Comparison of passive transfer of immunity in neonatal dairy calves fed colostrum or bovine serum-based colostrum replacement and colostrum supplement products

Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.56). 10/2010; 237(8):949-54. DOI: 10.2460/javma.237.8.949
Source: PubMed


To compare serum total protein (sTP) and serum IgG (sIgG) concentrations In neonatal calves administered colostrum or a bovine serum-based colostrum replacement (CR) product followed by a bovine serum-based colostrum supplement (CS) product.
Randomized controlled clinical trial.
18 Jersey and 269 Holstein neonatal heifer calves.
141 calves were given 4 L of colostrum in 1 or 2 feedings (first or only feeding was provided≤2 hours after birth; when applicable, a second feeding was provided between 2 and 12 hours after birth). Other calves (n=146) were fed 2 L of a CR product≤2 hours after birth and then 2 L of a CS product between 2 and 12 hours after birth. Concentrations of sTP and sIgG were measured 1 to 7 days after birth. Data from cohorts on individual farms and for all farms were analyzed.
Mean sTP and sIgG concentrations differed significantly between feeding groups. In calves fed colostrum and calves fed CR and CS products, mean±SD sTP concentration was 5.58±0.67 g/dL and 5.26±0.54 g/dL, respectively, and mean sIgG concentration was 1,868±854 mg/dL and 1,320±620 mg/dL, respectively. The percentage of calves that had failure of passive transfer of immunity (ie, sIgG concentrations<1,000 mg/dL) was not significantly different between groups.
Results suggested that sequential feeding of bovine serum-based CR and CS products to neonatal calves is an alternative to feeding colostrum for achieving passive transfer of immunity.

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Available from: Keith P Poulsen, Dec 27, 2013
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    • "Absorption of IgG from either CS or CR was acceptable in this experiment; however, calves fed CS did not achieve passive transfer. These data appear to support the use of serum-derived CR more so than serum-derived CS.Poulsen et al. (2010)Calves were fed either 4 L of MC or 2 L (2 doses) of CR followed by 2 L (2 doses) of CS 2 to 12 h later. Calves fed MC had higher blood IgG compared with calves fed the CR-CS treatment (18.68 vs. 13.48 "
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    ABSTRACT: Colostrum is key in establishing the initial immune protection for the neonatal calf. However, colostrum quality is highly variable between and within farms. Therefore, it can be difficult to ensure the calf receives necessary Ig to thrive. Colostrum supplements and replacers were developed to provide additional Ig or to totally replace maternal colostrum. Data concerning efficacy of colostrum supplements and replacers have been inconsistent. This review presents data from several publications using different types of colostrum supplements and replacers and notes their effects on IgG uptake in neonatal calves and kids.
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    • "Even so, preweaning morbidity and mortality risks did not differ between groups in this study [22]. Several studies reported that feeding a higher IgG mass (≥ 200 g of IgG) delivered using CR products resulted in greater IgG absorption and lower FPT risks [19,20,23]. However, these studies did not evaluate post-administration performance in terms of preweaning morbidity and mortality risks, feed intake, and weight gain for calves fed larger masses of IgG in the CR products evaluated. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of feeding a commercial lacteal-derived colostrum replacer (CR) or pooled maternal colostrum (MC) on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifer calves. A total of 568 calves were randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of pooled MC or two doses (200 g IgG) of a CR. Calves were monitored daily for preweaning morbidity until weaning at 60 d old. Birth and weaning weights were measured to estimate growth rates. Calves fed CR were significantly less likely to be affected with a diarrhea event (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.88; P value = 0.011) and had a higher rate of daily weight gain (0.051 kg/day; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.08; P value <0.001) compared to calves fed pooled MC. Use of lacteal-derived colostrum replacer was not significantly associated with respiratory disease (OR = 1.01; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.51; P value = 0.974 ), omphalitis (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.06 to 14.86; P value = 0.956), or mortality (HR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.27 to 1.92; P value = 0.505) in the study calves. The lacteal-derived CR fed at the study dose was a viable colostrum alternative in the event of poor quality pooled MC for the prevention of preweaning diarrhea and resulted in higher growth rates in comparison to calves fed pooled MC in the study herd.
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    • "Varying reports have been published on the success of passive transfer when CR is used. Poulsen et al. (2010) found no significant difference in rates of passive transfer between a bovine serum-based CR and maternal colostrums . Conversely, Swan et al. (2007) found higher rates of failure of passive transfer when a CR was fed, which could impair health and survival. "
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