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On being aware and accepting: A one-year longitudinal study into adolescent well-being

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Abstract

The nature and potential benefit of awareness and experiential acceptance in adolescence remains neglected and understudied. To address this gap in the literature, 776 students (50% female) in Grade 10 completed measures of mindfulness, emotional awareness, and experiential acceptance, as well as measures of major personality traits. To study prospective changes, assessments of emotional well-being were completed across a 1-year interval. Analyses revealed that "Acting with Awareness" (engaging fully in one's current activity with undivided attention), emotional awareness, and experiential acceptance where all linked to prosocial tendencies and uniquely predicted increases in well-being across the year. Observing experience (noticing, observing, and attending to a variety of stimuli) was correlated with positive and negative aspects of personality and did not predict changes in well-being. We discuss the implications for understanding awareness and acceptance in youth.

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... Evidence also suggests relationships between outcomes. Ciarrochi et al. (2011) and Kerrigan et al. (2011) found that increases in adolescents' awareness corresponded to increases in their well-being. In one qualitative study, Dariotis et al. (2016) concluded that improved emotion regulation skills helped participants de-escalate their negative emotions and reduce their stress. ...
... One "master coder" read all interviews and two coders each read half the interviews for reliability purposes. Through an iterative process, the coders developed a codebook which included codes derived empirically from the data (e.g., "Changes as a result of L2B") or derived from prior MBP studies and theories of change (e.g., "mindfulness," "efficacy," "emotional well-being") (see Schussler et al. 2016;Ciarrochi et al. 2011;Meiklejohn et al. 2012). ...
... Our findings are consistent with the findings of Ciarrochi et al. (2011), Kerrigan et al. (2011) as well as a number of reviews (Sapthiang et al. 2019;Zoogman et al. 2015) regarding increases in adolescents' awareness corresponding to increases in their well-being, especially for those in the clinical range of internalizing symptoms. In the current study, five of the nine target students experienced positive changes in their self-reported mindfulness, emotion-regulation, and rumination. ...
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Research on mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) for adolescents suggests improvements in stress, emotion regulation, and ability to perform some cognitive tasks. However, there is little research examining the contextual factors impacting why specific students experience particular changes and the process by which these changes occur. Responding to the NIH call for “n-of-1 studies” that examine how individuals respond to interventions, we conducted a systematic case study, following an intervention trial (Learning to BREATHE), to investigate how individual students experienced an MBP. Specifically, we examined how students’ participation impacted their perceived stress and well-being and why students chose to implement practices in their daily lives. Students in health classes at two diverse high schools completed quantitative self-report measures (pre-, post-, follow-up), qualitative interviews, and open-ended survey questions. We analyzed self-report data to examine whether and to what extent student performance on measures of psychological functioning, stress, attention, and well-being changed before and after participation in an MBP. We analyzed qualitative data to investigate contextual information about why those changes may have occurred and why individuals chose to adopt or disregard mindfulness practices outside the classroom. Results suggest that, particularly for high-risk adolescents and those who integrated program practices into their daily lives, the intervention impacted internalizing symptoms, stress management, mindfulness, and emotion regulation. Mindful breathing was found to be a feasible practice easily incorporated into school routines. Contextual factors impacted practice uptake and program outcomes. Implications for practitioners aiming to help high school students manage stress are discussed.
... Especially in studies conducted with young people, ACT-based interventions were found to reduce impulsivity and increase self-control in at-risk youth (Soriano, Salas, Martinez, Ruiz, & Blarrina, 2009) and effective in health behaviors and in supporting their well-being (Dindo et al., 2018). Those interventions increased positive affect and decreased sadness in young people through the acceptance variable (Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011); reduced mental distress in young people with cancer and chronic pain (Patterson & McDonald 2015;Pielech, Vowles, & Wicksell, 2017); and were found to be relevant to be applied to young people with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic illness or chronic pain (Ernst & Mellon, 2016;Halliburton & Cooper, 2015). ...
... Those abilities are distancing from feelings and thoughts, carrying the mind wandering in the past and future back to the present moment, determining the principles and values that one wants to realize in his life, and the awareness that it is normal to have difficulties and pains in life, and acting in a value-oriented manner despite internal and external challenging experiences. The longitudinal study of Ciarrochi et al. (2011) reveals that role of awareness and acceptance in young people's positive development. ...
... Prior studies show that developing and expressing emotions flexibly instead of suppression and avoidance after stimuli that trigger emotions makes it possible to adapt better and has a negative relationship with psychopathology (Aldao, Nolen-Hoeksema, & Schweizer, 2010;Aldao, Sheppes, & Gross, 2015;Westphal, Seivert, & Bonanno, 2010). Also, it is known that acceptance-based interventions increase positive affect and reduce sadness in young people, increase the level of coping with stress factors and well-being even in serious situations such as chronic diseases (Carlson, 2012;Ciarrochi et al., 2011;Speca, Carlson, Goodey & Angen, 2000). ...
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This study aims to develop, implement, and test the effectiveness of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based psychoeducation program for fostering psychological flexibility. The study employed a convergent mixed methods design. For the quantitative phase, the pre-test post-test control group experimental design was used, while in the qualitative phase, a thematic analysis was conducted. The study group consisted of 13 first-year students of the Department of Guidance and Counseling, and Psychology, aged between 18-22, 8 of whom are in the experiment group, and 5 in the control group. The students participated in 8 sessions of 90 minutes. Before and after the psychoeducation, the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II was administered to the students and they were also asked to answer the formerly specified open-ended questions in writing. Mann Whitney U and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests were used for statistical analysis; while thematic analysis was used for the qualitative component of the study. Quantitative findings showed that psychoeducation significantly increased psychological flexibility, but the change was not at a level to differ from the control group; while qualitative findings revealed that participants experienced changes in 10 themes after psychoeducation. These themes are Being Present, Self-Control, Value-Based Actions, Defusion and Coping with Feelings and Thoughts, Knowledge of Self and Others, Acceptance, Non-Avoidance, Conflict and Crisis Management, Authenticity, and Anxiety. The quantitative and qualitative findings are discussed in light of the relevant literature.
... Generally, mindfulness has been associated with a better psychological quality of life in children (Clevenger et al. 2018). Using mindfulness strategies has been linked to lower negative affect and greater positive affect in high school students (Broderick and Metz 2009;Brown et al. 2011;Ciarrochi et al. 2011) and students in grades 4 through 7 (Schonert-Reichl and Lawlor 2010). Studies examining the use of mindfulness-based strategies with children and adolescents have found that these strategies lead to an overall increase in reported well-being (Greco et al. 2011;Huppert and Johnson 2010), and a decrease in perceived stress (Biegel et al. 2009). ...
... Not only have children been shown to display increased internalizing concerns, such as depression, following exposure to trauma, but they have also been shown to display externalizing concerns, such as anger, behavior problems, and a decline in academic performance (Vogel and Vernberg 1993). The use of mindfulness-based strategies has been negatively associated with externalizing symptoms in adolescents, such as hostility (Ciarrochi et al. 2011), using substances as a coping mechanism , and aggression and oppositional behavior (Greco et al. 2011;Schonert-Reichl and Lawlor 2010). Therefore, investigation into the importance of mindfulness in the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children following exposure to trauma is an important area to examine. ...
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Objectives The goal of the present study was to examine whether mindfulness is related to psychological outcomes in children and adolescents after hurricane exposure, and to examine the strength of the relationship. It was hypothesized that mindfulness would be negatively associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms. It was also hypothesized that mindfulness would act as a moderator of PTSD symptoms, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms. Methods The study’s sample consisted of 108 children and adolescents (74.5% Black, Non-Hispanic, 56.1% female, M age = 11.59) in grades 3–12 recruited from schools on the island of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, 3 months after Hurricanes Irma and Maria. Participants completed questionnaires electronically at school reporting on demographic characteristics, hurricane exposure, mindfulness strategies, and PTSD, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms. Results Results from the current study showed that mindfulness was negatively correlated with PTSD symptoms, internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Additionally, it was found that the association between perceived life threat and internalizing symptoms was positive when children reported lower levels of trait mindfulness, but the association was not significant when children reported higher levels of trait mindfulness. Conclusions The results of the present study support the importance of mindfulness among children and adolescents and suggest that mindfulness is a helpful strategy for children and adolescents exposed to trauma. While more research is needed, the results suggest that mindfulness may be helpful to include in intervention for the psychological functioning of children following exposure to a hurricane.
... For example, psychological flexibility includes mindfulness dimensions related to nonreactivity to inner experience (item such as "my thoughts and feelings mess up my life") and non-judging of experience (item such as "if my heart beats fast, there must be something wrong with me"). However, it also refers to items linked to goal-related activity, which are typically not present in mindfulness measures such as "I stop doing things that are important to me whenever I feel bad" (Ciarrochi et al. 2011). ...
... In this study, the two CTA that have been performed on I-AFQ, and I-CAM identify the YSR anxious/ depressed scale that describes cognitive, emotional, and behavioral features of anxiety and depression, as the first watershed in both models. This outcome is in line with previous theoretical and research literature that reported the role of mindfulness skills and acceptance in reducing anxiety disorders in adolescents (Ciarrochi et al. 2011;Greco et al. 2005;Hofmann et al. 2010;Venta et al. 2012). ...
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Objectives Two processes that have been largely studied in relation to psychological wellbeing during adolescence are mindfulness and psychological flexibility. Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) and Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y) are specifically developed for children and adolescents and their items are built to assess specific processes. This study aims to identify cut-offs detecting adolescents with internalizing disorders, and describing specific behavioral repertoires within participants with high Psychological Inflexibility and poor Mindfulness Skills. Method Participants (N = 1336), aged between 11 and 18, were recruited. Participants completed the Italian versions of CAMM, AFQ-Y, and Youth Self-Report (YSR). To determine the cut-offs for CAMM and AFQ-Y discriminating participants with internalizing disorders two receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed. Furthermore, to identify homogeneous groups with specific behavioral repertoires two Classification Tree Analyses (CTA) were performed. Results The cut-offs identified are 24 for the CAMM, and 11 for the AFQ-Y. The CTA showed that low Mindfulness Skills and Psychological Inflexibility share a specific feature: namely, depressive symptoms. However, social withdrawal seems to be associated only with low Mindfulness Skills, while somatic symptoms seems to be associated only with Psychological Inflexibility. Conclusions The potential uses of the CAMM and AFQ-Y in research and clinical practice are drawn. CAMM and AFQ-Y are short and simple measures that make them accessible in a school-based primary prevention setting.
... Inasmuch as a deficit in emotional clarity is often considered a risk factor for negative outcomes, adaptive levels of the construct may be related to important positive psychosocial outcomes associated with well-being. Longitudinally, EC is protective against the development of aspects of negative affect, including fear, hostility, and sadness (Ciarrochi et al., 2011). During adolescence, EC is associated with general mental health (e.g., low distress and high well-being), life satisfaction, optimism, and self-esteem ( Extremera et al., 2007;Fernandez-Berrocal, Alcaide, Extremera, & Pizarro, 2006;Salguero et al., 2012). ...
... During adolescence, EC is associated with general mental health (e.g., low distress and high well-being), life satisfaction, optimism, and self-esteem ( Extremera et al., 2007;Fernandez-Berrocal, Alcaide, Extremera, & Pizarro, 2006;Salguero et al., 2012). Adaptive personality traits, such as agreeableness, extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness, are all positively associated with emotional clarity during adolescence; conversely, neuroticism, psychoticism, and hopelessness are negatively associated with EC (Ciarrochi, Deane, Wilson, & Rickwood, 2002;Ciarrochi et al., 2011). Further, studies on EC during adolescence reveal a consistent relationship between emotional clarity and other aspects of adaptive emotion regulation, such as a greater ability to regulate feelings (i.e., emotional repair) and a higher tendency to observe, think about, and attend to emotions ( Extremera et al. 2007;Fernandez-Berrocal et al., 2006;Salguero et al., 2012). ...
Article
Past research on emotional clarity (EC), the ability to identify and label one’s own emotions, has illustrated an association between EC deficits and poor psychosocial outcomes during the adolescent years. Although past research has connected EC to psychosocial outcomes during adolescence in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, no studies have traced the trajectory of EC over time to determine the developmental course of the construct during adolescence. Thus, this study investigated how EC developed over five years during adolescence and what factors were associated with the developmental trajectory of emotional clarity. Participants included a diverse sample of 640 adolescents (M age at Time 1 = 12.55 years; 53.0% female; 52.2% African American; 48.0% eligible for free school lunch). Results indicated that EC tended to decrease over adolescence, and females, on average, had a steeper decline of EC over time than males. The trajectory of EC predicted psychosocial outcomes, including depression and well-being. Results are discussed with the ultimate goal of informing novel prevention and intervention programs to promote adaptive emotional functioning during an influential time in human development.
... Adolescents from the USA and the UK with higher self-reported levels of dispositional mindfulness have reported a higher degree of happiness and satisfaction with their lives (Brown et al. 2011;Greco et al. 2011), while engaging in fewer negative internalising and externalising behaviours (Greco et al. 2011). A large prospective study of 776 Australian Grade 10 students (mean age 15.4 years) by Ciarrochi et al. (2011) observed that greater actively mindful behaviour preceded reduced sadness, fear, and hostility and increased positive affect over 1 year. Together, these studies provide preliminary evidence for the potential importance of the cultivation of mindfulness in adolescents. ...
... First, this was cross-sectional research; research with longitudinal and experimental designs would allow causal inferences to be made regarding the relationships between dispositional Fig. 3 Multiple mediator model (model 2) examining the direct relationship between dispositional mindfulness, two factors of EI, and psychological distress. a = unstandardised regression coefficient between predictor and the mediator, b = unstandardised regression coefficient between the mediators and the dependent variable, c = unstandardised regression coefficient between predictor and dependent variable, and c' = unstandardised regression coefficient between predictor and dependent variable when controlling for mediator (Brown et al. 2011;Luebbers et al. 2007), while others show that adolescent males and females do not differ in EI or mindfulness (Ciarrochi et al. 2011). Nevertheless, future research investigating the mediating effect of EI on the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and well-being of both genders is important for understanding differences and similarities between the male and female experience. ...
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Emotional intelligence (EI) and dispositional mindfulness are two constructs that have been implicated in well-being, particularly in males, and are often part of student well-being programs. This study examined the relationships between EI, dispositional mindfulness, and well-being in adolescent boys. It was hypothesised that EI would mediate the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and well-being. The sample consisted of 294 adolescent male school students aged 13–17 years (M = 14.13, SD = 1.26). Participants completed self-report questionnaires related to dispositional mindfulness (Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale for Adolescents), EI (Adolescent Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Scale), subjective happiness (Subjective Happiness Scale) and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire). Two multiple mediation models were developed to assess the extent to which EI mediates the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and (1) subjective happiness and (2) psychological distress. The results indicated that three EI dimensions: Emotional Recognition and Expression (ERE), Emotional Management and Control (EMC), and Understanding the Emotions of Others (UEO), were significantly positively correlated with dispositional mindfulness (p < 0.01). In addition, two EI dimensions (ERE and EMC) partially mediated the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and subjective happiness (ERE: PM = 0.22[0.08], 95% CI = 0.09, 0.39; EMC: PM = 0.28[0.11], 95% CI = 0.10, 0.54), and between dispositional mindfulness and psychological distress (ERE: PM = 0.14[0.06], 95% CI = 0.04, 0.26; EMC: PM = 0.31[0.08], 95% CI = 0.17, 0.48). It was concluded that the development of programs incorporating aspects of dispositional mindfulness and EI could provide tangible benefits to the psychological well-being of adolescent males.
... We found no studies on what aspect of PI (cognitive fusion and experiential avoidance) may have a mediating effect on some indicators of mental health criteria. Therefore, there is a shortage of studies on PI and DM in children and adolescents [14,15]. Given the relevance of PI, the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y) was developed to assess this construct [16]. ...
... There are some promising antecedents with samples of children and adolescents using this PI measure. A longitudinal study with adolescents, experiential acceptance (the opposite of avoidance) predicted increasing positive affect and decreasing fear and sadness [14]. In a Dutch sample, PI (using a shorter version of the AFQ-Y and only one factor) and anxiety symptoms were positively correlated [9]. ...
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Nowadays, mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have experimented a remarkable development of studies among childhood and adolescent interventions. For this reason, dispositional mindfulness (DM) measures for children and adolescents have been developed to determine the effectiveness of MBI at this age stage. However, little is known about how key elements of DM (f. e., cognitive de/fusion or experiential avoidance that both conform psychological inflexibility) are involved in the mechanisms of the children and adolescents’ mental health outcomes. This research examined the mediating effect of cognitive fusion between DM and anxiety and other negative emotional states in a sample of 318 Spanish primary-school students (aged between 8 and 16 years, M=11.24, SD=2.19, 50.8% males). Participants completed the AFQ-Y, which is a measure of psychological inflexibility that encompasses cognitive defusion and experiential avoidance; CAMM (DM for children and adolescents), PANAS-N (positive and negative affect measure for children, the Spanish version of PANASC), and STAIC (an anxiety measure for children). The study accomplished ethical standards. As MBI relevant literature has suggested, cognitive defusion was a significant mediator between DM and symptoms of both negative emotions and anxiety in children and adolescents. However, experiential avoidance did not show any significant mediating relationship. Probably, it is needed improvement of the assessment of experiential avoidance. MBI programs for children and adolescents may include more activities for reducing the effects of the cognitive defusion on their emotional distress.
... Prior cross-sectional research in adolescent samples suggests that greater mindfulness-as assessed via selfreport questionnaires-reliably negatively correlates with negative affect (e.g., Brown et al. 2011), and positively correlates with positive affect (e.g., Ciarrochi et al. 2011). Longitudinal studies have extended these cross-sectional studies to test the prospective relationships between mindfulness and negative and positive affect. ...
... Longitudinal studies have extended these cross-sectional studies to test the prospective relationships between mindfulness and negative and positive affect. These studies indicate that individual differences in mindfulness predict cross-time reductions in negative affect and depressive symptoms and increases in positive affect, across several weeks (Ciesla et al. 2012), months Royuela-Colomer and Calvete 2016), and even up to one (Ciarrochi et al. 2011) and 2 years later (Calvete et al. 2019). However, less work has been devoted to understanding the mediating processes that might account for these associations. ...
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Research shows greater mindfulness is associated with less negative affect and more positive affect. Fewer studies have examined the mediating psychological processes linking mindfulness to these outcomes in adolescents. This three-wave, prospective longitudinal study examines rumination—the tendency to engage in repetitive and negative self-focused thinking—as one potential explanatory process. High school students (N = 599, Mage = 16.3 years; 49% girls) completed a short-form version of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, in addition to self-report measures of rumination and negative and positive affect three times over the course of a school year. Autoregressive, cross-lagged panel models tested reciprocal, prospective associations between mindfulness, rumination, and negative and positive affect, while accounting for prior levels of each construct, within-wave covariances, and gender and grade level. The results showed that the nonjudgment mindfulness facet (and the total mindfulness score) predicted cross-wave reductions in rumination, that in turn predicted cross-wave reductions in negative affect. No evidence for mediation was found for positive affect, or for any of the other mindfulness facets (describe, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity). This study provides suggestive evidence that individual differences in mindfulness, and in particular nonjudgmental acceptance, prospectively predict less negative affect through lower rumination.
... Finally, the mediating role of acting with awareness in the depressive symptoms-emotional eating link may also be explained through difficulty identifying feelings, a subcomponent of alexithymia (Ciarrochi et al. 2011). Difficulty identifying feelings has been negatively linked to acting with awareness (Baer et al. 2006;Ciarrochi et al. 2011;Dekeyser et al. 2008) and positively linked to emotional eating (Carano et al. 2006;Hund and Espelage 2006;Larsen et al. 2006;Mazzeo and Espelage 2002;Moon and Berenbaum 2009;Pinaquy et al. 2003) and depressive symptoms (Ouwens et al. 2009). ...
... Finally, the mediating role of acting with awareness in the depressive symptoms-emotional eating link may also be explained through difficulty identifying feelings, a subcomponent of alexithymia (Ciarrochi et al. 2011). Difficulty identifying feelings has been negatively linked to acting with awareness (Baer et al. 2006;Ciarrochi et al. 2011;Dekeyser et al. 2008) and positively linked to emotional eating (Carano et al. 2006;Hund and Espelage 2006;Larsen et al. 2006;Mazzeo and Espelage 2002;Moon and Berenbaum 2009;Pinaquy et al. 2003) and depressive symptoms (Ouwens et al. 2009). Similar to acting with awareness, difficulty identifying feelings has also been suggested to be a mediator of the association between depressive symptoms and emotional eating (Ouwens et al. 2009). ...
Article
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The association between depressive symptoms and emotional eating has been well established. The aim of the current study was to examine whether the association between depressive symptoms and emotional eating was mediated by mindfulness, a construct that has successfully been implemented in the treatment of eating disorders and depression. Mindfulness, particularly, the component “acting with awareness” was theorized to decrease impulsive eating. Data from 417 Dutch adult participants were analyzed. Mediation analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling in Mplus. Of the five mindfulness subcomponents, only acting with awareness mediated the association between depressive symptoms and emotional eating. Results showed complete mediation in that the effect of depression on emotional eating was entirely carried indirectly through the mediator acting with awareness. None of the other mindfulness components mediated the depressive symptoms-emotional eating link. This indicates the potential importance of the “acting with awareness” construct, explaining why depressive symptoms would be associated with emotional eating. Future prospective research should examine whether, why and for whom acting with awareness may mediate the prospective link from depressive symptoms to emotional eating.
... Therefore, we cannot categorically conclude that enhanced psychological flexibility predicts increased life satisfaction. However, in one prospective study, experiential acceptance and emotional awareness predicted the well-being of adolescents after a 1-year interval (Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011). Therefore, it is not unreasonable to assume that prevention programs promoting children's and adolescent's awareness and acceptance skills may influence life satisfaction and suicide prevention (Balazs et al., 2018). ...
... In this way, the effectiveness of such programs can be easily evaluated. We also suggest that more prospective studies could be conducted to explore the development and maintenance of PI in order to preserve adolescent well-being and to prevent PI in children and adolescents (Ciarrochi et al., 2011;Muris et al., 2017;Valdivia-Salas et al., 2017). ACT (Hayes et al., 2006) has shown promise in the treatment of mental health disorders by directly intervening with EA and CF, enabling the acceptance of inner experiences, and enhancing psychological flexibility (Malicki & Ostaszewski, 2014). ...
Article
The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y8) was developed to measure psychological inflexibility. Although the questionnaire is a well-known tool in clinical practice, its psychometric properties have not been widely investigated in the target population of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure and validity of the AFQ-Y8 (N = 1,572, mean age 15.39 years, girls 51%) on a Hungarian sample. We also tested the invariance of the measurement model across two age groups (11-14 and 15-20 years old). Results confirmed the single-factor structure of the AFQ-Y8. Psychological inflexibility was also found to be positively related to emotional instability, externalizing, and internalizing problems. Furthermore, psychological inflexibility explained the variance of life satisfaction when personality dimensions, emotional, and behavioral problems were accounted for. Measurement invariance across age groups was partially supported. These results suggest that the AFQ-Y8 is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing psychological inflexibility in children and adolescents.
... For example, dispositional mindfulness has been linked to lower distress in adolescents with cancer . Acceptance has been linked to increased positive affect and decreased sadness in Australian adolescents (Ciarrochi et al. 2011) and lowered distress in adolescents with severe chronic pain (Pielech et al. 2017). Longitudinal research suggests that both awareness and acceptance are critical components of positive adolescent development (Ciarrochi et al. 2011(Ciarrochi et al. , 2008. ...
... Acceptance has been linked to increased positive affect and decreased sadness in Australian adolescents (Ciarrochi et al. 2011) and lowered distress in adolescents with severe chronic pain (Pielech et al. 2017). Longitudinal research suggests that both awareness and acceptance are critical components of positive adolescent development (Ciarrochi et al. 2011(Ciarrochi et al. , 2008. Moreover, ACT-based interventions have a demonstrated ability to improve engagement in these underlying therapeutic processes, including psychological flexibility, mindfulness, and values-based living (Halliburton and Cooper 2015). ...
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Background Adolescents diagnosed with cancer experience unique psychosocial concerns that persist beyond treatment completion into longer-term survivorship. Camp-based, group Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) programs are a potential model for providing evidence-informed psychological and peer support to adolescent cancer survivors.Objective This paper describes the development and exploration of the feasibility and acceptability of such a program, Places You’ll Go. This manualised program incorporates five 90-min group ACT sessions within a 3-day camp, teaching ACT strategies in the context of psychosocial impacts of cancer.Method Eight facilitators and twenty-eight Australian adolescent cancer survivors (68% female; age range 12–17 years, M = 15.4 years) participated in the program and evaluation. Feasibility was assessed using facilitator-reported session duration, attendance, quality and content fidelity; facilitators also completed interviews after program completion. Young people completed surveys on program acceptability at the end of each session and at program completion.ResultsAll planned sessions were delivered, with 97% attendance and high fidelity in manualised program delivery. All young people were mostly or very satisfied and would recommend the program to another cancer survivor. Opportunities for peer connection and skill development contributed to perceived program acceptability.Conclusions The Places You’ll Go program was acceptable and feasible to deliver. It is a promising community-based model for promoting peer support and well-being in adolescent cancer survivors, indicating the potential of ACT-based approaches for this population. Further work is underway to evaluate whether the program improves psychosocial wellbeing among participants, and if this is linked to the therapeutic mechanisms underpinning ACT.
... Awareness, attention, and understanding of emotions are essential to accurately identify a person's emotional state (Chong-Leung and Cheung, 2020). This directly influences an individual's quality of life (Boden et al., 2015) and mental health (Lieberman et al., 2011), especially in the case of adolescence (Ciarrochi et al., 2011), which is characterized as a stage in which very intense emotions are experienced, but in which the skills to regulate them are not yet fully developed (Dingle et al., 2016). ...
... It is worth remembering that adolescence is framed as a stage in which very intense emotions are experienced, but also is one in which the skills to regulate them are not yet fully developed (Dingle et al., 2016). Music can have a positive influence in this, especially at this stage (Ciarrochi et al., 2011). ...
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Aesthetic-musical awareness demarcates a person's own perception of their ability to connect with music and the emotions it evokes. This may imply a benefit for the affective state of the individual. Therefore, the aim of this study was to observe whether there are statistically significant differences in emotional intelligence, perceived academic self-efficacy, and perfectionistic automatic thoughts when there are high and low scores in aesthetic-musical awareness in late adolescence. Likewise, we also aimed to determine whether emotional intelligence, perceived academic self-efficacy, and perfectionistic automatic thoughts are predictors of high aesthetic-musical awareness. To this end, a sample of 798 Spanish students between 17 and 23 years of age (Mage = 18.5 years) was used. Statistically significant differences were found for the dimensions of each variable when there were high and low scores in aesthetic-musical awareness (scores between d = −0.31 and −0.40), with higher mean scores for emotional intelligence, perceived academic self-efficacy, and perfectionistic automatic thoughts being present in the group with high aesthetic-musical awareness. Likewise, it was observed that the probability of presenting high scores in aesthetic-musical awareness was higher when there was an increase in emotional intelligence, perceived academic self-efficacy, and perceived automatic thoughts. In conclusion, the results found demonstrate that both emotional intelligence, perceived academic self-efficacy, and the presence of perfectionistic automatic thoughts influence on whether an individual has greater aesthetic-musical awareness. Taking into account previous studies that show how music influences the well-being of the person, these findings show a favorable link for the design of programs that benefit the emotional state of adolescents.
... Individuals with high levels of mindfulness can respond flexibly to the changes and demands in their environment (Miller et al., 2000), experience less negative emotions such as guilt, embarrassment, and anxiety about the situations that were experienced in the past or to be experienced in the future by sticking to the present moment (Ciarrochi et al., 2011;Curtiss et al., 2017), can rearrange their negative thoughts by noticing them more easily, and can overcome stress more easily and successfully by using their healthier and adaptive coping skills (Uygur, 2017). Mindfulness, which provides individuals with the necessary cognitive strategies to struggle against stressful and negative emotional states (Lynn et al., 2006), makes it easier to arrange all emotional states, particularly negative emotions (Cenkseven-Önder & Utkan, 2018). ...
... The findings showed that the awareness sub-dimension of mindfulness was related to the increase in positive affect, but it did not have a significant effect on negative affect. When considered as a whole, increased mindfulness is related to the individual's experiencing positive emotions more (Davidson et al., 2003), and negative emotions less (Ciarrochi et al., 2011;Curtiss et al., 2017). The present findings revealed that the increase in the positive affect of university students was related to the awareness sub-dimension of mindfulness, in other words/which means focusing more on present experiences rather than the events of the past and that might occur in the future (Cardaciotto et al., 2008). ...
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This study aims to investigate the predictive roles of rumination, mindfulness and demographic variables on positive and negative affect of university students. The study was designed as a predictive correlational research model. The data were collected from 466 students through the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire, the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale, and a demographic questionnaire and analyzed with multiple linear regression analysis. According to the results, rumination, mindfulness (awareness and acceptance), age, gender, and romantic relationship status as a whole accounted for 15% of the variance in positive affect and explained 28% of the variance in negative affect. Positive affect was predicted by awareness and age positively and by acceptance and rumination negatively; negative affect was predicted by rumination and romantic relationship status positively and by acceptance negatively. Being female led to a decrease in positive affect. Implications to the education and counseling field were discussed.
... When applying MBI to adolescents and children, two recent meta-analysis [4,18] reported that mindful trainings led to positive effects on their psychological functioning (see also [19,20]), propitiating reduction of some key psychological problems such as depression, and anxiety, facilitating externalization of problems, improved attention, and better academic achievement and MBI also increased the efficacy of psychological disease treatments. MBI and activities for children and adolescents have a potential mediating role for increasing adolescents' emotional regulation and well-being [14,18,[21][22][23], making that person less likely to be caught up with thoughts about the past (rumination) or future (worry) [23]. ...
... When applying MBI to adolescents and children, two recent meta-analysis [4,18] reported that mindful trainings led to positive effects on their psychological functioning (see also [19,20]), propitiating reduction of some key psychological problems such as depression, and anxiety, facilitating externalization of problems, improved attention, and better academic achievement and MBI also increased the efficacy of psychological disease treatments. MBI and activities for children and adolescents have a potential mediating role for increasing adolescents' emotional regulation and well-being [14,18,[21][22][23], making that person less likely to be caught up with thoughts about the past (rumination) or future (worry) [23]. ...
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Dispositional Mindfulness (DM) is the awareness of the thoughts and feelings in the present moment. DM in children and adolescents has been related to mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based interventions, which have shown significant mediation relationships with mental health outcomes (for instance, lower social anxiety, depression symptoms, or perceived stress). However, the assessment of DM among children and adolescents is being unsatisfactory due cultural biases and/or reliability issues. In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) in a sample of 687 children and adolescents between 8 and 16 years old. Although the CAMM has been validated in English, Portuguese, Italian, and Catalonian versions, until now no data has been reported in a Spanish context. Results showed that the best CAMM factor structure was constituted by five items from the original version (1, 4, 7, 8, and 9). These items defined dispositional mindfulness. The rest of the items (2, 3, 5, 6, and 10) were eliminated from the Spanish final version. The analyses revealed good reliability and internal consistency for the Spanish version of the CAMM. As we expected, the confirmatory factor analysis showed the unidimensional structure of the CAMM.
... Although many views on mindfulness as a personal strength and a stress-reduction technique have been applied through mindfulness interventions for children and adolescents (e.g., Emerson, de Diaz, Sherwood, Waters, & Farrell, 2020;Weijer-Bergsma, Formsma, de Bruin, & Bö gels, 2012;Zoogman, Goldberg, Hoyt, & Miller, 2015), few studies have examined adolescents' dispositional mindfulness as a strength when adapting to stressful events. At present, we could locate only a small number of published studies (not involving intervention) that specifically examined adolescents' dispositional mindfulness and associations with mental health (e.g., Bluth & Blanton, 2014;Calvete, Orue, & Sampedro, 2017;Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011;Ciesla, Reilly, Dickson, Emanuel, & Updegraff, 2012;Marks, Sobanski, & Hine, 2010;Pepping, Duvenage, Cronin, & Lyons, 2016;Xu et al., 2018). In general, these studies have reported that adolescents higher in dispositional mindfulness also exhibit or report better well-being and less emotional distress. ...
Article
Drawing from dispositional mindfulness research and stress and coping theories, we tested whether adolescents’ dispositional mindfulness was associated with perceptions of peer victimization and exclusion and internalizing symptoms. We further explored the role of dispositional mindfulness as a protective factor buffering the impact of peer victimization and exclusion (PVE) on internalizing symptoms. Participants were 361 (40% boys) adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years ( M = 14.9, SD = 1.4) who completed a questionnaire to assess dispositional mindfulness, perceptions of PVE, social anxiety and depressive symptoms, and loneliness. As expected, more frequent experience of PVE was associated with reporting more symptoms of social anxiety, depression, and loneliness. Further, adolescents who reported higher dispositional mindfulness also reported fewer symptoms of social anxiety, depression, and loneliness, even after controlling for gender and experiences of PVE. Dispositional mindfulness was not protective against (i.e., did not buffer) the effects of PVE on internalizing symptoms. Instead, we found that PVE had a stronger association with symptoms of social anxiety, depression, and loneliness when mindfulness was high relative to when it was medium or low. Yet, victimization was associated with greater social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and loneliness at all levels of mindfulness.
... Therefore, the first step in controlling emotions such as anger, sadness, ire, and depression is to understand them. Emotional awareness and self-acceptance will lead to increased wellbeing and health (17) and a lack of emotional awareness and failure to manage emotions will result in a higher rate of anxiety and depression in adolescents (18). ...
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Background: Entrance to a university is associated with a range of stressful academic, cognitive and emotional resources, and students may be frustrated and conflicted when experiencing these pressures as well as they may exhibit a range of psychological responses. Objectives: This study aimed at designing an educational program for mindfulness and its effectiveness in students’ cognitive, emotional, and educational processes. Methods: The study was conducted by descriptive-correlational method among third-year medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2017 - 18. The statistical population included 250 people. The sample size was determined at 30 patients by power analysis method for conducting a quasi-experimental intervention with two 1.5-month and 3-month follow-up. Data collection tools included Bauer’s mindfulness questionnaire (2006), Cassidy and Long’s Scale of Problem-Solving (1996), Maslach burnout inventory (2002), Dillon and Grout academic alienation scale (1976), and Grant and Langford self-reflection and insight scale (2002). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of tools in this study were 0.75 for Bauer’s questionnaire, 0.70 for Cassidy and Long’s scale, 0.70 for Maslach, 0.73 for Grant and Langford, and 0.71 for Dillon and Grout. The intervention program was designed based on the Roeser and Schunert-Reichl (2016) mindfulness program. The face validity of the program was assessed by Fortalza Tool (2017) and a pilot study was carried out. Results (P < 0.01) were significant, indicating the acceptance of the designed package. Descriptive statistics and homogeneity tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated measures multivariate analysis were performed with SPSS 23 software for statistical investigation. Results: The findings showed that at P < 0.01, mindfulness training program had a significant positive effect on all components of problem-solving ability and academic alienation. Mindfulness do not affect the environmentalism of emotional mindfulness (P < 0.05) and the pessimism component of academic burnout (P < 0.05). In all of the components, the sphericity assumption of the spatial distribution and the Levin test and the normal distribution were observed. Conclusions: Mindfulness education program can affect students’ cognitive and emotional processes and can be effective in reducing educational problems such as academic burnout and academic alienation, meanwhile, in increasing problem-solving and emotional mindfulness. It is recommended that this educational program should be implemented for new students of the universities.
... In a sample of inpatient adolescents, higher experiential avoidance was uniquely associated with anxiety psychopathology, though the great majority of the adolescents with an anxiety disorder also had a depressive disorder (Venta, Sharp, & Hart, 2012). Furthermore, in a nonclinical sample of adolescents, experiential acceptance (i.e. the reverse of experiential avoidance) uniquely predicted increasing positive affect and decreasing sadness and fear after a 1-year period (Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011). Despite the evidence for the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety psychopathology in adolescents, there has been no research on the relationship of experiential avoidance to adolescent social anxiety. ...
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Social anxiety in adolescence can have severe consequences including underachievement and school drop-out, psychopathology, and substance use disorders. The development of social anxiety in adolescents is a complex and poorly understood process. Temperamental predispositions such as behavioural inhibition are significant risk factors but the specific path leading from behavioural inhibition to social anxiety remains unclear. One potential pathway is that temperament leads to social anxiety through learned self-regulation strategies and cognitive predispositions, a hypothesis that has not yet been investigated in adolescents. In an attempt to investigate further this idea, we ran parallel multiple mediation analysis to examine whether greater behavioural inhibition system sensitivity is linked to higher social anxiety via greater anxiety sensitivity and experiential avoidance levels in a random community sample of high-school adolescents (N=718). The results confirmed our hypotheses. Independently of gender and after controlling for anxiety psychopathology and depression levels, greater behavioural inhibition system sensitivity was associated with more severe social anxiety in adolescents both directly and indirectly through greater experiential avoidance and more severe anxiety sensitivity. Given the fact that social anxiety is a serious cause of academic and social impairment in adolescence, the present findings suggest malleable risk factors that can be effectively addressed in targeted prevention and treatment interventions. Results are discussed in light of previous relevant findings and in relation to relevant theoretical and methodological issues and clinical implications.
... Acceptance-treated frequently as the opposite of experiential avoidance (98) or as a component of mindfulness (99, 100)has been proved to be positively associated with psychological health in both adult (101) and adolescent samples (102,103). However, in the present study, there was no relationship between this strategy and online problem gaming. ...
Article
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Explanatory theoretical models have proposed an association between problematic online gaming and abilities or strategies in alleviating distress or negative emotions in times of stress as proximal non-gaming-related personality factors. However, there is little research that has targeted how emotion regulation relates to problematic online gaming—especially during adolescence when gaming behavior is most prevalent. In emotion regulation research, there has been a particular emphasis on rumination because it is strongly associated with overall psychopathology. However, it is unknown whether this putatively maladaptive strategy relates to problematic online gaming and whether it is a gender-dependent association. Consequently, the present study examined how emotion regulation strategies, and particularly rumination, related to problem gaming and tested whether gender moderated this relationship in adolescents. In a national representative adolescent sample, 46.9% of the participants (N = 1,646) reported online gaming in the past 12 months and provided information on problematic gaming, and it was these data that were used for further analysis. Their data concerning problematic online gaming and emotion regulation strategies were analyzed, including rumination along with other putatively maladaptive (e.g., catastrophizing) and adaptive (e.g., positive reappraisal) strategies, while controlling for age, gender, and game genre preference. Results of linear regression analyses showed that all the putatively maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (including self-blame, other blame, catastrophizing, and rumination) were positively related to problematic online gaming. Positive reappraisal proved to be a protective factor; it was inversely related to problematic online gaming. In addition, the relationship between rumination and online gaming was moderated by gender (i.e., the relationship was stronger among boys). Based on the results, it is argued that emotion regulation is a useful framework to study problematic online gaming. The present study highlighted that the relative predictive value of rumination for problematic online gaming varied for boys and girls, suggesting that trait rumination might be a gender-specific vulnerability factor for problematic online gaming, but this requires further investigation and replication.
... Up until the past decade, psychological inflexibility, and especially EA, was thought to be a factor affecting psychological well-being among children, young adolescents, and adults. Empirical research has now revealed a relationship between EA and depression and anxiety (Biglan et al., 2015;Ishizu, Shimoda, & Ohtsuki, 2017;Venta, Hart, & Sharp, 2012), internalizing and/or externalizing problems (Shea & Coyne, 2017), and neuroticism (Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011). ...
Article
The present study aimed to develop a scale for assessing value among younger populations, and to examine its reliability and validity. The 15-item “Values of Younger Ages” (VOYAGE) scale was developed through a review of previous literature and preliminary examinations of junior high school, high school, and university students. A total of 3085 respondents, comprising 1054 junior high school students (489 boys and 565 girls; mean age = 14.16 years), 1106 high school students (307 boys and 799 girls; mean age = 16.84 years), and 925 undergraduate students (474 boys and 451 girls; mean age = 19.97 years) from Japan, were recruited. Minimum average of the squared partial correlations and factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution (factor 1 = “Clarification of Value and Commitment” (CVC); factor 2 = “Continuation of Avoidance” (CA)), with the correlation between these factors being −0.27. CVC and CA had adequate internal consistency values for each participant group (ω coefficient range = 0.78~0.89) and moderate test-retest reliability. Scale validity was determined via positive relationships with measures of experiential avoidance, environmental reward, fulfillment, and subjective well-being. All items also had high discrimination power, indicating that VOYAGE could be useful for a wide range of young populations. The present scale for assessing values among early-to mid-adolescents aligns well with acceptance and commitment therapy based on psychological flexibility theory. We discuss how the VOYAGE measure appears to be a reliable and valid scale for younger populations.
... The last theme makes the connection between the benefits of learning mindfulness-based practices and concepts, and feeling calmer and/or more in control. This learning also promoted the development of gratitude, being able to focus on the present moment (ruminating less and making choices about thoughts/feelings), and more flexible thinking; results consistent with what has been reported in the literature (Ciarrochi et al., 2011). We were surprised at what the youths gained in a relatively short amount of time regarding the concept and practice of mindfulness and how it could help them. ...
Article
Summary We facilitated an arts-based mindfulness group program with youths who were receiving short-term inpatient mental health supports within hospital. We aimed to explore the challenges and benefits these marginalized youths experienced through their exposure to the group intervention. Forty pre-group and 24 post-group interviews were analyzed using a thematic analysis framework. Findings The qualitative findings are presented using creative nonfiction in the form of a composite vignette. The composite vignette portrays the content within the themes, creatively telling a more compelling story that illustrates key points and themes within the data set. The vignette shows how mental health challenges created problems in the youths’ lives. Although most of the youths were initially nervous about participating in the program, the strengths and arts-based nature of the program helped them to connect with others in the group and express themselves. All of the youths reported that the group program was enjoyable and beneficial. They learned to identify what they were feeling/thinking and to express these feelings/thoughts using creative means of expression. Making art helped them to develop their self-awareness and created enjoyment in the group and with the group methods. Also, learning about mindfulness helped them to think in different ways, and to focus and relax more. Application The results of this pilot project warrant further investigation into the benefits of creative strengths-based mindfulness-based interventions for in-patient youths experiencing mental health challenges. The composite vignette centers the youths’ voices and provides a comprehensive account of their experiences.
... ACT has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment with a variety of other youth populations. For example, Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, and Jordan (2010) conducted a 1-year longitudinal study with adolescents. The study measured mindfulness, emotional awareness, and experiential acceptance to assess emotional well-being. ...
Article
The current article discusses the practical implications of using acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in a community camp setting with children. Previous research demonstrates that ACT curricula for children paired with formal mindfulness- and acceptance-based activities show promise as an intervention for children. ACT may also be an effective intervention with children due to its approachable, acceptable, and easily implemented format of delivery. The current study used a neurotypical sample, and outcomes support the potential for increasing psychological flexibility and mindful awareness between an experimental group and a control group. Scores on the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y) and the Child Acceptance and Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) self-report questionnaires were obtained during pre- and postintervention. The results of the AFQ-Y suggest that there was a significant difference between the experimental group (M = 17.13, SD = 2.64) and the control group (M = 27.4, SD = 2.64) at posttest, F(1, 28) = 7.53, p = .01, η p 2 = .212. Similarly, the results of the CAMM suggest that there was a significant difference between the experimental group (M = 29.66, SD = 1.99) and the control group (M = 21.26, SD = 1.99) at posttest, F(1, 28) = 8.89, p = .006, η p 2 = .241. These results indicate that the members of the experimental group, compared to the control group, had significant increases in their overall mindful awareness and psychological flexibility after completing the Mindfulness Camp.
... In terms of future research, longitudinal studies (with larger chronic pain samples) will be required to further explore the role played by dispositional mindfulness in the adolescent experience of chronic pain, and the possibility that it might be a "resilience resource" as suggested by Cousins, Kalapurakkel, Cohen, and Simons (2015). Research suggests that dispositional mindfulness tends to predict changes in mood and anxiety (Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011), but the direction of causality cannot be inferred from the current study. Research will also need to elucidate the mechanisms or processes underlying the observed relationships between dispositional mindfulness, psychological distress, and social functioning. ...
Article
Objective: Dispositional mindfulness is the general tendency to pay attention to present-moment awareness without judgment. The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine (a) whether dispositional mindfulness is associated with psychological distress in adolescents with chronic pain and low-level pain, and (b) whether it accounts for unique variance in distress after controlling for key variables from the pain literature. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and functioning. Method: 54 adolescents seeking help for chronic pain and 94 "healthy" adolescents with recent low-level pain from the general population completed the same battery of measures, including the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure of dispositional mindfulness. Results: As predicted, dispositional mindfulness was associated with mood and anxiety in both groups and also accounted for unique variance in mood and anxiety in standard regression models after controlling for group, age, pain-intensity, pain-catastrophizing, and pain-acceptance. Dispositional mindfulness did not differ significantly across the two groups and did not predict physical functioning. However, it did account for unique variance in social functioning. Conclusions: Dispositional mindfulness may be an important construct to consider in the context of adolescents experiencing mood and anxiety problems in both low-level and chronic pain samples. Further research should aim to replicate these findings in larger clinical samples and explore the predictive power of dispositional mindfulness using longitudinal designs.
... These two facets of mindfulness have been found to load on the same latent factor measuring mindful acceptance (Coffey et al., 2010). Further, there is evidence that this acceptance-based component of mindfulness is related to psychological outcomes, including decreased negative affect (Shallcross, Troy, Boland, & Mauss, 2010) and higher levels of positive affect (Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011). In the present study, we made a theoretical and empirical decision not to utilize the attention subscale of the CEDMI. ...
Article
The present study examines the indirect effect of stressful life events (SLEs) on internalizing symptoms via two cognitive assets, mindfulness and gratitude, in a sample of emerging adults (N = 256). The study of stressful life events and internalizing symptoms is particularly salient for the emerging adult population given the high rates of both SLEs and psychopathology during this developmental period. Mindfulness and gratitude have both been linked with mental health outcomes, yet they have not been examined in relation to SLEs and psychopathology. Results showed that the indirect association between SLEs and internalizing symptoms through mindfulness was statistically significant. Psychoeducational interventions for emerging adults following SLEs may benefit from the inclusion of cognitive assets such as gratitude and mindfulness.
... Increased emotional awareness may serve as one of the ways to explain the psychological benefits of music engagement. Previous research suggested that personal awareness, attention, and understanding of emotions are essential to well-being (Coffey, Hartman, & Fredrickson, 2010;Hill & Updegraff, 2012;Schutte & Malouff, 2011), especially in adolescence (Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011;Froh, Yurkewicz, & Kashdan, 2009). Emotional awareness is defined as the ability to accurately identify and differentiate various positive and negative emotions (Boden & Berenbaum, 2011;Huang, Berenbaum & Chow, 2013). ...
Article
The present study investigated the mediating processes of emotional awareness, positive emotions, and negative emotions between music engagement and well-being among Chinese adolescents. Through a process-oriented approach, the association between music engagement activities, including music listening, music instrument playing, and music training, and adolescents’ functioning were examined. A total of 1,318 Chinese adolescents at 12–15 years of age were recruited from secondary schools in Hong Kong. Findings based on structural equation modeling provided differential support for the association between music engagement and adolescents’ well-being. As cognitive and affective processes, both emotional awareness and emotions mediated between music training and well-being. Positive and negative emotions also mediated between music listening and adolescents’ well-being. Surprisingly, music instrument playing was not associated with emotional awareness, positive or negative emotions, or well-being. These findings supported previous frameworks and call attention to the emerging mechanisms underlying music engagement and well-being in adolescence.
... Third, in another study that focused on only a subset of mindfulness facets, Australian adolescents being at acting with awareness reported less sadness and more positive affect (Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011). Thus, in summary, previous research has focused only on either dysregulation or mindfulness and there appears to be no previous research focusing on adolescents' social anxiety as a correlate of the full range of emotion dysregulation and dispositional mindfulness subscales described by Gratz and Roemer (2004) and Baer et al. (2006), respectively. ...
Article
Dysregulation of emotions is a risk for social anxiety symptoms, whereas dispositional mindfulness has been proposed as assisting with emotion regulation. The aim of the current study was to examine the unique associations of dysregulation and mindfulness with adolescents' social anxiety, while focusing on the conceptual overlap and the empirical connection between dysregulation and mindfulness. Participants were 336 Australian adolescents (53% girls; 12–15 years) who completed questionnaires. Dysregulation and mindfulness were moderately correlated. Factor analysis revealed two factors accounting for 59% of the variance. The first factor, active dysregulation, had high positive loadings for five dysregulation and high negative loadings for two mindfulness subscales. The second factor, passive regulation, had a high negative loading for one dysregulation and high positive loadings for three mindfulness subscales. Both active and passive composite scores had unique associations with heightened anxiety symptoms. Regression analyses of the original subscales indicated that the dysregulation subscale limited strategies, and the mindfulness subscales observing and describing were uniquely associated with anxiety; strategies and observing were associated with more symptoms, whereas describing was associated with fewer. Interventions that address dysregulation and low capacity for mindfulness may be beneficial for adolescents with heightened social anxiety symptoms.
... For example, activities to increase cognitive defusion (rather than cognitive fusion) may help to the students to satisfactory cope with internal and interpersonal situations, which involve negative emotional states such as anxiety. According to several authors with a huge contrasted MBI's experience, cognitive defusion is watching at thoughts rather than from thoughts, noticing them instead of being catch from thoughts, trying to flow with thoughts and not to hold them [1,2,6,8,10,14,18,25]. However, regarding experiential avoidance is a topic soundly consistent to understand relevant mental mechanisms [20,24]; however, its measure clearly needs further improvements and a better criterion validity using long-term and short-term avoidance experiences. ...
Article
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Nowadays, mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have experienced a remarkable development of studies among childhood and adolescent interventions. For this reason, dispositional mindfulness (DM) measures for children and adolescents have been developed to determine the effectiveness of MBI at this age stage. However, little is known about how key elements of DM (for example, cognitive de/fusion or experiential avoidance that both confirm psychological inflexibility) are involved in the mechanisms of the children and adolescents' mental health outcomes. This research examined the mediating effect of cognitive fusion between DM and anxiety and other negative emotional states in a sample of 318 Spanish primary-school students (aged between 8 and 16 years, M = 11.24, SD = 2.19, 50.8% males). Participants completed the AFQ-Y (Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for youth), which is a measure of psychological inflexibility that encompasses cognitive defusion and experiential avoidance; CAMM (DM for children and adolescents), PANAS-N (positive and negative affect measure for children, Spanish version of PANASC), and STAIC (an anxiety measure for children). The study accomplished ethical standards. As MBI relevant literature has suggested, cognitive defusion was a significant mediator between DM and symptoms of both negative emotions and anxiety in children and adolescents. However, experiential avoidance did not show any significant mediating relationship. Probably, an improvement of the assessment of experiential avoidance is needed. MBI programs for children and adolescents may include more activities for reducing effects of the cognitive defusion on their emotional distress.
... These results seem to suggest that reporting not having had certain emotional experiences is related to inability to tact one's emotional experience and deficits in emotional awareness, and/or attempting to suppress or avoid certain emotional experiences or unwanted feelings. There is considerable evidence in the literature in support of this, particularly in adolescent populations (Ciarrochi, Heaven, & Supavadeeprasit, 2008;Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011;Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane, & Heaven, 2003). ...
Article
The importance of a healthy sense of self for adolescent mental health is well documented. According to Relational Frame Theory there are three distinct self-discriminations, as well as three corresponding senses of other. Recent evidence suggests that in naturally occurring speech these discriminations are predictive of lower distress, as well as increased well-being, and psychological flexibility. The present study investigates these self and other discriminations in a sample of 76 adolescents using a mixed methods design with opened-ended questions and quantitative measures of mental health, well-being, and experiential avoidance. Participants’ responses to the open ended questions were coded for occurrences of the three senses of self, other, and rule governed behavior using the Functional Self-Discrimination Measure (Atkins & Styles, 2016). The findings indicated that different patterns of relating to the self and others were associated with higher levels of well being, better mental health and higher psychological flexibility. The findings are considered in relation to the benefits of using a behavioral measure of self-relating in adolescents.
... Mindfulness training in the conscious control of attentional resources benefits learning (Huppert & Johnson, 2010) and with increased understanding of dcoholic@laurentian.ca one' feelings and thoughts, a youth can make better choices regarding their emotional expression, which can lead to improved functioning at school, home, and with peers (Coholic, 2011). Mindfulness can help a youth to view negative thoughtsas passing events rather thanvalid reflections ofreality (just because someonebelieves a thought does not mean the thought is correct or true), and can promote flexible responses as opposed to ruminating (Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011). We begin to teach the concept and practice of mindfulness in HAP using an activity called Thoughts Jar. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, I describe how and why we use arts-based methods to facilitate the learning of mindfulness-based practices and concepts. An arts-based approach is engaging and enjoyable, and helps to create safe spaces for youth to understand and express their feelings and thoughts. Developmentally, using creative approaches makes sense for youth and it is a relevant and meaningful approach that promotes success. Arts-based approaches are effective for building a variety of resiliencies including increased self-awareness, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. The chapter also describes how we have used arts-based methods and processes to work with youth in disseminating the results of our research. Involving the youth in knowledge translation reflects our values as researchers and makes research findings accessible to a variety of stakeholders.
... Experiential avoidance is associated with a wide range of psychopathologies (e.g. Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010;Kingston et al., 2010); in contrast engaging fully in one's current activity, is linked to well-being and psychological adjustment (Ciarrochi et al., 2011). An initial paper supported the mediating role of experiential avoidance in the association between alexithymia and difficulties regulating one's emotions (Venta et al., 2013). ...
Article
Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality construct characterised by difficulties identifying one’s feelings and distinguishing them from bodily sensations, difficulties describing one’s feelings to others, and an externally oriented cognitive style. Over the past 25 years, a burgeoning body of research has examined how alexithymia moderates processing at the cognition–emotion interface. We review the findings in five domains: attention, appraisals, memory, language, and behaviours. The preponderance of studies linked alexithymia with deficits in emotion processing, which was apparent across all domains, except behaviours. All studies on behaviours and a proportion of studies in other domains demonstrated emotional over-responding. Analysis at the facet level revealed deficits in memory and language that are primarily associated with externally oriented thinking, while over-responding was most often linked to difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings. The review also found evidence for contextual modulation: The pattern of deficits and over-responding was not restricted to emotional contexts but also occurred in neutral contexts, and in some circumstances, emotional over-responding in alexithymia was beneficial. Taken together, this review highlights alexithymia as a central personality dimension in the interplay between cognition and emotion.
... In an interventional study by Fletcher et al. (2009), EI training was also found to effectively and significantly improve the communication skills of 36 randomly selected third year medical students in the United Kingdom. Other previous studies have also shown similar findings of higher EI being associated with lower smoking frequency, an earlier initial smoking age (Kun & Demetrovics, 2010), an increased awareness of the negative consequences of smoking and the increased likelihood of refusing cigarette offerings from peers (Perea-Baena et al., 2011) Furthermore, Ciarrochi et al. (2011) affirmed that emotional intelligence training has an impact on psychological health; emotional intelligence can effectively facilitate the adequate adjustment of individuals in situations. Karimzadeh et al. (2012) examined the effectiveness of EI on general health in a training programme, which lasted 10 weeks and 10 sessions. ...
Article
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Emotional intelligence training intervention was used to reduce tobacco smoking consumption among school-going adolescents in state of Edo, Nigeria. The pre-test post-test experimental design was observed. While the 90 participants were purposively selected from the schools that were randomly assigned to EIT (45) and control groups (45). Analysis of covar-iance and independent t-tests were used for data analysis. The emotional intelligence training intervention significantly improved tobacco smoking cessation of school-going adolescents with pre-test and post-test mean scores of 33.12 (33.12%) and 21.25 (21.25%), respectively. The participants exposed to EIT (Mean = 21.25; SD = 2.68) gained more those in the control group (Mean = 42.79; SD = 14.21). The interaction effect of the treatment and sex was also significant. Conclusively, the emotional intelligence training intervention was effective in tobacco smoking cessation among school-going adolescents, though cessation response could be sex-dependent. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Thus, self-compassion has been considered a particularly prominent construct to cultivate during adolescence because of its positive impact on emotional and psychological well-being (Galla, 2016;Marsh et al., 2018;Neff & McGehee, 2010;Turk & Waller, 2020). For example, adolescents who reported higher levels of self-compassion, ruminated less when facing stressful events compared with peers with lower levels of self-compassion (Ciesla et al., 2012), were happier and more satisfied with their lives (Brown et al., 2011), and experienced fewer negative feelings such as fearful, angry, and sad (Ciarrochi et al., 2011). Self-compassion was also associated with lower levels of stress and higher levels of self-control during adolescence (Galla, 2016;Lathren et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate how mindfulness-based practice influenced self-regulation and self-compassion during adolescence. Of particular interest was the reciprocal interplay between the subcomponents of these two constructs. Methods The participants included 538 high school students (52.2% male), mean age 16.59 (SD = .74) recruited from three high schools in Philadelphia, PA. Students participated in a 12-week school-based mindfulness intervention and completed the Self-compassion Scale-Short Form and the Adolescent Self-regulation Inventory at pretest (T1) and posttest (T2). Results A key finding was that the models with directional paths from self-regulation to self-compassion best fit the data. Specifically, long-term self-regulation at T1 was positively associated with mindfulness and self-kindness at T2 while short-term self-regulation at T1 was negatively associated with self-judgment, over-identification, and isolation at T2. Conclusions These findings suggest that self-regulation precedes and enables the actualization of self-compassion within the context of mindfulness practice. The implications for understanding the specific mechanisms underlying mindfulness-based practice and its benefits for adolescents’ psychological well-being are discussed.
... Correlational analysis show that this holds true even in our subjects. Since existing literature demonstrates that increasing mindfulness and acceptance skills reduce anxiety disorder (Greco, Blackledge, Coyne & Ehrenreich, 2005;Hofmann, Sawyer, Witt & Oh, 2010;Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven & Jordan, 2011;Venta, Sharp & Hart, 2012) and psychological distress (Fladderus, Bohlmeijer, Fox, Schreurs & Spinhoven, 2013), a specific training on these skills could potentially be a further protection for students and medical ...
Article
Objective: Healthcare personnel across Italy were called to arms during COVID-19 emergency beginning March 2020. Despite their medical training, not all of them were able to fight in first line. Volunteering for COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network Coordination Centre (C19-LINCC) was an opportunity to volunteer without being under biological threat: a smart-working in direct phone contact with the ICUs. Our aim was to investigate if second line volunteering during the COVID-19 outbreak had an impact on stress levels and whether medical training could mitigate them, along with personality factors, namely psychological flexibility. Method: Volunteers of the C19-LINCC self-rated their own medical education related to SARS-CoV-2 and psychological response to the emergency. The questionnaire included five psychological scales (PSS, IES, MBI, AAQ-II, GHQ-12) addressing burnout, stress, general health, attention, cognitive fusion, and psychological flexibility. Results: Psychological distress (GHQ p≤0,0001) and perception of personal achievement (MBI_p≤0,0001) change whether the subject is a volunteer or not, while perception of medical education does not have a significant impact between the two groups. No differences were found in acceptance, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility skills, however they inversely correlated with stress, burnout, and anxiety levels. Conclusions: During this period of mandatory lockdown, trained and in-training doctors showed to benefit from this smart home-based volunteering in the C19-LINCC. In addition to volunteering, psychological flexibility, mindfulness, and acceptance skills can act as protective factors. Potentially, these are soft skills that could be added to medical education.
... Apart from avoiding the saturation of the models, having additional data would allow for the testing of models that include moderators (e.g., clinical vs. non-clinical sample, age, or gender), the effects of all facets in conjunction (and not just separately), bidirectional relationships between mindfulness and psychological symptoms, and the potential overlap between anxiety and depression. Additionally, each facet of DM might play a different role, not only with psychological symptoms, but also with mental health indicators, such as well-being or happiness, among others (e.g., Ciarrochi et al., 2011). Therefore, future studies also could target positive outcomes and broaden research on DM to find out what other factors are predicted by different DM facets over time. ...
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Objectives In recent years, the number of studies on the relationship between dispositional mindfulness (DM) facets and depression and anxiety symptoms has increased notably. The objective of this meta-analysis was to identify the longitudinal predictive associations from DM facets to depression and anxiety symptoms in both adult and adolescent samples.Methods Studies were eligible if they measured anxiety or depressive symptoms at least two times and DM during the first measurement. This meta-analysis seeks to clarify the proposed relationships, applying a Two-Stage Structural Equation Modeling method to data collected from adult and adolescent studies. In total, 34 studies were included.ResultsThe results indicated that, in adult samples, the facets of Acting with Awareness, Non-Judging, Describing, and Non-Reacting covaried significantly with depression and anxiety symptoms at time one, but only Acting with Awareness and Non-Reacting facets predicted a decrease of symptoms over time. Due to the scarcity of studies using childhood and adolescent samples, only the role of Acting with Awareness predicting depression was evaluated, and the results indicated that this facet predicts a decrease in depression over time among adolescents.Conclusions These results provide insight into the longitudinal relationships between DM facets and depression and anxiety symptoms and suggest the importance of focusing attention on these facets in mindfulness interventions.Trial RegistrationThe project was preregistered at the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/ye4af).
... We know from previous sections that mindfulness interventions involve affective (acceptance) and cognitive (defusion) components. They can also involve overt behavior, or acting with awareness (Ciarrochi et al., 2011). Thus, mindfulness interventions rarely focus exclusively on attention; although there are interventions that are more exclusively attentional, including those that simply seek to improve some aspect of visual attention (Lanfredi et al., 2017), seek to reduce attentional bias (Badura-Brack et al., 2015;Fodor et al., 2020;Kuckertz et al., 2014), and/or improve adaptive attention shifting (Goldin et al., 2016, Callinan et al., 2015. ...
Chapter
The last five decades have seen a proliferation of psychological packages designed to treat psychiatric syndromes. Despite millions of dollars invested evaluating and comparing complex interventions, progress has been limited. Increasingly, research is shifting toward evaluating evidence-based processes of change instead of packages. There is also an increasing focus away from static mediational models to understanding how processes and symptoms interrelate in dynamic network models. The Extended-Evolutionary Meta Model seeks to provide different therapeutic orientations with a common framework for discussing and understanding processes of change. We conclude the article by providing concrete examples of evidence-based processes across six dimensions- Attention, self, cognitive, affect motivation, and overt behavior--and three levels-biological, psychological, and social.
... The psychological flexibility model is equally applicable to the functioning of adolescents as well as their parents (Greco & Hayes, 2008). Awareness and acceptance of the emotional experience influence mental health and decreased psychopathologies (Ciarrochi et al., 2011) such as depression (Hayes et al., 2011) and anxiety (Semple et al., 2005). Positive parenting have good impacts on adolescent's social and communication skills (Betts et al., 2013), and supports interpersonal ties such as close relationships (Drózdz & Pokorski, 2007). ...
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The parenting styles and psychological flexibility have been significant variables; however, little empirical work has addressed the impact of parenting in terms of the expansion of psychological flexibility. The present study investigated the impact of different parenting styles as a predictor of psychological flexibility in the adolescent population. A total sample of 100 adolescents (50 boys and 50 girls) whose ages ranged between 12 and 18 years without any previous psychiatric and medical history were recruited from different educational institutes of Pakistan. Results revealed that parenting styles are positively associated with psychological flexibility ( r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Moreover, parenting styles significantly predict psychological flexibility among adolescents ( p < 0.05). However, no gender differences were found across both variables among adolescents. These findings have highlighted the significance of parenting styles and psychological flexibility with respect to the mental health of adolescents.
... Within other research mindfulness was found to increase emotional awareness and experiential acceptance leading to greater wellbeing in adolescents (Ciarrochi, 2011). Service user participants in the current study did not regularly speak of acceptance; those that did were those that spoke of being able to 'sit with' (or tolerate) their emotions. ...
Thesis
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... Although most research has explored dispositional mindfulness and psychopathology among adults (see Carpenter, Conroy, Gomez, Curren, & Hofmann, 2019;Tomlinson, Yousaf, Vittersø, & Jones, 2018), several studies have echoed findings in non-clinical adolescent samples (e.g., Calvete, Orue, & Sampedro, 2017;Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011;Ciesla, Reilly, Dickson, Emanuel, & Updegraff, 2012;Marks, Sobanski, & Hine, 2010;Tan & Martin, 2012). The Childhood and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM), a unifactorial adolescent measure, inversely correlates with internalizing symptoms, thought suppression, and psychological inflexibility (Greco, Baer, & Smith, 2011). ...
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This study presents estimates of lifetime and 12-month prevalence of 14 DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders from the National Comorbidity Survey, the first survey to administer a structured psychiatric interview to a national probability sample in the United States. The DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders among persons aged 15 to 54 years in the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States were assessed with data collected by lay interviewers using a revised version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nearly 50% of respondents reported at least one lifetime disorder, and close to 30% reported at least one 12-month disorder. The most common disorders were major depressive episode, alcohol dependence, social phobia, and simple phobia. More than half of all lifetime disorders occurred in the 14% of the population who had a history of three or more comorbid disorders. These highly comorbid people also included the vast majority of people with severe disorders. Less than 40% of those with a lifetime disorder had ever received professional treatment, and less than 20% of those with a recent disorder had been in treatment during the past 12 months. Consistent with previous risk factor research, it was found that women had elevated rates of affective disorders and anxiety disorders, that men had elevated rates of substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder, and that most disorders declined with age and with higher socioeconomic status. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is greater than previously thought to be the case. Furthermore, this morbidity is more highly concentrated than previously recognized in roughly one sixth of the population who have a history of three or more comorbid disorders. This suggests that the causes and consequences of high comorbidity should be the focus of research attention. The majority of people with psychiatric disorders fail to obtain professional treatment. Even among people with a lifetime history of three or more comorbid disorders, the proportion who ever obtain specialty sector mental health treatment is less than 50%. These results argue for the importance of more outreach and more research on barriers to professional help-seeking.
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