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Abstract

Homeopathy is controversial because medicines in high potencies such as 30c and 200c involve huge dilution factors (10⁶⁰ and 10⁴⁰⁰ respectively) which are many orders of magnitude greater than Avogadro's number, so that theoretically there should be no measurable remnants of the starting materials. No hypothesis which predicts the retention of properties of starting materials has been proposed nor has any physical entity been shown to exist in these high potency medicines. Using market samples of metal-derived medicines from reputable manufacturers, we have demonstrated for the first time by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction and chemical analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), the presence of physical entities in these extreme dilutions, in the form of nanoparticles of the starting metals and their aggregates.

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... Several insightful perspectives attempted to explain the action of homeopathic remedies [9][10][11][12] . The impact of succussion on some homeopathic remedies, such as Echinacea 10 − 2 , Baptisia 10 − 3 , Baptisia 10 − 4 , Luffa 10 − 4 , and Spongia 10 − 6 , has been recently highlighted via the aid of droplet evaporation and statistical analysis; these samples have been manufactured in accordance with the European Pharmacopoeia rules for homeopathic drugs, and the authors have employed 0, 10, 100 succussion strokes for this study. ...
... A major concern regarding potentized solutions at high dilutions (30C, 200C, etc. ), beyond the Avogadro number that sets the dilution limit (12C) beyond which the original substance cannot be attended, is that the starting material 16 is not expected to be found at even the slightest amount. Nevertheless, in a study based on medicines obtained from metals, Chikramane et al. demonstrated the presence of the starting materials, in the form of nanoparticles, in extreme dilutions of 30C and 200C by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) 9 . ...
... Some of these results are sustained by the literature data; thus, the presence of gold, even at high potencies, 30C and 200C, of Aurum metallicum, which are beyond the Avogadro number, have also been shown in the papers of Chikramane et al. 9 and Rajendran 32 . In the Chikramane work, the elemental composition of TEM particles was identi ed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) investigation and sustained by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis 9 . ...
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Potentization is a process of successive dilutions and vigorous succussions of a substance or initial tincture. Transmission electron microscopy is adopted for the investigation of potentized ethanol- and water-based solutions of gold and reveals nanoparticles and various assemblies formed in accordance with the level of potentization. Raman spectroscopy is further applied in combination with artificial intelligence algorithms for the analysis of potentized purified water, unpurified water, and purified water-based gold solutions. The proposed methodology is promising and sound in distinguishing potentized and non-potentized spectra or spectra obtained at different levels of potentization.
... For his experiments, Hahnemann prepared medicines from a wide variety of natural products. 1 Homeopathy has been widely used around the globe for more than 200 years with its popularity fluctuating from time to time. While there are misgivings about its scientific validity, all along its history homeopathy showed therapeutic effectiveness in the cure of chronic and acute diseases. ...
... The fundamental reason for this situation is the high dilutions (HDs) and ultra-low doses used in homeopathy, whereby the physical existence of one single molecule of the starting material becomes hard to prove. 2 The dilution factor in homeopathic HDs exceeds Avogadro's number (6.023 x 10 -23 ) by several orders of magnitude, and thus one might not expect to find any measurable remnant of the starting material. 1 For instance, the dilution factor achieved in Ferrum metallicum (Ferr) 6c is 10 -12 ; and 10 -100000 in HD 50000(50M)c. 3 Hahnemann formulated a special method of preparation of homeopathic medicines by first triturating minerals and metals and then diluting and agitating the solution in a fixed and systematic order (potentization). ...
... Chikramane et al 1 used TEM, ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) and SAED (selected area electron diffraction) in the analysis of homeopathic drugs of metallic origin up to HD 200c. 1 Chikramane et al 1,16 suggested that once the bulk concentration is below a threshold of a few nanograms/milliliter (ng/ml) at the end of each dilution step, all of the NPs levitate to the surface and are accommodated as a monolayer at the top. This dominant population at the air-liquid interface is preserved and carried to the subsequent step, thereby giving raise to an asymptotic concentration. ...
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As a therapeutic tool high dilutions (HDs) are always at the center of controversies due to problems to validate them as a function of Avogadro’s number. Nevertheless, homeopathy is practiced around the world as a complementary and alternative medicine. The present study sought to evaluate HDs of homeopathic drug Ferrum metallicum (Ferr) 6, 30, 200, 1M, 10Mc and 50Mc, all of which except for 6c surpass Avogadro’s number. Using HRTEM and EDS it was conclusively shown that: 1) all the investigated HDs of Ferr contained plenty of nanoparticles (NPs); 2) the size of NPs were within the quantum dots (QD) size range, except for 50Mc, in which larger particles were found (12.61nm); 3) NPs contained iron in various weight percentages; 4) the weight percentage of iron was highest in HDs 10Mc and 50Mc.
... 10,11 More recently, nanoparticles of elements corresponding to the starting material from which the homeopathic sample was made were postulated. [12][13][14][15][16] This launched the idea that the many interesting properties of nanoparticles, which are currently being researched, could serve to explain homeopathic treatment effects. [12][13][14][15][16] To complete the picture, we mention a fourth approach that invokes non-local effects found in extensions of the quantum theory to macroscales, such as the Weak Quantum Theory (WQT). ...
... [12][13][14][15][16] This launched the idea that the many interesting properties of nanoparticles, which are currently being researched, could serve to explain homeopathic treatment effects. [12][13][14][15][16] To complete the picture, we mention a fourth approach that invokes non-local effects found in extensions of the quantum theory to macroscales, such as the Weak Quantum Theory (WQT). 17 This theory serves as a formal framework to describe possible quantum-like entanglement effects between the patient, the homeopathic substance, and the practitioner to describe the clinical effects of homeopathy. ...
... This group comprised 22 experiments (18 publications) where analytical methods were used to investigate homeopathic preparations against controls. 12,[14][15][16]33,40,55,60,81,82,103,117,[123][124][125][126][127][128] Three main topics were addressed: decrease of the concentration of potentized substances on dilution, leaching from potentiation vessel wall, and possible differences in concentration between homeopathic preparations and controls. ...
Article
Objectives: In parts I and II of our review of physicochemical research performed on homeopathic preparations, we identified relevant publications and analyzed the data in terms of individual experiments, looking for the most promising techniques that were used in the past. In this third part, we analyze the results of the experiments seeking to extract information about the possible modes of action underpinning homeopathic preparations. Methods: We summarized the results from the 11 experimental areas previously introduced, extracting the general findings and trends. We also summarized the results in terms of specific research topics: aging, medium used for potentization, sample volume, temperature, material of potentization vessel, and, finally, the use of molecules to probe homeopathic samples. Results: We identified a number of effects that appear consistently throughout the data: Differences to controls seem to increase with: time, moderate temperature, small samples volume, and in ionic medium, whereas high temperatures seem to abolish differences to controls. Based on the present analysis, there is no consistent evidence to date for the nanoparticle hypothesis to explain specific homeopathic treatment effects. However, the quantum coherence domain hypothesis, the dynamic water cluster hypothesis, and the weak quantum theory are still contenders and need to be further assessed experimentally. Conclusions: The field requires further targeted experimentation to validate past findings reporting differences between homeopathic dilutions and controls, and to expand these findings by specifically testing the three main working hypotheses that are currently at hand.
... Muchos de los seguidores de Hahnemann eran médicos que, como él, se encontraban desilusionados con la medicina de la época y habían probado los remedios homeopáticos en ellos mismos (13). Vale destacar, también, que el primer médico español que ejerció la homeopatía con sus pacientes fue el doctor Prudencio Querol de Badajoz en el año 1833 (14). En 1845 se creó la Sociedad Hahnemanniana Matritense, la primera asociación española de médicos homeópatas, que se esforzó por conseguir que la homeopatía fuese respaldada legalmente y que estuviese incluida en la enseñanza (13,14). ...
... Vale destacar, también, que el primer médico español que ejerció la homeopatía con sus pacientes fue el doctor Prudencio Querol de Badajoz en el año 1833 (14). En 1845 se creó la Sociedad Hahnemanniana Matritense, la primera asociación española de médicos homeópatas, que se esforzó por conseguir que la homeopatía fuese respaldada legalmente y que estuviese incluida en la enseñanza (13,14). En este marco de ideas, en el caso de Reino Unido, fue el doctor Quin, amigo y discípulo de Hahnemann, el que introdujo la homeopatía en el país. ...
... En este marco de ideas, en el caso de Reino Unido, fue el doctor Quin, amigo y discípulo de Hahnemann, el que introdujo la homeopatía en el país. Este médico fundó en 1849 el London Homeopathic Hospital, que jugó un gran papel en la epidemia de cólera de 1854 teniendo un 50% menos de mortalidad que los hospitales de medicina convencional (14). En 1844 fundó la British Homeopathic Society (actualmente Faculty of Homeopathy), con el objetivo de promover la formación de nuevos homeópatas (13,14). ...
Article
Full-text available
La Homeopatía se asume como un método terapéutico que nace en el continente europeo en el ocaso del siglo XVIII en correspondencia a las iniciativas y observaciones del médico alemán Samuel C. Hahnemann. Su estudio es significativo, en virtud de su gran aceptación, incluso, en países que la caracterizan como medicina complementaria, a pesar del desencuentro entre seguidores y detractores. Objetivo: El propósito de esta investigación implica el estudio de diferentes visiones de la homeopatía como terapia complementaria desde una aproximación teórica para su discusión. Metodología: Se constituye en una investigación de carácter documental, tanto bibliográfica como digital. Resultados: Existen posiciones encontradas, en relación a la aplicabilidad de la homeopatía en el área de salud. Por eso existen numerosos estudios y experiencias que apoyan ambos enfoques. Destacan, además, que aun cuando se consideran de relevancia los postulados de Hahnemann en los orígenes de la Homeopatía, en la actualidad, parece transitar en muchos casos por sustentos que se orientan al sentido comercial razón por lo cual, dentro del grupo defensor alertan de esta situación, para evitar nuevos tropiezos al ya difícil recorrido de esta terapia. Conclusión: La discusión parece interminable, no obstante, puede inferirse que, a pesar de la aceptación popular y las evidencias presentadas por muchos practicantes profesionales de la Homeopatía, su trascendencia, integración y aplicabilidad en los sistemas de salud, aun, dependerá de la convergencia de la comunidad académica.
... The various literature of Homeopathy medicines suggest that colloidal solutions are more effective with higher potentization/dilution (composed of serial dilutions and vigorous triturations/successions beyond Avogadro no-10 23 ). Multiple studies about homeopathic potencies and nanoparticles (NPs) have been published [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . The study published by Chikramane et al. [6,8] , showing the presence of starting material in the form of nanoparticles, has been the most pivotal. ...
... Multiple studies about homeopathic potencies and nanoparticles (NPs) have been published [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] . The study published by Chikramane et al. [6,8] , showing the presence of starting material in the form of nanoparticles, has been the most pivotal. Following this study, multiple advancements have been made further to understand the complex interactions of homeopathic medicine. ...
... It is important to note that, as per previous observations, [6,20] NPs are found in higher dilution medicine samples, but the origin of nanoparticle formation is not reported so far. Based on the current observation, we can clearly see that the nanocrystalline Au NPs are formed during the trituration process itself. ...
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The physical and chemical properties of the colloidal solution change as a function of the concentration of nanoparticles. Here, we have studied the effect of systematic ultra-low dilution (up to 10200 times) of gold nanoparticle colloidal, revealing the mechanism of colloidal formation in such extreme dilution. Optical spectroscopy confirms the presence of nanoparticles with narrow size distribution and high surface activity in higher dilutions (up to 10200 times) colloidal solution. Particle size analysis of the serially diluted solution shows that the size distribution becomes more-narrow with increasing dilution. Transmission electron microscopy confirm the presence of nanoparticle up to 10200 times dilution. The process of dilution introduces an active carbon layer on these particles. The understanding of such extreme dilution can be utilized in biomedical applications, especially in the Homoeopathy system.
... 22 In succussed ultrahigh dilutions of drugs/toxic substances used in homeopathy as medicines, such nanoparticles are present. [23][24][25][26][27] Evidence confirms that hormesis is a generalized adaptive response that may be further generalized to nanoscale xenobiotic challenges. 28 A particle less than a 100 nanometer in size is called a nanoscale particle or nanoparticle. ...
... 66 Using probing tools of nanoscience, many independent research groups confirmed that nanoparticles are present in ultra-high dilutions used as medicines in homeopathy. [23][24][25][26][27]67,68 The vigorous shaking process used in homeopathy increases the water pressure in the glass bottle substantially. A lot of bubbles and nanobubbles are formed. ...
... They found that nanoparticles of the source-drug metals were present in them nearly in the same concentration 6C potency onward. 23 As these medicines were commercially made and purchased from the market, controls were not available to compare the results. Still, they claimed that these nanoparticles could survive sequential dilutions after 6C potency. ...
Article
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Serially diluted succussed solutions of a suitable drug/toxic substance can exhibit physicochemical and biological properties even far beyond Avogadro’s limit defying conventional wisdom. They can show hormesis, and homeopathy uses them as medicines. Many studies confirm that they can have an impact on gene expression different than controls. Water in the exclusion zone phase can have memory but for a short period. However, the nanoparticle as the physical substrate can hold information. Nanoparticle and exclusion zone duo as nanoparticle-exclusion zone shell can provide a prolonged memory. The Nanoparticle-Exclusion Zone Shell Model may be an important step toward explaining the nature and bioactivity of serially diluted succussed solutions used as homeopathic medicines. This model may also provide insight into the workings of hormesis. Hormesis is the primary phenomenon through which homeopathic phenomenon may have evolved exhibiting the principle of similars. Hahnemann exploited it to establish homeopathy. The nanoparticle-exclusion zone shells present in the remedy, selected on the principle of similars, can be patient-specific nanoparticles in a symptom syndrome-specific manner. They can carry the drug-specific information for safer clinical applications in an amplified form for high yielding. It suggests homeopathy is a type of nanopharmacology.
... Muchos de los seguidores de Hahnemann eran médicos que, como él, se encontraban desilusionados con la medicina de la época y habían probado los remedios homeopáticos en ellos mismos (13). Vale destacar, también, que el primer médico español que ejerció la homeopatía con sus pacientes fue el doctor Prudencio Querol de Badajoz en el año 1833 (14). En 1845 se creó la Sociedad Hahnemanniana Matritense, la primera asociación española de médicos homeópatas, que se esforzó por conseguir que la homeopatía fuese respaldada legalmente y que estuviese incluida en la enseñanza (13,14). ...
... Vale destacar, también, que el primer médico español que ejerció la homeopatía con sus pacientes fue el doctor Prudencio Querol de Badajoz en el año 1833 (14). En 1845 se creó la Sociedad Hahnemanniana Matritense, la primera asociación española de médicos homeópatas, que se esforzó por conseguir que la homeopatía fuese respaldada legalmente y que estuviese incluida en la enseñanza (13,14). En este marco de ideas, en el caso de Reino Unido, fue el doctor Quin, amigo y discípulo de Hahnemann, el que introdujo la homeopatía en el país. ...
... En este marco de ideas, en el caso de Reino Unido, fue el doctor Quin, amigo y discípulo de Hahnemann, el que introdujo la homeopatía en el país. Este médico fundó en 1849 el London Homeopathic Hospital, que jugó un gran papel en la epidemia de cólera de 1854 teniendo un 50% menos de mortalidad que los hospitales de medicina convencional (14). En 1844 fundó la British Homeopathic Society (actualmente Faculty of Homeopathy), con el objetivo de promover la formación de nuevos homeópatas (13,14). ...
... [3] Formation of nanoparticle at high potency [ Figure 1] has been well established by several authors. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8] It has been established that extreme homoeopathic dilutions retain starting materials. [5] Temgire et al. [7] have shown that metal and inorganic salt-based homoeopathic medicines retain the starting material as nanoparticles, encapsulated within a silicate coating. ...
... [2][3][4][5][6][7][8] It has been established that extreme homoeopathic dilutions retain starting materials. [5] Temgire et al. [7] have shown that metal and inorganic salt-based homoeopathic medicines retain the starting material as nanoparticles, encapsulated within a silicate coating. They proposed 'that all types of homoeopathic medicines consist of silicate-coated nanostructures dispersed in the solvent'. ...
Article
Background: The fact that homoeopathic medicines act even at very high dilutions has created a confusion amongst scientists. This led to different models such as formation of nanoparticles and memory of water. The basic question 'what is responsible for physiological activity of homoeopathic medicines' is yet to be answered conclusively. Objective: The objective of this overview was to find out if formation of nanoparticles or creation of quantum domain in the medium is responsible for the physiological activity of homoeopathic medicines. Methods: This overview is based on the experiments done between 2004 and 2019. Results: The succussion of the medicine has the following effects: i. At high potency, due to the mechanical energy transferred to the system, the size of the substrate reduces to nanodimension increasing membrane permeability. Furthermore, they affect several electrical properties of an electroactive polymer and enhance thermovoltage generation. ii. In the presence of an ambient electromagnetic field, domains composed of the vehicular polar molecules are formed, which bear the signature of the dissolved solute. The domains are sources of quasi-free electrons which are manifested in voltage generation separating two different polar media. The structured water also explains the ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) spectra. Conclusion: In high potency, formation of nanoparticles explains the effect of homoeopathic medicines on properties such as permeability, electrical properties of polymers and thermovoltage generation, whereas formation of domains in the vehicle medium explains properties such as voltage generation separating two different polar media and UV-Vis spectra.
... According to Article 1 of the Directive 2001/83/EC, of the European Parliament and the European Council a homeopathic medicinal product should not contain more than one part per 10000 of the mother tincture or more than 1/100th of the prescribed smallest dose used by established medicine with respect to active substances. Different studies indicate that the ultra-highly diluted succussed medicinal products, derived from solid source materials or liquid stocks, contain, among others, source nanoparticles [4,5,6,7], silicates [8,9], other less well-characterized structures or nothing [10] beyond 12C potency. Additionally, many hypotheses like water memory [11,12], epitaxy [13,14], clathrate formation [15], quantum theory [16] attempt to explain the retention of information of original active materials at ultra-highly diluted succussed solution products. ...
... Something which presented by Eq. (5)where 1 ðkÞ symbolizes the inverse of the z-average size dimension of particles which are contained in each r drop. Assuming that we have homogeneity and then P r ¼ N ðkÞ N which is necessarily supposed for homogeneous dilutions, then from the fraction numerator which is given by equation [4] we take for q6 ¼1: ...
Article
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The fact that many patients all over the world use homeopathic ultra high diluted succussed medicinal products, makes very interesting an explanation about the structure of them since until now only unconfirmed hypotheses are made. The present study focuses on the still unanswered questions about what happens with the chemical composition and the physicochemical properties of these products using Hypericum Perforatum L as a representative paradigm. All samples were prepared according to manufacturing procedures described mainly in S. Hahnemann's “Organon” and were examined by SEM, XRD, FTIR, DLS micro Mastersizer, DLS nano Zetasizer, UV-Vis and TEM. Measurements of electrical conductivity and pH were effectuated by the appropriate devices. During trituration of source material in alpha-lactose monohydrate some functional chemical groups present in source material disappeared and some others new ones came in view at the end of the process. A differentiation upon physicochemical properties between the source material and final triturating product was viewed, as well as micro-nanoparticles in colloidal form in all potencies derived trituration or extraction origin were present. The findings showed that the whole preparation process leads to the creation of micro nanoparticles something that for solid origin these products are created by trituration and for extract origin products these nanoparticles exist from the beginning.
... is not yet certainty about the actual mechanism of action of homeopathy, research by the Nobel Prize laureate Professor Luc Montagner (13) suggests that highly diluted solutions, such as those used in homeopathy, might emit electromagnetic signals similar to those of the original solute. Other studies have reported that highly diluted solutions may induce the formation of nanomolecules, which can mimic the action of the original solute (14). These nanomolecules may further influence physiological processes in the human body (14). ...
... Other studies have reported that highly diluted solutions may induce the formation of nanomolecules, which can mimic the action of the original solute (14). These nanomolecules may further influence physiological processes in the human body (14). Previous case reports and case series suggested that homeopathy could be useful in a wide variety of cutaneous disorders, including acne (15,16), psoriasis (17), recalcitrant generalized lichen planus (18) and cutaneous lymphoma (19). ...
Article
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Elephantiasis nostras is a chronic disorder that is difficult to treat. It is characterized by marked lymphedema, associated with hyperkeratosis, ulceration, deep skin folds and a cobblestone appearance of the skin. Causes include parasitic and bacterial infections, neoplasia and obesity, but numerous cases have uncertain aetiology. Treatment includes surgery and medication, which are associated with variable results. In the present study, a 72-year old female with renal insufficiency presented with leg enlargement of 3-4 years duration, which rendered her housebound. Examination showed massive lower limb enlargement, with typical cobblestone appearance. She was on furoseminde 80 mg/day. A diagnosis of elephantiasis nostras was made. Then, she was treated with increased furosemide from 80 to 120 mg daily and homeopathic Apocynum cannabinum, CH30 potency, t.d.s. Unavailability of corresponding fit excluded the use of compressive stockings. The patient remitted over 18 months, with limb diameters dropping from 68/46 cm (right mid-calf/ankle) and 67/43 cm (left mid-calf/ankle) to 64/43 cm (right mid-calf/ankle) and 64.5/45 cm (left mid-calf/ankle) at 6 months, 63/42 cm (right mid-calf/ankle) and 65/41 cm (left mid-calf/ankle) at 12 months, and 46/35 cm (right mid-calf/ankle) and 48/36 cm (left mid-calf/ankle) at 18 months, with improvement of skin appearance. Elephantiasis nostras is not spontaneously remitting. In this resource-limited setting, furosemide combined with homeopathic Apocynum cannabinum has proved valuable and may be used for similar cases.
... Homeopathy is emerging as nanomedicine. Recent studies state clearly that homoeopathically prepared medicines (HMs) contain source nanoparticles (NPs) (Aabel et al. 2001;Jothirethinam et al. 2015;Chikramane et al. 2010Chikramane et al. , 2012Upadhyay and Nayak 2011;Barve and Chaughule 2013;Demangeat 2010), silicate (Elia et al. 2014) nanoclusters and/or nanocrystals of their primary source substance and some other not identified nanostructures. The traditional manufacturing process of homeopathic formulations involves trituration in lactose and/or serial dilution in ethanol-water solutions and succussion (vigorous repeated cycles of shaking via hand or standardized mechanical arm pounding on a hard surface) in glass vials containing ethanol-water solutions (Hahnemann 1996). ...
... safer side. Prior studies on nanoformulations using various products like herbs, nutriceuticals, vaccines and drugs advocate that lower doses in the range of 10−1000 than the bulk form doses produce similar response (Chikramane et al. 2010;Upadhyay and Nayak 2011;Demangeat 2010;Elia et al. 2014). Increased capability of nanoparticles for surface adsorption has been demonstrated with the help of serum albumin of animals using both lactose (Mermet 2005) and silica (Ullman Dana 2015). ...
Chapter
Quantum dots are the most innovative molecules created in the modern era. These molecules are of nano-size ranged from 1-10 nm with unique photoluminescence characteristics. The unique properties of luminescence madethem an excellent candidate for cellular labelling and detection markers. The fabrication by conjugating with a library of biomolecules opened the gates for various innovative bioimaging and diagnostic protocols and drugdelivery systems. Having these versatile properties, QDs are originating as next-generation bio-nanotechnological tools for mankind to answer many biomedical issues in the fields of diagnosis and treatment. In this book chapter, a comprehensive discussion was made on the QDs, and their critical physico-optical characteristics, and their application in bioimaging, diagnosis, and drug targeting. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
... 11,13 Formation of nanoparticles (NPs) induced by dynamization has been discussed by some authors. [13][14][15][16][17][18][19] Chikramane et al. 15 attributed the generation of NPs to the trituration process, even in homeopathic mixtures that were extremely diluted. Even though no scientific consensus exists about the nanoparticle generation in homeopathic systems, 20 the trituration process provides a mechanical strength that permits particle size reduction. ...
... 11,13 Formation of nanoparticles (NPs) induced by dynamization has been discussed by some authors. [13][14][15][16][17][18][19] Chikramane et al. 15 attributed the generation of NPs to the trituration process, even in homeopathic mixtures that were extremely diluted. Even though no scientific consensus exists about the nanoparticle generation in homeopathic systems, 20 the trituration process provides a mechanical strength that permits particle size reduction. ...
Article
Background Recent experimental results supporting the dynamization process show modification in the characteristics of solid mixtures. Objective The present work aims to evaluate the physicochemical properties of metallic zinc and lactose, evidencing the interactions between all chemical components presented in dynamized solid mixtures by analytical techniques. Methods Mixtures of zinc and lactose (1:9 w/w) were successively triturated at the same proportion according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia, receiving the designation of 10−1 – 10−6 (1dH – 6dH). All samples were submitted to the following characterization techniques: Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TG), and Raman Spectroscopy (RS). Results AAS results detected 97.0% of zinc in the raw material, and the triturated zinc lactose system (ZnMet) presented mean values similar to those expected for the physical mixtures: i.e., 9.94%, 1.23%, and 0.11% in the three first proportions (10−1, 10−2, 10−3), respectively. SEM images showed particle size reduction due to the trituration process. The XRD assays of ZnMet 10−3 and 10−6 indicated peak changes at 12.3° and 43.26°, probably associated with modifications of inter-atomic crystalline spacing. The thermal analysis results of dynamized samples suggest modifications in the chemical interaction between zinc and lactose induced by the physical forces applied. RS experiments showed variation in vibration frequencies due to the dynamization procedure, in which marked ZnMet 10−6 spectral modifications were detected at 357, 477, 1086 and 1142 cm−1, and in the wavelength range 860–920 cm−1. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of applying suitable characterization methods to improve our understanding of the properties of homeopathic solid mixtures, whereas the uses of sensitive tools evidence the influence of trituration on the crystalline properties and in the enthalpy variation of dynamized samples.
... Samples of each dilution were examined by scanning electron microscopy to permit the identification of suspended microparticles; the chemical nature of the samples was then analyzed using an energy dispersion spectroscopy system. Since contaminant micro-and nanoparticles are expected to be present in water, [25][26][27][28][29] this analysis was useful in eliminating any possibility that a predominant contaminating element was responsible for the effects described. The identification of suspended contaminant microparticles present in the tested solutions was performed using the micro-evaporation method followed by scanning electron microscopy under 10-kV working conditions and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (JSM 6510; JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). ...
Article
Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) is a fungus that behaves as an intracellular parasite infecting different types of cells. In rabbits and immunosuppressed animals of other species, including humans, it parasites neural tissues causing a highly characteristic neurological syndrome, for which repertory analysis indicates Phosphorus. Successful treatment of 7 naturally infected rabbits with Phosphorus confirmed that this medicine probably is the remedy of the ‘epidemic genius’ of microsporidiosis. In the present study, an in vitro model was used to evidence the intracellular relationship between macrophages and E. cuniculi after treatment of co-cultures with different potencies of Phosphorus. RAW 254.7 macrophages were co-cultivated with E. cuniculi and treated with Phosphorus 6cH, 30cH and 200cH. Controls were untreated co-cultures and cultures treated with vehicle (0.06% final alcohol concentration). Phagocytosis and lysosome activity were after after 1 and 24 hours of incubation by means of the calcofluor and acridine orange staining methods, followed by automatic image analysis (Metamorph®). Cytokine production was assessed with the MAGPIX®-Luminex system. The vehicle increased IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP1 production (p
... These authors observed that in vivo experiments using T. cruzi infection, do not present significant differences in the effect of using succussed and unsuccussed alcohol 7% compared to untreated controls. Whereas there is a possibility of an effect caused by the succussed vehicle [45] and the fact that a recent empirical breakthrough in understanding the basic nature of homeopathic remedies has came through Chikramane et al.'s paper [46]. This has demonstrated that even commercial remedies (source materials: gold, copper, tin, zinc, silver, and platinum) triturated, diluted and hand-succussed to 30 C or 200 C potencies (both above Avogadro's number) retain nanoparticles of their source material. ...
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Introduction: The search for an effective remedy, with no side effects and with a low cost, is important both to prevent or reduce the damage intoxoplasmosis and to decrease economic losses. This work aims to compare the effect of different dynamizations of Toxoplasma gondii remedymade from the cysts of the parasite.Methods: In a blind, controlled, randomized assay, 56 Swiss male mice, 60 days old, were divided into groups: BIOT-TG7, BIOT-TG17, BIOT– TG30, BIOT-TG60, BIOT-TG100, BIOT-TG200, GCInf – infected control group pretreated with 7% grain alcohol and GCN – uninfected anduntreated control group. Medicines were prepared according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia, with infected mice’s brain macerated (20T. gondii cysts/100 �L), in the following dynamizations D7, D17, D30, D60, D100 and D200. Pretreatment: 3 consecutive days before inoculation.Infection: At 60 days old, with 20 cysts ME49 strain-T. gondii, orally. Fundoscopy, ocular tonometry, Brain cysts counting, estimated numberof bradyzoites/cyst and serum TGF-β (ELISA) were performed on the 60th day post-infection. Statistical comparison: Kruskal–Wallis test, 5%significance level.Results: Smaller number of cysts (BIOT-TG17 and BIOT-TG200) and a smaller number of bradyzoites/cysts (p < 0.05), in BIOT-TG7, BIOT-TG100and BIOT-TG200 was observed. 80% of animals from BIOT-TG100 group showed no alterations in fundoscopy and 20% presented subretinalmild hemorrhage around the optic nerve. There was no difference between groups in ocular tonometry and levels of TGF-β.Conclusion: High dynamizations showed better results in mice infected with T. gondii different from the low dynamizations that had unsatisfactory results.
... Another approach was reported by Chikramane et al. (2010). They used electron microscopy and emission spectroscopy techniques to confrm the presence of physical entities in the form of nanoparticles, in these extreme dilutions. ...
... New evidence is emerging on the nature and properties of high dilution of homoeopathic medicines. These findings indicate that the science of homoeopathy is a form of nano medicine, with the medicines capable of initiating changes in the physiological and biochemical dynamics of the animal as a complex adaptive 14 . ...
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There is a scarcity of chemico-analytical method of standardization of high dilution of homoeopathic drugs. Homoeopathic medicines include any drug which are prepared by the methods given in homoeopathic pharmacopoeias. Efficacy of homoeopathic medicines are obtained by clinical use, from homoeopathic authenticated literature and research.
... However more recent research provides interesting evidence that infinitesimal doses, so-called nanodoses, of substances, can have effects on living systems. [17][18][19] While the details of how this occurs remain unexplained, the findings do suggest that the typical objections to the idea that homeopathic dilutions are effective could be dated. ...
Context: Controversy over the efficacy of homeopathic medicine is rooted in the view that its methodology is implausible. Objective: The study intended to explore the postintervention results for a randomly selected group of patients in an actual practice. Design: The study was a retrospective review of the charts of patients receiving homeopathy, performed as a pilot study. Setting: The study took place at a part-time, urban practice in the Mid-Atlantic USA with an area population of about 600 000. Participants: The charts of 53 patients were randomly sampled for later abstraction and were included in the study. They were admitted between August 2010 and June 2014 for first-time visits and took part in at least one follow-up visit during the six months after the intervention. Outcome measures: A standardized tool was used to abstract the data from patients' charts. After exclusions and losses to follow-up, data from 40 charts were analyzed. The actual number of visits after the initial visit that was included in the analysis varied from one to five. The current status of up to five diagnoses or problems were tracked for each patient and each visit as was the number of allopathic medications in use and the overall trajectory based on classical homeopathic analysis, evaluating whether the patient was better, worse, or unchanged overall. Results: The charts of 27 patients demonstrated overall improvement; the charts of 12 patients demonstrated no overall change or a worsening of problems or symptoms. The difference between the improved and the nonimproved groups of participants postintervention were significant (P = .0026). Data also demonstrated a significant reduction in the use of allopathic medication and an increase in the number of improved individual conditions or diagnoses (P < .05). Conclusions: The current study of the treatment experience of 40 persons with a variety of medical conditions found that a majority of patients, when their charts were analyzed according to specific criteria, experienced improvements while undergoing classical homeopathic treatment. The reasons for these improvements can't be determined from available data, but the results do pose important questions about how humans heal. While other factors might account for this result, it's difficult to fully dismiss the idea that homeopathic medicine may have had some impact on observed results.
... Ceci constitue l'interrogation fondamentale dont la réponse pourrait mettre définitivement fin à la controverse de l'homéopathie. Une fois encore l'article de Chikramane et coll [36] La question qui reste ouverte est celle de la rémanence de l'ingrédient de départ, qui demande à être confirmée. Les techniques utilisées pour la mise en évidence des NPs et la caractérisation de leur contenu ne sont pas exemptes de possibles artefacts. ...
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Les hautes dilutions homéopathiques vues par la physique : arguments en faveur d'une nanomédecine Homeopathic high dilutions seen by physics argue for a nanomedicine Jean-Louis Demangeat (ancien chef de service de médecine nucléaire du Centre hospitalier de Haguenau et ancien maître de conférences en biophysique à la Faculté de médecine de Strasbourg) 13d, rue d'Oberhausbergen, RÉSUMÉ La critique de l'homéopathie repose sur l'absence théorique de l'ingrédient de départ dans les dilutions ultramoléculaires au-delà de 12 CH (limite d'Avogadro), et corrélativement sur l'absence de mécanisme d'action biologique. Or, la préparation spécifique par dilution/dynamisation implique des processus d'interaction itératifs avec l'atmosphère (nanobulles), les parois des contenants (silice et autres éléments chimiques), et avec la micropipette de prélèvement (adsorption). La RMN a montré depuis 2003 des nanostructures (NS) dans les dilutions ultramoléculaires, confirmées plus récem-ment par diverses techniques (filtration, diffusion laser, diffraction RX, microscopie électronique). Ces nanostructures/nanoparticules (NS/NPs) persistent et même s'accroissent avec la hauteur de dilution, et sont différenciables selon la substance de départ, à condition d'avoir été dynamisées. Plusieurs études montrent la présence inattendue de matériel dans les hautes dilutions, et souvent même la rémanence du matériel initial au-delà de 12 CH. Ces NS/NPs ne sont pas observées à basse dilution. La gamme 2-4 CH correspond à la transition entre l'état « moléculaire » et « nanoparticulaire » du principe actif qui pourrait expliquer les inversions d'effets observés en biologie. Compte tenu des propriétés particulières de biodisponibilité et réactivité des NPs, l'hypo-thèse des hautes dilutions agissant comme nanomédecine peut raisonnablement être avancée. © 2020 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés. SUMMARY The criticism of homeopathy is based on the theoretical absence of the starting ingredient in ultramolecular dilutions above 12 CH (Avogadro limit), and correlatively on the absence of a biological mechanism of action. However, the specific preparation by dilution/dynamisation involves iterative interaction processes with the atmosphere (nanobubbles), the walls of the containers (silica and other chemical elements), and with the sampling micropipette (adsorption). Since 2003, NMR has shown nanostructures (NS) in ultramolecular dilutions, confirmed more recently by various techniques (filtration, laser diffusion, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy). These nanostructures/nanoparticles (NS/NPs) persist and even increase with the dilution level, and can be distinguished according to the starting substance, provided they have been dynamized. Several studies show the unexpected presence of material in high dilutions, and even the persistence of the initial material beyond 12 CH. These NS/NPs are not observed at low dilution. The 2-4 CH range corresponds to the transition between the "molecular'' and the "nanoparticulate'' state of the solute, which could explain inversion effects observed in biology. Given the particular bioavailability and reactivity properties of NPs, the hypothesis of high dilutions acting as nanomedicine can reasonably be postulated.
... SVA, although was more efficacious in the present study, has been associated with weight gain and gastrointestinal problems [85]. The test HMPs showed competent efficacy as compared to SVA and are expected to offer a good therapeutic strategy owing to significant physio-chemical [86] and nanoparticulate [87,88] characteristics besides showing adaptive non-linear response and cost effectiveness [89]. Furthermore, the CV HMPs used in the present study had a drug concentration lower than that described as the threshold limit in HPI, and hence did not show any add-on toxicity. ...
Article
Epileptic seizures are characterized by imbalanced inhibition-excitation cycle that triggers biochemical alterations responsible for jeopardized neuronal integrity. Conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been the mainstay option for treatment and control; however, symptomatic control and potential to exacerbate the seizure condition calls for viable alternative to these chemical agents. In this context, natural product-based therapies have accrued great interest in recent years due to competent disease management potential and lower associated adversities. Cicuta virosa (CV) is one such herbal remedy that is used in traditional system of medicine against myriad of disorders including epilepsy. Homeopathic medicinal preparations (HMPs) of CV were assessed for their efficacy in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced acute and kindling models of epilepsy. CV HMPs increased the latency and reduced the duration of tonic-clonic phase in acute model while lowering the kindling score in the kindling model that signified their role in modulating GABAergic neurotransmission and potassium conductance. Kindling-induced impairment of cognition, memory, and motor coordination was ameliorated by the CV HMPs that substantiated their efficacy in imparting sustained neuronal fortification. Furthermore, biochemical evaluation showed attenuated oxidative stress load through reduced lipid peroxidation and strengthened free radical scavenging mechanism. Taken together, CV HMPs exhibited promising results in acute and kindling models and must be further assessed through molecular and epigenomic studies.
... Based on such examples, the "memory effect of water" was proposed, according to which water "remembers" the properties of the substance originally contained and retains the healing effect of the solution, even when it supposedly no longer contains the active substance. Recent studies, which showed the substance molecules in extremely diluted medical preparations [29,30], have excluded this model [4]. ...
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The well-known definition of disease, which Samuel Hahnemann presented in a tentative theory for his new science and art of healing, is used as the starting point for the thermodynamic model of homeopathy. The Le Chatelier principle was applied to the biochemical equilibrium compartmentalized in the individual human cells of an ill person to explain the curing based on the re-establishment of the starting equilibrium of a healthy person when using a remedy. It is revealed that a high dilution accompanied by succession is required to release the remedies to their constituent molecular species in order to increase their activity when taking part in the biochemical equilibrium that is essential for healing. In addition, a single remedy reaction-product species, when it is in excess, as well as satisfying the kinetic equilibrium, is a necessary and sufficient condition to force the new biochemical equilibrium in the direction of the basic original equilibrium associated with a healthy state. In addition, homeopathic aggravation is considered on the basis of the Law of Mass Action and the role of the small remedy concentration in some high-profile models is revisited. The second elementary law of homeopathy, the Law of the Infinitesimals, was explained based on a kinetic model. When a remedy occurs in the human cell of a healthy person and forms a reaction product (Simillimum) that induces the finest medical symptoms of an ill person, then remedies entering the cell of the ill person will form identical Simillimum molecules and re-establish the initial equilibrium of the healthy state and cure the ill person. However, this will also induce a molecular crowding in the cells of the ill person. For kinetic reasons, this will aggravate the re-establishment of the initial equilibrium and consequently worsen or even interrupt the medical treatment. At a low remedy concentration, the molecular crowding becomes negligible while the formation of the Simillimum and the re-establishment of the initial equilibrium will take place continuously and cure the person who is ill. The final understanding of the Simillimum in the thermodynamic model was illuminated and wide-opened its duality with the ill person’s key compound.
... Studies at different levels with homeopathic medicines have been done in the last few decades but it is unable to remove the stigma of pseudoscience or placebo from it. There is much evidence produced by researchers at different times which clearly states that homeopathic medicines are not at all placebo [16][17][18][19]. It would be sheer negligence to call it as a placebo without trying to find the underlying mechanism of action. ...
Article
Homoeopathy, being effective in various disease conditions, is a very popular choice of treatment among patients after conventional therapies. Despite that, the scientific community always tuned down its adoption due to the unexplored mechanism of action of homeopathic medicines. Unexplained working principles of Post-Avogadro dilutions and lack of molecular existence has always interfered with the acceptance of homoeopathy in the modern world. In the secondary action, homeopathic medicines show the reciprocal activity of its primary action. It seems that along with body homeostasis, it also acts on receptor level as an inverse agonist and after binding with a receptor at the resting phase it acts by reducing basal activity. As a result of this effect, it ends up producing an opposite biological effect known as a secondary action. Homeopathic drugs in its ultra–dilution probably show effects due to paradoxical activity which is generated at a definite time which can prove that secondary action is not due to the placebo effect. Paradoxical pharmacology clearly provides a basis for the concept of homeopathic drug dynamics as various drugs of modern medicines also have shown their paradoxical activity in high dilution. It is a complex receptor-mediated action which can alter the cell signaling pathway and can bring significant change in host adaptive response. In this review, we have exemplified the relation between the concepts of homeopathic drug dynamics with the rebound effect of drug substances to minimize the fallacy associated with homeopathic pharmacodynamics.
... These authors observed that in vivo experiments using T.cruzi infection, do not present significant differences in the effect of using succussed and unsuccussed alcohol 7% compared to untreated controls. Whereas there is a possibility of an effect caused by the succussed vehicle [45] and the fact that a recent empirical breakthrough in understanding the basic nature of homeopathic remedies has came through Chikramane et al's paper [46]. This has demonstrated that even commercial remedies (source materials: ...
Article
Please cite this article as: Braga-Silva CF, Drozino RN, Moreira NM, Gois MB, Sant'Ana DMG, Guilherme ALF-, Araújo SM, Homeopathic remedy made from Toxoplasma gondii reduces the number of bradyzoites in mice infected by the protozoan, European Journal of Integrative Medicine (2015), http://dx. Abstract Page 2 of 25 A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t 2 Introduction: search for an effective remedy, with no side effects and low cost, is essential to prevent or reduce the damage in toxoplasmosis decreasing economic losses. This work aims to compare the effect of different dynamizations of T. gondii remedy made from the cysts of the parasite. Methods: In a blind, controlled, randomized assay, 56 Swiss male mice, 60 days old, were divided into groups: BIOT-TG7, BIOT-TG17, BIOT-TG30, BIOT-TG60, BIOT-TG100, BIOT-TG200, GCInf-infected control group pretreated with 7% grain alcohol and GCN-uninfected and untreated control group. Medicines were prepared according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia, with infected mice's brain macerated (20 T. gondii cysts/100μL), in the following dynamizations D7, D17, D30, D60, D100 and D200. Pretreatment: 3 consecutive days before innoculation. Infection: At 60 days old, with 20 cysts ME49 strain-T. gondii, orally. Fundoscopy, ocular tonometry Brain cysts counting, estimated number of bradyzoites/cyst and serum TGF-β (ELISA) were performed on the 60th day post-infection. Statistical comparison: Kruskal-Wallis test, 5% significance level. Results: Smaller number of cysts (BIOT-TG17 and BIOT-TG200) and a smaller number of bradyzoites/cysts (p <0.05), in BIOT-TG7, BIOT-TG100 and BIOT-TG200 was observed. 80% of animals from BIOT-TG100 group showed no alterations in fundoscopy and 20% presented subretinal mild hemorrhage around the optic nerve. There was no difference between groups in ocular tonometry and levels of TGF-. Conclusion: High dynamizations showed better results in mice infected with T. gondii different from the low dynamizations that had unsatisfactory results.
... This suggests that the marginally below average citation average for homeopathy may not be supported by highly cited homeopathy research but may be due the scarcity of less cited research compared to other alternative medicines. Nevertheless, the fourth most cited paper was the discovery that six metal-based commercially produced homeopathic medicines at high dilutions contain small amounts of the starting materials (Chikramane, et al., 2010). Another top cited paper confirmed that homeopathic remedies have few or no adverse effects (Dantas & Rampes, 2000). ...
Article
Some complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are frequently criticised for being based on faith rather than scientific evidence. Despite this, researchers, academic departments, and institutes teach and investigate them. This article assesses whether the scholarship produced by four CAMs is valued by the academic community in terms of citations, and whether the level of citations received might be detrimental to academic authors’ careers. Based on an analysis of acupuncture, chiropractic, homeopathy, and osteopathy journal articles indexed in Scopus 1996–2020, the results show that the prevalence of the four areas vary substantially internationally, with acupuncture eclipsing the others in East Asia but homeopathy being more common in India and Brazil. The main broad fields publishing these specialties are Medicine, Nursing, Health Professions, Veterinary Science, and Neuroscience. Whilst the research tends to be cited at a below average rate in most broad fields (n = 27) and years (1996–2017), acupuncture, chiropractic, and homeopathy are exceptions in some broad fields, including some core areas. Thus, studying these alternative medicines may not always lead to research that tends to be ignored in academia, even if many scientists disparage it. As a corollary, citation analysis cannot be relied on to give low scores to widely disparaged areas of scholarship.
... However, practical satisfaction experienced by the patients and notably no accompanying adverse effect has allowed homeopathy to be used vehemently by ethnopharamacologists. Furthermore, practical evidence and explanation regarding physico-chemical (Elia et al., 2007;Elia and Niccoli, 1999;Rey, 2003;Rao et al., 2007Rao et al., , 2008Roy et al., 2005;Ives et al., 2010) and nanoparticulate (Chikramane et al., 2010;Montagnier et al., 2009;Bhattacharyya et al., 2008;Upadhyay and Nayak, 2011) charactristics of homeopathic remedies discourages simplistic dismissal of this traditional system of medicine. These remedies are cost effective and have shown adaptive non-linear response on the living systems thereby stamping their effectiveness in disease treatment and management (Calabrese and Jonas, 2010;Van Wijk and Wiegant, 2010;Iavicoli et al., 2010;Bertani et al., 1999;Malarczyk et al., 2011;Van Wijk and Wiegant, 2011;Bousta et al., 2001). ...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Processed Nux vomica seed extracts and homeopathic medicinal preparations (HMPs) are widely used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine for respiratory, digestive, neurological and behavioral disorders. Antioxidant property of Nux vomica is well known and recent investigation has highlighted the anticonvulsant potential of its homeopathic formulation. Aim of the study To explore the anticonvulsant and antiepileptogenic potential of Nux vomica HMPs (6CH, 12CH and 30CH potency) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced acute and chronic experimental seizure models in mice and investigate their effects on cognition, memory, motor activity and oxidative stress markers in kindled animals. Materials and methods Acute seizures were induced in the animals through 70 mg/kg (i.p.) administration of PTZ followed by the evaluation of latency and duration of Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). Subconvulsive PTZ doses (35 mg/kg, i.p.) induced kindling in 29 days, which was followed by assessment of cognition, memory and motor impairment through validated behavioral techniques. The status of oxidative stress was estimated through measurement of MDA, GSH and SOD. Results HMPs delayed the latency and reduced the duration of GTCS in acute model signifying possible regulation of GABAergic neurotransmission. Kindling was significantly hindered by the HMPs that justified the ameliorated cognition, memory and motor activity impairment. The HMPs attenuated lipid peroxidation by reducing MDA level and strengthened the antioxidant mechanism by enhancing the GSH and SOD levels in the kindled animals. Conclusions Nux vomica HMPs showed anticonvulsant and antiepileptogenic potency in acute and chronic models of epilepsy. The test drugs attenuated behavioral impairment and reduced the oxidative stress against PTZ induced kindling owing to which they can be further explored for their cellular and molecular mechanism(s).
... However, there is growing evidence that homeopathic medicines can have a positive clinical effect and this has spurred research activities in homeopathy at the physical, chemical, biological and clinical levels, using validated scientific standards and methods. [22][23][24][25][26] Arnica montana (Arn) is a commonly used homeopathic medicine of plant origin 27 and is prescribed as an antiinflammatory remedy in various cases of trauma. 28,29 Marzotto et al witnessed the action of Arn on cell migration, inflammation and extracellular matrix regulation, during healing and repair, in an in vitro cell line model. ...
Article
Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Use of homeopathic medicines for the treatment of cancers has increased in the last several years. Arnica montana is an anti-inflammatory homeopathic medicine used in traumatic conditions and because of this property we performed investigations for its potential as a chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer. Methods An ethanolic extract of Arnica montana (mother tincture, MT), prepared according to the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India, was characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS), followed by computational (in silico) analysis using molecular docking, to identify specific compounds that can bind and modulate the activity of key proteins involved in breast cancer survival and progression. To validate the in silico findings, in a controlled experiment breast cancer cells (MCF7) were treated in vitro with Arnica montana and the cytotoxic effects assessed by flowcytometry, fluorescence microscopy, scratch assay, clonogenic potential and gene expression analysis. Results Phytochemical characterization of ethanolic extract of Arn MT by GC–MS allowed identification of several compounds. Caryophyllene oxide and 7-hydroxycadalene were selected for molecular docking studies, based on their potential drug-like properties. These compounds displayed selective binding affinity to some of the recognized target proteins of breast cancer, which included estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) and E-cadherin. In vitro studies revealed induction of apoptosis in MCF7 cells following treatment with Arn MT. Furthermore, treatment with Arn MT revealed its ability to inhibit migration and colony forming abilities of the cancer cells. Conclusion Considering the apoptotic and anti-migratory effects of Arnica montana in breast cancer cells in vitro, there is a need for this medicine to be further validated in an in vivo model.
... The potentisation methods of homoeopathic drug preparation are known to increase the potency while reducing the concentration of the active ingredient during drug treatment [7]. This implies improved efficacy of the drug at lower concentrations of the active ingredient, suggesting lower side effects [8]. Homoeopathy has several potent compounds of magnesium whose roles are well-established in other medical conditions. ...
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The World Health Organization has declared type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to have reached pandemic proportions. The affected population worldwide has increased from 108 million in 1980 to 537 million in 2021. Recent studies have shown that T2DM is often associated with altered magnesium levels. The study aimed to assess the effects of homoeopathically potentised Magnesium sulphate 30C on insulin resistance in T2DM patients in Surat, India. The study design was a randomised controlled crossover trial conducted at the ZFR Multi-specialty Homoeopathy Clinic, Surat, India. A total of 79 participants were divided randomly into two groups. One group received the placebo and the other received the potentised Magnesium sulphate 30C in the first period (12 weeks). This was followed by a washout period and the groups were crossed over to receive the other intervention, again for 12 weeks. The analysis of variance was used to find the comparisons between both groups for the mean value of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin, serum magnesium, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and estimated average glucose levels. HbA1c (%) (p<0.001) showed a significant difference between both groups.
... A more diluted solution is considered to have a higher potency (13). The potency choice is related to the health level: a lower health level implies a low potency, such as 30C, for a longer period of time, up to 3 months, while a 200CH treatment is limited for a few days. ...
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Gut microbiota, the total microorganisms in our gastrointestinal tract, might have an implication in multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating neurological disease. Our study included 50 MS patients and 21 healthy controls (HC). Twenty patients received a disease modifying therapy (DMT), interferon beta1a or teriflunomide, 19 DMT combined with homeopathy and 11 patients accepted only homeopathy. We collected in total 142 gut samples, two for each individual: at the study enrolment and eight weeks after treatment. We compared MS patients’ microbiome with HC, we analysed its evolution in time and the effect of interferon beta1a, teriflunomide and homeopathy. There was no difference in alpha diversity, only two beta diversity results related to homeopathy. Compared to HC, untreated MS patients had a decrease of Actinobacteria, Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium prauznitzii and increased Prevotella stercorea , while treated patients presented lowered Ruminococcus and Clostridium . Compared to the initial sample, treated MS patients had a decrease of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus and an increased Enterococcus faecalis . Eubacterium oxidoreducens was reduced after homeopathic treatment. The study revealed that MS patients may present dysbiosis. Treatment with interferon beta1a, teriflunomide or homeopathy implied several taxonomic changes. DMTs and homeopathy might influence the gut microbiota.
... When the truth is that an increasingly large amount of evidence from meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomised control trials demonstrate that homoeopathy is extremely effective as a treatment modality. [2][3][4][5] Several in vitro studies have shown effects attributable to very highly diluted substances. [6,7] Cancer is one such area where numerous claims are made to demonstrate the efficacy of homoeopathy. ...
... A. contain calculable source nanoparticles (NPs) and/or silica nanoparticles with adsorbed original materials [57][58][59][60], which are compositely dispersed in colloidal solution; ...
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Excessive pressure or demand on an individual resulting in adverse reaction affecting mentally and physically is termed \"stress.\" Chronic stress has been assumed as a risk factor for hypertension which constitutes an important public health issue. According to the latest data, it affects 30% of the world population. Hypertension (HTN) rates are not decreasing despite improved detection and treatments. People experiencing increased anger, anxiety, depression brought on by globalization, and stress leading to high-risk behaviors are increasing many folds. There is the possibility that blood pressure (BP) may positively correlate with anger variables leading to essential hypertension (EHT). Homeopathy considers the human being having an integrated mind and body. It works holistically, helping the patient cope with environmental and psychosocial changes. The following research is one such example. It was conducted on 172 patients (108 males and 64 females) randomized and divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group was administered individualized homeopathic treatment. We found that most EHT patients, especially those with a family history of HTN, suppress their anger and hostile impulses. Most appropriate homoeopathic medicine lessens anger and thereby has a reduction in elevated BP. Also, it relieves associated ailments.
... The use of low doses of drugs is not such a far-fetched concept as it might appear. In fact, according to Jahangir Satti 37 at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Albany Medical Center, in Albany, New York, it is on the rise around the world in the fight against serious diseases such as advanced cancers. In an article, Satti talked about a global trend towards an emerging low-dose therapy for advanced cancers -a clear departure from the conventional use of maximum dose protocol. ...
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A review of research on homeopathic cancer treatment published from 2007-2012
... Such preparations create an upper layer of nanoparticles that retain the energy of matter after several dilution steps, a process known as dynamization. 18 Despite the controversy on this topic, the use of complementary or alternative medicines in the treatment of cancer has increased in recent years, 3,[19][20][21] and studies have reported clinical cases that support the beneficial effects of VA as a complementary cancer therapy. 22 In this context, in-vitro studies can contribute to excluding any placebo effect of homeopathic medicines. ...
Article
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Introduction The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in cytotoxicity tests is an in-vitro alternative model for predicting initial doses. Homeopathic medicines may stimulate the immune system to combat a pathology effectively and have been used for over two centuries. Viscum album (VA) extracts are widely used in the treatment of cancer, due to their immunomodulatory, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic properties. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the in-vitro growth kinetics of canine MSC in relation to cytotoxicity, cell differentiation and expression of pluripotentiality markers, using a VA preparation at the D1D2 (1×10−1, 1×10−2 potency (VAD1D2). Methods MSC were obtained from adipose tissue sampled from a healthy dog that was undergoing an elective veterinary procedure and with its owner's permission. The experiments were performed in three groups: MSC treated with VAD1D2 or diluent or untreated (control). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. The differentiation was induced in three lineages, and apoptotic cell labeling was performed by an Annexin-V test. Results At the concentration of 10 μL/mL of VA, the number of cells after in-vitro culture was maintained when compared with the control (untreated) group. A significant and gradual decrease in cell viability was recorded as VA concentrations increased. The apoptosis analysis showed that VA at 20 μL/mL presented absolute percentages of initial apoptosis twice as high as at 10 μL/mL, which was similar to the control (untreated group). Conclusion The results suggest that the use of efficient methods to assess the in-vitro cytotoxicity of VA-based homeopathic medicines using MSC lineages may predict the potential action at different concentrations. These findings demonstrated that VAD1D2 interferes with canine MSC growth kinetics.
... La dinamización Picudo campo T 6CH tiene nanopartículas de la muestra triturada, pues en otras potencias más diluidas, como la 30C y 200C, Chikramane et al. (2010), han demostrado la existencia de nanopartículas del material original. Probablemente estás partículas estén afectando el comportamiento del picudo, de la hembra principalmente, para no ovipositar en los frutos tratados con este homeopático, y por ende tener más frutos sin daño y sin picudos; mayor protección del cultivo y de la cosecha. ...
Chapter
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El desarrollo de los árboles frutales y la calidad de fruto están en función de las prácticas de manejo y la presencia de polinizadores. La polinización es considerada como un servicio ecosistémico esencial para la producción de alimentos. Se identificó la riqueza y abundancia de insectos polinizadores y aspectos morfológico-productivos de manzano (Malus domestica Borkh) cv “agua nueva dos”, en un sistema milpa intercalada en árboles frutales (MIAF) en la región de Huejotzingo, Puebla. La colecta de insectos polinizadores se realizó durante la floración de los manzanos (entre febrero y abril de 2018) utilizando dos métodos de captura complementarios: platos trampa y red entomológica. Se registró la altura y diámetro de los árboles, y el número, peso y diámetro de frutos. Se obtuvo un índice de biodiversidad Shannon de 1.6 e índice de Simpson de 0.48 de acuerdo con los insectos colectados, siendo A. mellifera la especie dominante. Existe una correlación fuerte entre número de frutos por árbol y diámetro del árbol (r=0.998) y diámetro del fruto y peso del fruto (r=0.919). Es necesario estudiar si la efectividad cuantitativa de A. mellifera en la polinización resulta en una efectividad cualitativa, al igual que en otros insectos encontrados, como los empídidos, de particular interés por su abundancia en el sistema MIAF.
... A. contain calculable source nanoparticles (NPs) and/or silica nanoparticles with adsorbed original materials [57][58][59][60], which are compositely dispersed in colloidal solution; ...
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Objective: Despite improved detection and treatments, rates of hypertension (HT) are not decreasing. More and more people experience increased anger, anxiety, depression brought on by globalisation and stress leading to high-risk behaviours. There is the possibility that blood pressure (BP) may positively correlate with anger variables leading to essential hypertension (EHT). Homoeopathy works holistically, helping the patient to cope up with these changes. The study aims to demonstrate the efficacy of similimum on mild to moderate essential hypertension by modifying the underlying anger state, trait, and expressions, thus making the patient more capable of coping with the changing life situations than standard care treatment. Design and method: 172 patients (108 males and 64 females) between 18-65 years were enrolled after consent. They were allocated to the placebo and intervention groups by simple randomisation. Thorough homoeopathic case-taking was done, and the STAXI-2 scale was applied at the beginning and after a 6-months study period to measure the change in anger. Regular follow up was done every two weeks to evaluate the subjective and objective parameters. Results: After six months, in the control arm 16%, had to be prescribed standard AHT. Whereas in the intervention arm, the BP of all patients were maintained on similimum. The patients on standard AHT, in the control arm 98%, continued with the same dose of their medicines. However, standard AHT stopped in 33% of patients in the intervention group, and in 28%, the dose was reduced. Reduction in blood pressure and anger variables at the end of the study period was statistically significant (p = 0.001) in both arms. However, the difference was significantly more in all variables in the intervention arm than in the control arm. Conclusions: Most hypertension patients, especially with a family history of HT, suppress their anger & hostile impulses.Individualised homoeopathic treatment reduces anger & thereby have a reduction in elevated BP.Also, it relieves associated ailments.
... During potentiation, the active substance maintains the properties of the potentiated active in extreme dilutions in the process of dilution and succussion, called dynamization, necessary for homeopathic preparation. Most homeopathic formulations are derived from plants [27]. ...
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Background Homeopathy is an alternative therapy that uses substances dilution. The homeopathic preparation of Syzygium jambolanum (SJ) has potential use in the treatment of glycemic disorders. Objective In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of the SJ homeopathic preparation on treating obesity and glycemic/metabolic disorders compared with metformin treatment (diabetes gold-treatment) in a mice model fed a high-fat diet. Method A total of 48 male Swiss mice were divided into six groups with eight animals each, randomly distributed as follows: obese and non-obese groups (ST), treated and non treated with SJ or metformin. Obesity was induced by high-fat/high-sugar diet, while the control mice (ST) received a standard diet for 12 weeks, after which, for 30 days, the animals received a preparation of 20 µl/100g/body-weight of SJ or a dose of 250 mg/kg metformin (by gavage). The control groups ST and HFHS received water gavage. Body composition and biochemical parameters were evaluated. The adipose genes for lipogenesis and thermogenesis were tested. Results The mice treated with Syzygium jambolanum presented reduced weight gain (p< 0.02) and smaller adipose tissue weight, average difference from the mice treated with metformin, and both groups showed improved insulin sensitivity (p<0.04). The main results were associated with the modulation of the adipogenesis pathway (C/EPBα and PPARγ) and to the thermogenic gene Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1). Conclusion Homeopathic administration of the Syzygium jambolanum preparation leads to lower body weight, blood glucose and total cholesterol and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL), pointing its efficiency on treating diabetes and obesity.
... However, traces of original drug molecules remained as guest molecules. There are reports showing presence of starting atoms in the MTs(Chattopadhya, 2017;Chikramane et al. 2010).Clatharate hydrate crysrtals have been reported mostly in methane gas trapped in ice crystals. At higher temperatures they are unstable(English et al., 2014;Dolyniuk et al., 2016). ...
... A. contain calculable source nanoparticles (NPs) and/or silica nanoparticles with adsorbed original materials [57][58][59][60], which are compositely dispersed in colloidal solution; ...
... The antimicrobial properties of the tested samples were significantly less than the other tested material. The concentration of the active ingredients in the homeopathic medicine decreases with the increase in the dilution [50]. ...
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Homeopathy is a holistic system of integrative medicine that uses highly diluted doses of substances to achieve clinical effects. Despite some evidence for its efficacy, homeopathy remains controversial for many. Homeopathy is one of the commonest forms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for outpatient skin conditions (37.9% of cases), being used by 2.1% of Americans and 27% of Germans. Acne and rosacea are among the commonest disorders treated with CAM. Homeopathic Zingiber officinale, Arctium lappa, Azadirachta indica, Tuberculinum, and Sulphur could be useful treatments for acne and acne scars. Individualized homeopathy using Lycopodium clavatum, Platinum metallicum, and Palladium metallicum may be efficacious acne therapy. Long-standing erythematotelangiectatic and papulopustular rosacea responded to individualized homeopathic therapy in one case study using homeopathic Causticum, Lachesis muta and Lycopodium clavatum.
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Background: A 60 years-old man presented with an 8-day history of acute onset painless left upper eyelid ptosis covering the pupil entirely. Ptosis can affect unilateral or bilateral. He had no other symptoms; importantly pupils were equal and reactive and eye movements were full. There was no palpable mass or swelling. He had a headache but had no other focal neurological signs or symptoms of fatigue. MRI of brain and Orbits showed no remarkable abnormality detected in brain & orbits. Objectives: Assessment of the homeopathic symptomatic aspects of Gelsemium sempervirens on eyelid ptosis. Showed homeopathy has a major role in the treatment of ptosis. Materials and Methods. The case management was conducted for 3 weeks and only two follow follow-ups were was taken according to the law of homeopathy. Result: Administrating Gelsemium sempervirens 30°C of 5/7 pills orally thrice a day for a week; left eyelid ptosis was improved 60%. The ptosis resolved quickly and the patient remains symptom-free 100% at 3 weeks follow-up by next high potency Gelsemium sempervirens 200C with the same pattern. Conclusion: Acute ptosis may indicate serious pathology. A careful history and examination must be taken. The appropriate management requires recognition of the underlying cause of it. This case presentation highlights the various aspects of ptosis evaluation and management by homeopathy for future study. Indexing and Abstracting Export Citation CrossMark Publons Harvard Library HOLLIS GrowKudos Search IT Google Scholar Academic Microsoft Scilit Semantic Scholar Universite de Paris UW Libraries SJSU King Library NUS Library McGill DET KGL BIBLiOTEK JCU Discovery Universidad De Lima WorldCat DTU VU on WorldCat ResearchGate Main article text Introduction Homeopathy can be considered as a complementary treatment option for patients with severe form of the ptosis whose symptoms cannot be controlled with conventional medication without surgery. Individual therapy is conducted based on the level of health theory [1]. Eyelid ptosis, a common neurological sign, is classically explained by weakness of the levator palpebrae superior muscle due to oculomotor nerve disturbance, or by weakness of Muller’s muscle secondary to involvement of its sympathetic innervations, or by intrinsic disorders of the lids and their musculature [2]. Early diagnosis and proper evaluation are the important factors aiding treatment of this condition which can improve the quality of life of the people affected [3]. Aim and objective To ascertain the usefulness of homoeopathic medicines in the management of ‘Ptosis’.To verify the characteristic symptoms of useful homeopathic medicines. To determine the most useful strategy for the management of different intensities of ptosis. Methodology This study was conducted in Jannat Homeo Hall (JHH), Kazipara, Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh over a period of three and half weeks i.e. from 15, September 2020 to 10, October 2020. Study design A prospective observational study is conducted in secondary care homeopathic clinic. Materials 1. Case record and repertorization. 2. Drug filtering by repertory. Case presentation A 60-year-old, Muslim, married man from low-middle socio-economic status family man presented at our homeopathic clinic with an 8-day history of acute onset painless left upper eyelid ptosis on September 16, 2020. He noticed complete drooping upper left eyelid for 8 days, no closing the left eye or blinking for 8 days, tearing, left eye fatigue, headache occasionally. He did not report any double vision or blurred vision. He had woken with the ptosis and had not improved over the 8 days, with no history of fatigability or variability. Prior to this he had not had any eye problems and was not a contact lens wearer. His medical history included hypertension. He felt fit and well, with no preceding viral illness He was without fever. He had on eye tumors, diabetes, and history of stroke, cancer, and neurological disorders. He was always mentally prostrated; dizziness and instability, dullness, sluggishness, difficulty of thinking and comprehending. His complaints came from anticipation. He was nervously drowsiness. He noted that his any kinds of ailments used to come from emotions, bad news, unpleasant surprises. His general sensation and complaints was physically weak. On inspection, left eye was completely covered by the upper eye lid. His medical investigation tests were RBS-6.3mmol/L, Lipid Profile (Fasting) – S Cholesterol (total)-213 mg/dl, S Triglyceride- 173 mg/dl, S Cholesterol(HDL)-37mg /dl and S cholesterol(LDL)-140mg/dl. The MRI of brain and orbit had shown- No remarkable abnormality detected in brain and orbit. The context of trying conventional management and taking homeopathic medicine At first, on September 8, 2020 the patient and his son was going to National Institute of Ophthalmology & Hospital in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. He had visited outdoor patient of this hospital for his chief complain of dropping of left upper eye lid for 3 days. Then he also noticed that he had hypertension last for 7-8 years and had no diabetes. The doctor of this department referred him to the Ophthalmoplasty department without giving any medicine. On September 10, 2020, the patient visited for treatment at the Ophthalmoplasty department. The doctor advised him of some medical investigation tests (RBS, serum lipid profile, MRI of brain and orbit) and referred him to the Neuro Ophthalmology department. The patient had done his RBS and serum lipid profile on that day. His medical investigation tests were RBS-6.3mmol/L, Lipid Profile (Fasting) – S Cholesterol (total)-213 mg/dl, S Triglyceride- 173 mg/dl, S Cholesterol(HDL)-37mg /dl and S cholesterol(LDL)-140mg/dl. After then the patient with his son was going to visit the neurology department (OPD), National Institute of neurosciences and Hospital, Sher-e-bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh for conventional treatment on September 13, 2020. This departmental doctor was also advised him of some medical investigation tests (RBS, serum lipid profile, MRI of brain and orbit). Then the patient had done his MRI of brain and orbit report on 15 September, 2020. The MRI of brain and orbit had shown- No remarkable abnormality detected in brain and orbit. The patient was verbally informed by this department without any medication prescription that he would have to undergo surgery on the upper lid of his left eye. During this time, however, the patient and his family did not want to undergo surgery. They then resorted to homeopathic treatment as an alternative treatment. Discussion Homeopathic approach Homeopathy is the method of treatment with that medicine which can produce symptom similarity. Homeopathy is a therapeutic approach of medicine that uses substances selected from nature, such as minerals, chemicals, and plants, which are diluted and potentiated [4]. Its aim is to restore the internal order by stimulating the patient’s defense mechanisms [5]. The energy complex of the organism is the capacity of the body to react to overall stimuli, and the symptoms produced by the defense mechanism may appear to protect the inner vital organs. Hahnemann’s law of cure states that the symptoms of the remedy and the symptoms produced by the defense mechanism of a patient in a disease state are similar [5]. Homeopathic approaches are based on the levels of health theory, which implies that each person has a specific energy needed for all vital functions and health maintenance, and this energy is influenced by genetics, environment, thoughts, and treatments. People with a low level of health are more difficult to treat or are less likely to present with a systematic improvement until they are treated with the correct successive remedies for a long period of time; those with a higher level of health can be completely cured in a faster and easier manner [6]. A homeopathic treatment uses a source substance and passes through a dilution process (potentization) in which the substance is still biologically active by retaining the proprieties of the initial material [7]. High potencies are obtained by dilution factors greater than the Avogadro’s number (<1023). Although it was thought that these dilutions could not contain any active ingredients, recent studies have proven otherwise by detecting the presence of substances in the form of nanoparticles of the initial material by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction [8]. General approach Blepharoptosis (or ptosis) is a down-ward displacement of the upper eyelid margin [9]. Drooping of the upper eyelids in adults, most commonly due to separation of the tendon of the lid-lifting (levator) muscle from the eyelid [10]. Most cases of ptosis can be categorized into one of the following five forms: aponeurotic, myogenic, neurogenic, mechanical, and traumatic. The aponeurotic form is the most common type of ptosis in adults and is due to disinsertion or stretching of the levator aponeurosis . Stretching can be caused by normal aging, repetitive eye rubbing, or previous intraocular surgery [11]. Age-related blepharoptosis (ptosis) is one of the common conditions encountered in ophthalmology clinics. It can cause superior visual field defect at primary and downward reading gaze and affect quality of life [12]. Selection of medicine We take this patient as a challenge from the very beginning. We collected physical, mental symptoms including all other symptoms of the patient. Some of the symptoms that are more important in the case of ptosis are differentiated Table 1. Table 1: Reportorial Totality. Symptoms that are more important in the case of ptosis are differentiated. [KT] [Head]Pain,headache in general:Occiput:Sun,heat of: (2) [KT] [Mind]Prostration of mind: (2) [BN] [Sensation and complaints in general]Weakness:Exhaustion, prostration, infirmity: (3) [BN] [Mind]Dizziness and instability of: (4) [BR] [Eyes]Eyelids and margins:Drooping (ptosis): (3) [BN] [Eyes]Eyelids:Paralysis, drooping, ptosis, etc.: (4) [BN] [Eyes]Eyelids:Paralysis, drooping, ptosis, etc.:Upper: (4) [KT] [Mind]Dullness,sluggishness,difficulty of thinking and comprehending: (3) [BR] [Nervous System]Sleep:Drowsiness: (3) [FA] [Ptosis] Ailments from: Emotions: (3) [FA] [Ptosis] Ailments from: Bad news, unpleasant surprises: (3) Then remedy selection was done with the help of a homeopathic repertory by sorted out symptoms Table 2. GJMCCR-8-234-i001Table 2: More important symptoms were taken for conducting repertory. We then initially selected the homeopathic medicine Gelsemium for this ptosis patient to conduct repertory Table 3. GJMCCR-8-234-i002Table 3: Drug filter was conducted by stage of disease, sex and thermal state of the patient and side of the patient. To choose the more accurate medicine, drug filter was conducted by the stage of disease, sex, thermal state of the patient and side of the patient through the homeopathic software Edu Homeopathy. Ultimately we agreed that Gelsemium would be a more effective drug for this patient Selection of scale and potency Professional homeopaths frequently use the potencies from the centesimal scale [13]. In the 5th Edition, Organon of Medicine, Hahnemann states that the centesimal potencies are quick in their onset and tend to aggravation in the beginning of chronic treatment. He seemed to use his centesimal for the most acute diseases, crisis, or as acute intercurrents during the disruptions of chronic treatment [14]. We took some criteria for potency selection such as susceptibility, nature of diseases, miasmatic background, seat of diseases, general condition of patient, and history of suppression,: paralysis of single parts. Age of the Patient and Strength of the Vital Force – We tend to use lower potencies, either in single or repeated doses, with babies, with patients who are depleted and weak, and in treating our pets. That said, in cases of severe acute illnesses, or if the lower potencies have been exhausted already, we may use high-potency medicines in these cases. The decision often depends on the clarity of the symptom picture, severity of the symptoms, and compliance. Treatment and follow-up Medicine and dose: In the end, with the potentized homeopathic remedy Gelsemium sempervirens 30°C, the patient was prescribed, chosen according to his symptoms presented at each follow-up visit. In addition, the patient was advised to take Gelsemium sempervirens 30°C of 5/7 pills orally thrice a day for a week on September 16, 2020 and asked to present the follow up after one week of finishing the medicine. With the satisfactory outcome, the medicine was suggested to be continued in the same doses for the next week, maintaining the same earlier pattern; topical applications of any other drug were prohibited. After two weeks the patient ptosis signs are recovery 60%. The patient maintained a gradually improving clinical status of ptosis. In two weeks, the patient gained more recovery and strength of left upper eyelid, with no more mentally prostrated; dizziness and instability, dullness, sluggishness, the difficulty of thinking and comprehending. His physical strength came back. The initial ptosis symptoms were completely absent at this point. He started treatment with Gelsemium 2°C, maintaining the same earlier pattern for next a week Figures 1,2. GJMCCR-8-234-g001Figure 1: (Before Treatment). GJMCCR-8-234-g002Figure 2: (After Treatment). All of the other symptoms were absent in that week. The acute episode of ptosis was absent and his vision was clear. According to his good clinical status, he does not take at present any homeopathic treatment either. Result In this case, the drooping eyelid covered all or part of the pupil of left eye and, interferes with vision. Administrating Gelsemium sempervirens 30°C of 5/7 pills orally thrice a day for a week; left eyelid ptosis was improved 60%. The ptosis resolved quickly and the patient remains symptom free 100% at 3 weeks follow-up by next high potency Gelsemium sempervirens 200C with same pattern. Conclusion We present the case of a 60-year-old man diagnosed with complete unilateral upper eyelid ptosis of left eye initially trying to treat with conventional medications without surgery. After an individualized series of homeopathic remedies, he presented a good clinical outcome, with no clinical signs of the disease. This is one of the first cases of ptosis treated with homeopathy presented in our clinic. Homeopathy is a useful alternative approach to be considered among patients with ptosis. A course of three weeks of homeopathic treatment is associated with significant benefits in patients suffering from ptosis, as conducted by Gelsemium sempervirens. Further studies should be continued to assess the efficacy of homeopathic medicine for ptosis.
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When human polymorphonuclear basophils, a type of white blood cell with antibodies of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) type on its surface, are exposed to anti-IgE antibodies, they release histamine from their intracellular granules and change their staining properties. The latter can be demonstrated at dilutions of anti-IgE that range from 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(120); over that range, there are successive peaks of degranulation from 40 to 60% of the basophils, despite the calculated absence of any anti-IgE molecules at the highest dilutions. Since dilutions need to be accompanied by vigorous shaking for the effects to be observed, transmission of the biological information could be related to the molecular organization of water.
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The principles and phenomena from materials research to study the structure of liquid water and its relevance to homeopathy were discussed. Liquid water is a nanoheterogenous statistical-mechanical distribution mainly of several molecular species including oligomers and polymers along with a minority of monomers. The structure can be easily affected by epitaxial effects, pressure during succussion, the formation of colloidal nanobubbles, and electric and magnetic fields. In homeopathy a specific active agent is added to the liquid (water or water + ethanol). The change in the internalized model is a de-emphasis on the precise possible molecules into which water may polymerize.
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Different concentrations of homeopathic dilutions, 50 ppm-3 ppb, of gold, iron, zinc, and mercury are determined by means of non-destructive NAA. The concentrations are determined by comparing the intensities of the corresponding ?-rays of the element in the sample and in the standard. The calibration curve is linear within the tested range of weight. In preliminary investigations a considerable decrease by adsorption on the glass wall was ascertained in model solutions of 1–10ng/ml. With regard to this decrease only the gold dilutions behave according to their model solutions. The concentrations of all the other dilutions are different and unexpectedly too high and they do not show a lower concentration as the model solutions. The too high iron concentrations are ascribed to reactions with the container glass, the too high concentrations of the zinc and mercury dilutions to the non-uniform distribution of the metals in the production triturations D6.
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This article will begin with an introduction to acoustic cavitation, the physical phenomenon responsible for the chemical effects of ultrasound. Some recent applications of sonochemistry to the synthesis of nanophase and amorphous metals, as well as to heterogenous catalysis, will then be highlighted. Finally, we will examine the effects of ultrasound on metal powders in liquid-solid slurries. The chemical effects of ultrasound do not come from a direct interaction of sound with molecular species. Ultrasound has frequencies from around 15 kilohertz to tens of megahertz. In liquids, this means wavelengths from centimeters down to microns, which are not molecular dimensions. Instead, when sound passes through a liquid, the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles can occur, as depicted in Figure 1. This process is called acoustic cavitation. More specifically, sound passing through a liquid consists of expansion waves and compression waves. As sound passes through a liquid, if the expansion wave is intense enough (that is, if the sound is loud enough), it can pull the liquid apart and form a bubble (a cavity). The compression wave comes along and compresses this cavity, then another expansion wave re-expands it. So we have an oscillating bubble going back and forth, say, 20,000 times a second.
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When human polymorphonuclear basophils, a type of white blood cell with antibodies of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) type on its surface, are exposed to anti-IgE antibodies, they release histamine from their intracellular granules and change their staining properties. The latter can be demonstrated at dilutions of anti-IgE that range from 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(120); over that range, there are successive peaks of degranulation from 40 to 60% of the basophils, despite the calculated absence of any anti-IgE molecules at the highest dilutions. Since dilutions need to be accompanied by vigorous shaking for the effects to be observed, transmission of the biological information could be related to the molecular organization of water.
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The homeopathic mode of treatment often encourages use of drugs at such ultra-low doses and high dilutions that even the physical existence of a single molecule of the original drug substance becomes theoretically impossible. But homeopathy has sustained for over two hundred years despite periodical challenges thrown by scientists and non-believers regarding its scientificity. There has been a spurt of research activities on homeopathy in recent years, at clinical, physical, chemical, biological and medical levels with acceptable scientific norms and approach. While clinical effects of some homeopathic drugs could be convincingly shown, one of the greatest objections to this science lies in its inability to explain the mechanism of action of the microdoses based on scientific experimentations and proofs. Though many aspects of the mechanism of action still remain unclear, serious efforts have now been made to understand the molecular mechanism(s) of biological responses to the potentized form of homeopathic drugs. In this communication, an overview of some interesting scientific works on homeopathy has been presented with due emphasis on the state of information presently available on several aspects of the molecular mechanism of action of the potentized homeopathic drugs.
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In this paper, we review research on homeopathy from four perspectives, focusing on reviews and some landmark studies. These perspectives are laboratory studies, clinical trials, observational studies, and theoretical work. In laboratory models, numerous effects and anomalies have been reported. However, no single model has been sufficiently widely replicated. Instead, researchers have focused on ever-new models and experiments, leaving the picture of scattered anomalies without coherence. Basic research, trying to elucidate a purported difference between homeopathic remedies and control solutions has also produced some encouraging results, but again, series of independent replications are missing. While there are nearly 200 reports on clinical trials, few series have been conducted for single conditions. Some of these series document clinically useful effects and differences against placebo and some series do not. Observational research into uncontrolled homeopathic practice documents consistently strong therapeutic effects and sustained satisfaction in patients. We suggest that this scattered picture has to do with the fourth line of research: lack of a good theory. Some of the extant theoretical models are reviewed, including placebo, water structure, silica contamination, energy models, and entanglement models. It emerges that local models, suggesting some change in structure in the solvent, are far from convincing. The nonlocal models proposed would predict that it is impossible to nail down homeopathic effects with direct experimental testing and this places homeopathy in a scientific dilemma. We close with some suggestions for potentially fruitful research.
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Alternative medical approaches to human diseases such as cancer are becoming increasingly popular, but reports on their success rates have been highly variable. Homeopathy is an alternative medical practice often applied to less critical human diseases but one that has also been applied sporadically to the treatment of cancer. Animal studies on the use of homeopathy to treat experimental cancer are few and the evidence provided to date is far from conclusive. The debate presented here concerns the utility of animal studies on cancer treatment with homeopathic preparations. As part of a Point-Counterpoint feature, this review and its companion piece in this issue by Khuda-Bukhsh (Integr Cancer Ther. 2006;5:320-332) are composed of a thesis section, a response section in reaction to the companion thesis, and a rebuttal section to address issues raised in the companion response.
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Homeopathy is a holistic method of treatment that uses ultralow doses of highly diluted natural substances originating from plants, minerals, or animals and is based on the principle of "like cures like." Despite being occasionally challenged for its scientific validity and mechanism of action, homeopathy continues to enjoy the confidence of millions of patients around the world who opt for this mode of treatment. Contrary to skeptics' views, research on home-opathy using modern tools mostly tends to support its efficacy and advocates new ideas toward understanding its mechanism of action. As part of a Point-Counterpoint feature, this review and its companion piece in this issue by Moffett et al (Integr Cancer Ther. 2006;5:333-342) are composed of a thesis section, a response section in reaction to the companion thesis, and a rebuttal section to address issues raised in the companion response.
Chapter
In a previous publication, a three-step hypothesis was introduced to help the comprehension of the technique followed in homeopathic preparation of remedies in the case that the dilution of the pharmaceutical substance does not reach the molecular level of the substance, but small aggregates of molecules of the substance are first formed and then eventually diluted into the solvent. Here, this hypothesis is extended to cover the cases where the dilution reaches the molecular level and eventually simple molecules of the substance are found among molecules of the solvent.
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High-intensity ultrasound can enhance both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. It has found an important niche in organic synthesis using reactive metals. Most investigations of heterogeneous sonochemistry, however, have been strictly descriptive. Although a detailed understanding of homogeneous sonochemistry has been recently developed, the authors knowledge about the effects of ultrasound on liquid-solid interfaces is much more limited. To better understand the origin of heterogeneous sonochemistry, they have examined the effects of ultrasonic irradiation on chemical reactivity, particle and surface morphology, and surface atomic composition of Zn powder. They believe that the observed changes are primarily due to interparticle collisions which result from the turbulent flow and shockwaves produced by the ultrasonic field.
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A systematic investigation into the influence of the wettability of spherical, nanometer-sized silica particles on the type and stability of water−toluene emulsions is described. The particles range from hydrophilic to hydrophobic depending on the extent of chemisorbed silane on their surfaces. We show that predictions based on considerations of the energy of attachment of a single particle to the oil−water interface relate directly to the stability of emulsions. A combination of powder immersion, shelf stability, light diffraction, and microscopy measurements is used to characterize the systems. Emulsions stabilized by either very hydrophilic or very hydrophobic particles are large (>100 μm) and unstable to coalescence. Those with particles of intermediate hydrophobicity are submicrometer and stable to coalescence indefinitely. For these, catastrophic inversion of emulsions occurs upon increasing the volume fraction of water, φw, and their stability to sedimentation or creaming increases approaching inversion. The stability of emulsions to gravity-induced separation passes through a sharp maximum upon increasing the particle hydrophobicity, alongside a minimum in the average drop diameter. This is universal and independent of φw and the type of emulsion formed. In one system, an otherwise very stable water-in-oil emulsion is destabilized in an ultracentrifugal field leading to enhanced sedimentation and eventual coalescence.
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Colloidal particles act in many ways like surfactant molecules, particularly if adsorbed to a fluid–fluid interface. Just as the water or oil-liking tendency of a surfactant is quantified in terms of the hydrophile–lipophile balance (HLB) number, so can that of a spherical particle be described in terms of its wettability via contact angle. Important differences exist, however, between the two types of surface-active material, due in part to the fact that particles are strongly held at interfaces. This review attempts to correlate the behaviour observed in systems containing either particles or surfactant molecules in the areas of adsorption to interfaces, partitioning between phases and solid-stabilised emulsions and foams.
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Ultrasound has become an important synthetic tool in liquid-solid chemical reactions, but the origins of the observed enhancements remained unknown. The effects of high-intensity ultrasound on solid-liquid slurries were examined. Turbulent flow and shock waves produced by acoustic cavitation were found to drive metal particles together at sufficiently high velocities to induce melting upon collision. A series of transition-metal powders were used to probe the maximum temperatures and speeds reached during such interparticle collisions. Metal particles that were irradiated in hydrocarbon liquids with ultrasound underwent collisions at roughly half the speed of sound and generated localized effective temperatures between 2600 degrees C and 3400 degrees C at the point of impact for particles with an average diameter of approximately 10 microns.
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The 'silica hypothesis' is one of several frameworks that have been put forward to explain how homeopathic remedies, which often are diluted beyond the point where any of the original substance remains, might still be clinically effective. We describe here what the silica hypothesis says. From a physical chemistry viewpoint, we explore three challenges that the hypothesis would have to meet in order to explain homeopathy: thermodynamic stability of a large number of distinct structures, pattern initiation at low potencies, and pattern maintenance or gradual evolution at higher potencies. We juxtapose current knowledge about silicates with some of the conventional wisdom about homeopathic remedies, to see how well the latter might be a consequence of the former. We explore variants of the hypothesis including some speculations about mechanisms. We outline laboratory experiments that could help to decide it.
Article
The key stumbling block to serious consideration of homeopathy is the presumed "implausibility" of biological activity for homeopathic medicines in which the source material is diluted past Avogadro's number of molecules. Such an argument relies heavily on the assumptions of elementary chemistry (and biochemistry), in which the material composition of a solution, (dilution factors and ligand-receptor interactions), is the essential consideration. In contrast, materials science focuses on the three-dimensional complex network structure of the condensed phase of water itself, rather than the original solute molecules. The nanoheterogenous structure of water can be determined by interactive phenomena such as epitaxy (the transmission of structural information from the surface of one material to another without the transfer of any matter), temperature-pressure processes during succussion, and formation of colloidal nanobubbles containing gaseous inclusions of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and possibly the remedy source material. Preliminary data obtained using Raman and Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy illustrate the ability to distinguish two different homeopathic medicines (Nux vomica and Natrum muriaticum) from one another and to differentiate, within a given medicine, the 6c, 12c, and 30c potencies. Materials science concepts and experimental tools offer a new approach to contemporary science, for making significant advances in the basic science studies of homeopathic medicines.
Article
Homeopathic medicines are currently used in medical practice, despite controversy about their effectiveness. The preparation method is based on extremely high dilutions of many substances in water, far beyond any detectable level. For this reason, it has been suggested that water could retain a 'memory' of substances that have been dissolved in it before the successive dilutions. The paper stresses the fact that this idea is not compatible with our knowledge of pure water. If an explanation on physical grounds is to be found, research must focus in other aspects of the preparation, such as the presence of other molecules and dissolved gases.
Article
The 'memory of water' is a concept by which the properties of an aqueous preparation are held to depend on the previous history of the sample. Although associated with the mechanism of homeopathy, this association may mislead. There is strong evidence concerning many ways in which the mechanism of this 'memory' may come about. There are also mechanisms by which such solutions may possess effects on biological systems which substantially differ from plain water. This paper examines the evidence.
Article
New physics occurs in semiconductors when one or more dimensions of the crystal are reduced to a size comparable to bulk electron delocalization lengths (tens to hundreds of angstroms). The properties of "quantum dots" or semiconductor nanocrystals are now being studied, as techniques to fabricate the crystallites are developed. Temperature-dependent electron diffraction studies on nanocrystals of CdS show a large depression in the melting temperature with decreasing size, as a larger fraction of the total number of atoms is on the surface. Thermal stability may play a role in determining the uses of semiconductor nanocrystals.
Philips technical library e monographs in practical electron microscopy in materials science 2 e electron diffraction in the electron microscope
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