Estimating breast cancer risk for the individual woman is difficult, and most breast cancers are not attributable to risk factors other than female gender and increased age. The development of effective strategies for the reduction of breast cancer incidence has also been difficult because few of the existing risk factors are modifiable and some of the potentially modifiable risk factors have social implications extending beyond concerns for breast cancer (e.g., age at first live birth). Nevertheless, effective breast cancer risk reduction agents/strategies, such as tamoxifen, raloxifene, and risk reduction surgery, have been identified. However, women and their physicians who are considering interventions to reduce risk for breast cancer must balance the demonstrated...

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    ABSTRACT: The benefits and risks of exemestane for the primary prevention of breast cancer are discussed and compared with other breast cancer chemoprevention therapies. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) are the current mainstay for primary prevention of breast cancer. As an alternative, exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, has been evaluated for breast cancer prevention in postmenopausal women. A study of 4560 high-risk postmenopausal women taking exemestane 25 mg daily for a median of three years found a 65% relative reduction in the annual occurrence of invasive breast cancer compared with placebo (0.19% versus 0.55%; hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.70; p = 0.002) and a 53% reduction in invasive plus noninvasive breast cancer (0.35% versus 0.77%; hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27-0.79; p = 0.04). Adverse effects from exemestane are generally mild, with the most common being diarrhea, joint pain, and menopausal-related symptoms. Importantly, exemestane did not increase the risks of endometrial cancers, thromboembolism, cardiovascular events, or cataracts. However, joint stiffness and arthralgia were more common when compared with tamoxifen or raloxifene. Ongoing clinical trials with other aromatase inhibitors are underway to evaluate the benefits and long-term skeletal risks. Exemestane 25 mg daily taken for at least three years is a new option for the prevention of breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women. Indirectly compared with SERMs, exemestane has a similar frequency of bothersome adverse effects without the risk of thromboembolic events or endometrial cancer, though an increased risk of osteoporosis is of concern.
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical trial data on selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have demonstrated reduced breast cancer incidence in the prevention setting among high-risk women. We conducted an extensive review of clinical trials and recent published reports of barriers to uptake of breast cancer chemoprevention, to provide health care professionals with information to improve decision-making regarding chemoprevention. Despite the positive results of these trials, uptake of chemoprevention has been low due to barriers in identifying high-risk women, lack of understanding of risks and benefits, as well as concerns about side effects. Interventions designed to increase uptake have met with limited success. Clinicians can support women in informed decision-making about SERMs and AIs by effectively communicating breast cancer risk and enhancing knowledge about the risks and benefits of chemoprevention. Promoting uptake and adherence to chemoprevention holds promise for reducing the public health burden of this disease.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Current Breast Cancer Reports
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of Guide to Decide (GtD), a web-based, personally-tailored decision aid designed to inform women's decisions about prophylactic tamoxifen and raloxifene use. METHODS: Postmenopausal women, age 46-74, with BCRAT 5-year risk ≥1.66% and no prior history of breast cancer were randomized to one of three study arms:intervention (n=690), Time 1 control (n=160), or 3-month control (n=162). Intervention participants viewed GtD prior to completing a post-test and 3 month follow-up assessment. Controls did not. We assessed the impact of GtD on women's decisional conflict levels and treatment decision behavior at post-test and at 3 months, respectively. RESULTS: Intervention participants had significantly lower decisional conflict levels at post-test (p<0.001) and significantly higher odds of making a decision about whether or not to take prophylactic tamoxifen or raloxifene at 3-month follow-up (p<0.001) compared to control participants. CONCLUSION: GtD lowered decisional conflict and helped women at high risk of breast cancer decide whether to take prophylactic tamoxifen or raloxifene to reduce their cancer risk. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Web-based, tailored decision aids should be used more routinely to facilitate informed medical decisions, reduce patients' decisional conflict, and empower patients to choose the treatment strategy that best reflects their own values.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Patient Education and Counseling
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