Article

Premorbid cognitive leisure independently contributes to cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis

Neuropsychology & Neuroscience Laboratory, Kessler Foundation Research Center, 300 Executive Drive, Suite 10, West Orange, NJ 07052, USA.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 10/2010; 75(16):1428-31. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181f881a6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis, higher education and vocabulary help persons with Alzheimer disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) better withstand neuropathology before developing cognitive impairment. Also, premorbid cognitive leisure (e.g., reading, hobbies) is an independent source of cognitive reserve for elders with AD, but there is no research on the contribution of leisure activity to cognition in MS. We investigated whether premorbid cognitive leisure protects patients with MS from cognitive impairment.
Premorbid cognitive leisure was surveyed in 36 patients with MS. Neurologic disease severity was estimated with brain atrophy, measured as third ventricle width on high-resolution MRI. Cognitive status was measured with a composite score of processing speed and memory.
Controlling for brain atrophy, premorbid cognitive leisure was positively associated with current cognitive status (r(p) = 0.49, p < 0.01), even when controlling for vocabulary (r(p) = 0.39, p < 0.05) and education (r(p) = 0.47, p < 0.01). Also, premorbid cognitive leisure was unrelated to brain atrophy (r = 0.03, p > 0.5), but a positive partial correlation between leisure and atrophy emerged when controlling for cognitive status (r(p) = 0.37, p < 0.05), which remained when also controlling for vocabulary (r(p) = 0.34, p < 0.05) and education (r(p) = 0.35, p < 0.05).
Premorbid cognitive leisure contributes to cognitive status in patients with MS independently of vocabulary and education. Also, patients with MS who engaged in more cognitive leisure were able to withstand more severe brain atrophy at a given cognitive status. Premorbid cognitive leisure is supported as an independent source of cognitive reserve in patients with MS.

  • Source
    • "The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that greater intellectual enrichment (e.g. educational attainment (EA); occupational attainment, vocabulary knowledge, premorbid cognitive leisure activity) might moderate the negative impact of pathologic brain changes, such as atrophy, on cognition1234567. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the relationship between MRImarkers of disease-related tissue changes and cognitive status is variable. "

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), especially when assessed by neuropsychological tests that emphasize mental processing speed, episodic memory, and some aspects of executive function. In this Review, we question why some MS patients develop severe impairment in cognitive abilities, while cognitive ability remains intact in others. We find that the heterogeneity in neuropsychological presentation among patients with MS reflects the influence of many factors, including genetics, sex, intelligence, disease course, comorbid neuropsychiatric illness, and health behaviors. Neuropsychological deficits are also robustly correlated with brain MRI metrics. Male patients with early evidence of cerebral gray matter atrophy are most prone to impairment, whereas high premorbid intelligence improves the neuropsychological prognosis. Routine evaluation of cognition is useful for helping patients to navigate problems related to activities of daily living and work disability and, if reliable methods are employed, cognitive decline can be detected and included among the many clinical signs of disease progression or treatment failure. Pharmacological treatments for neuropsychological impairment are on the horizon, although presently no firm medical indications exist for the condition.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Nature Reviews Neurology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studying the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is fundamental for a global understanding of this disease. Neuroimaging techniques might provide crucial data about the nature of this deficit and their progression. Accordingly to this idea, over the last years there has been a marked increase in the number of studies devoted to explore the possible relationship between the cognitive alterations of this clinical population and different sorts of neuropathological indexes provided by both, classical as well as by more recently developed techniques. The results of the studies using structural information provided by structural techniques, have revealed the important role of atrophic processes in the aethiology of cognitive decline in MS patients. However, this information needs to be complemented with newer indexes of neuropathological alterations in 'apparently normal' gray and white matter. On the other hand, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have provided clear evidence of the existence and functional significance of neuroplastic processes that can mask the relationship between morphological markers of tissue damage and cognitive performance of MS patients. Those neuroplastic processes need to be taken into account as they might compensate the cognitive decline of this clinical population. In summary, the present review tries to provide a critic and integrative view of different studies assessing the relationship between cognitive impairment in MS patients and different kinds of information provided by neuroimaging techniques.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Revista de neurologia
Show more