Effects of Growth Hormone and Nutritional Therapy in Boys with Constitutional Growth Delay: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Division of Endocrinology, Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32207, USA.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 10/2010; 158(3):427-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.09.006
Source: PubMed


To examine whether supplemental nutrition augments the anabolic actions of growth hormone (GH) in boys with constitutional delay of growth and maturation (CDGM).
We conducted a randomized, controlled trial at an outpatient clinical research center. Subjects were 20 prepubertal boys (age, 9.3 ± 1.3 years) with CDGM (height standard deviation score, -2.0 ± 0.5; bone age delay, 1.8 ± 0.8 years; body mass index standard deviation score, -1.2 ± 1.0; peak stimulated GH, 15.7 ± 7.7 ng/mL), who were randomized (n = 10/group) to 6 months observation or daily nutritional supplementation, followed by additional daily GH therapy in all for another 12 months. t tests and repeated measures analyses of variance compared energy intake, total energy expenditure (TEE), growth, hormones, and nutrition markers.
Energy intake was increased at 6 months within the nutrition group (P = .04), but not the observation group, and TEE was not statistically different within either group at 6 months. Addition of 6 months GH resulted in higher energy intake and TEE in the GH/nutrition group at 12 months (P < .01), but not in the GH group versus baseline. Height, weight, lean body mass, hormones, and nutrition markers increased comparably in both groups throughout 18 months.
Boys with CDGM use energy at an accelerated rate, an imbalance not overcome with added nutrition. GH therapy increases growth comparably with or without added nutrition in these patients.

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    ABSTRACT: It is not clear what dietary intake standards should be used for children with abnormal body size. To investigate the energy requirements of short-stature children with no underlying diseases, their resting energy requirements (REE) were measured by indirect calorimetry. The short-stature group consisted of 30 prepubertal children with short stature and with no underlying diseases (age 6y±2) and the control group consisted of 13 age-matched children with standard stature. Fasting REE and the respiration quotient (RQ) with subjects in the supine position were measured by canopy indirect calorimetry. Actual measurements and body-size-adjusted REEs were compared between the groups. Also, REE measurements were compared with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) calculated using the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (Dietary Reference Intakes). REE in the control group was significantly higher than that in the short-stature group. However, body-size-adjusted REEs were significantly higher for the short-stature group. When the actual REE was compared with the calculated BMR within both the control group and the short-stature group, which was acquired using the Dietary Reference Intakes, there was no difference within the control group but the actual REE measurements were significantly higher than the calculated BMR in the short-stature group. The same pattern was seen within the short-stature group when subjects were matched for height. There were no significant differences in RQ between the two groups.
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