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Genistein Regulated Serotonergic Activity in the Hippocampus of Ovariectomized Rats under Forced Swimming Stress

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Abstract

The mortality of individuals suffering from depression has been increasing, especially post-menopausal women; therefore, their care and treatment are important to maintain a high quality of life. In the present study, we evaluated the antidepressant-like effects of a major isoflavonoid, genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), using a behavioral model of depression, the forced swimming test (FST), in ovariectomized rats. Daily administration of genistein to ovariectomized rats at a dosage of 10 mg/kg of body weight/d for 14 d significantly reduced the immobility time during the FST without changing motor dysfunction. On the other hand, a higher dosage, 100 mg/kg/d, did not have any effects on the immobility time compared with the vehicle control. Repeated administration of genistein at 10 mg/kg of body weight did not affect serotonergic activities in the hippocampus compared to the vehicle control in ovariectomized rats. A 5-min FST trial stimulated these activities. On the other hand, repeated pretreatment with genistein protected against changes in activity during the FST trial. These results suggest that daily consumption of genistein 10 mg/kg/d might have antidepressant-like effect on ovariectomized rats by regulating changes in serotonergic metabolism in the hippocampus under stressful conditions.

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... Animal models are also useful to study the antidepressant-like activity. Treatment of genistein 10 mg/kg for 14 days in ovariectomised rats has been shown to reduce the immobility time, the marker of depression in forced swim test [5]. Beside that, consumption of dietary genistein renders a wide range of potential health benefits including alleviation of menopausal symptoms, chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancers, and cardioprotective effect [6,7]. ...
... Consistent with previous findings [5,21], acute treatment of genistein does not exert antidepressant-like activity but repeated treatment shows antidepressant effect which is comparable to amitriptyline. Genistein has poor oral bioavailability. ...
... From here, we cannot model the body weight changes of combination therapy in clinical setting. Additionally, genistein in agreement with previous report does not increase body weight in rats [5]. ...
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The present study was designed to evaluate the acute and chronic antidepressant effect of genistein in combination with amitriptyline in mice. Animals were divided into six groups ( n = 6 ) for treatment with water, genistein, or amitriptyline, either alone or in combination for ten days. Animals were subjected to locomotor activity testing; tail suspension test (TST); and forced swim test (FST) and immobility time was recorded on day one and day ten. Acute treatment of all treatment groups did not significantly reduce the immobility time ( p > 0.05 ). Chronic treatment of combination of genistein (10 mg/kg) and amitriptyline (5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time as compared to control group ( p < 0.001 ) and was comparable to amitriptyline alone (10 mg/kg). However, no changes in anti-immobility activity in combination of subeffective doses of genistein (5 mg/kg) and amitriptyline (5 mg/kg) were observed. Genistein at its standard dose (10 mg/kg) rendered synergistic effects in combination with subeffective dose of amitriptyline (5 mg/kg) and additive effects in combination with therapeutic dose of amitriptyline (10 mg/kg).
... Genistein is trihydroxyisoflavone found in soybeans and known to have estrogenic activity (Shen et al., 2018). Genistein has been extensively investigated due to its effects on osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and depression (Atteritano et al., 2014;Kageyama et al., 2010;Marini et, al.,2010). Researchers have recommended the genistein as remedy for the menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis (Dixon & Ferreira, 2002). ...
... versus normal control, # p< .05 and ## p < .01 versus control depression (Atteritano et al., 2014;Kageyama et al., 2010;Marini et al., 2010). Researchers have recommended the genistein as remedy for the menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis (Dixon & Ferreira, 2002). ...
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In this study, the antidepression effects of genistein were investigated in rats induced with chronic mild stress. Animals were designated into the following groups: normal control, control, 10 mg, and 100 mg. The dose was given for 45 consecutive days via the oral route. Sucrose preference analysis, forced swim, and open field tests were performed, and serum cortisol and monoamine levels in brain tissue were determined. The mRNA and protein expression of brain‐derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was also examined. Supplementation with genistein significantly increased the sucrose preference ratio, locomotor activity, and monoamines and decreased serum cortisol levels. The mRNA expression of BDNF in the brain tissue was substantially reduced by 0.73% in control rats. However, supplementation with genistein significantly increased BDNF mRNA expression (by 107% and 229.6% in groups 10 mg and 100 mg, respectively). Similarly, the protein expression of BDNF increased by 82.3% and 141.2% in groups 10 mg and 100 mg, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that supplementation with genistein may be effective against depression.
... Reduces the incidence of breast, hepatocellular, lung, gastric, and ovarian cancer Stress responses Improves 5-HT metabolism, stabilizes MAO activity, and improves turnover ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT Abbreviations: 5-HIAA: 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid; 5-HT: serotonin; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; MAO: monoamine oxidase; TNF-α tumor necrosis factor alpha. Information is supported by references [28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. Genistein has shown health benefits such as lowering the incidence of cardiovascular disease, the prevention of osteoporosis, and the reduction of postmenopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness [22,23]. ...
... Several studies have reported that antidepressant effects involve ER-β rather than ER-α. Moreover, genistein may regulate the serotonergic pathway under stressful conditions by decreasing the serotonin turnover of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/serotonin (5-HIAA/5-HT) ratio, indicating that the concentration of 5-HT in the hippocampus increases, as it occurs with antidepressant drugs [34]. The activation of monoamine oxidase (MAO), which is responsible for the metabolism of dopamine and serotonin, is associated with depression symptoms. ...
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Plant-derived compounds have recently attracted greater interest in the field of new therapeutic agent development. These compounds have been widely screened for their pharmacological effects. Polyphenols, such as soy-derived isoflavones, also called phytoestrogens, have been extensively studied due to their ability to inhibit carcinogenesis. These compounds are chemically similar to 17β-estradiol, and mimic the binding of estrogens to its receptors, exerting estrogenic effects in target organs. Genistein is an isoflavone derived from soy-rich products and accounts for about 60% of total isoflavones found in soybeans. Genistein has been reported to exhibit several biological effects, such as anti-tumor activity (inhibition of cell proliferation, regulation of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis), improvement of glucose metabolism, impairment of angiogenesis in both hormone-related and hormone-unrelated cancer cells, reduction of peri-menopausal and postmenopausal hot flashes, and modulation of antioxidant effects. Additionally, epidemiological and clinical studies have reported health benefits of genistein in many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis, and aid in the amelioration of typical menopausal symptoms, such as anxiety and depression. Although the biological effects are promising, certain limitations, such as low bioavailability, biological estrogenic activity, and effects on target organs, have limited the clinical applications of genistein to some extent. Moreover, studies report that modification of its molecular structure may eliminate the biological estrogenic activity and its effects on target organs. In this review, we summarize the potential benefits of genistein on menopause symptoms and menopause-related diseases like cardiovascular, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes, anxiety, depression, and breast cancer.
... Another outcome evaluated in this trial was depression status through the Zung Scale Depression Score. It has been experimentally reported that a diet rich in phytoestrogens exert anxiolytic and antidepressive-like effects in rats, supporting the hypothesis that phytoestrogens could be used as a therapeutic alternative to ameliorate anxiety and depression associated with surgical or natural menopausal status [33,34]. Our data showed that in the group treated with genistein, the depression score improved compared with placebo; in fact, at 1 year and at the end of the study, the administration of genistein decreases significantly the ZSD score. ...
... Our data showed that in the group treated with genistein, the depression score improved compared with placebo; in fact, at 1 year and at the end of the study, the administration of genistein decreases significantly the ZSD score. The mechanisms by which genistein improves mood disorder have not been completely clarified, and some authors suggest that daily consumption of genistein might have antidepressant-like effect on ovariectomized rats by regulating changes in serotoninergic metabolism in the hippocampus under stressful conditions [34]. From the literature data, an association between mood disorder and vasomotor symptoms has been established [35]; therefore, we think that these effects on depression symptoms can be explained as secondary to the positive effects on vasomotor symptoms previously observed [11]. ...
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Postmenopausal estrogen decline is implicated in several age-related physical and psychological changes in women, including decreases in perceived quality of life. The phytoestrogen genistein at a dose of 54 mg daily in osteopenic postmenopausal women after 2 years implies an improvement on quality of life and depression symptoms. Postmenopausal estrogen decline is implicated in several age-related physical and psychological changes in women, including decreases in perceived quality of life (QoL). A number of trials with hormone therapy showed beneficial effects of the intervention on quality of life parameters. However, because of known or suspected serious side effects of conventional hormone therapy, there is a need for alternatives. We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial using the isoflavone genistein, 54 mg, or placebo for 2 years. In this trial, we recruited 262 postmenopausal women aged 49 to 67 years. At baseline, after 1 year, and at final visit, participants filled in the Short Form of 36 questions (SF-36) and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). For the placebo group, scores on all dimensions of the SF-36 decreased after 1 and 2 years. The genistein group showed increases on all dimensions of the SF-36 at the end of the study. There were, however, statistically significant differences in changes of scores between the two intervention groups. For the ZSDS, similarly, significant differences were found between groups. In conclusion, the findings of this randomized trial showed that genistein improves quality of life (health status, life satisfaction, and depression) in osteopenic postmenopausal women.
... Depression may be caused by dysfunction in the monoamine systems of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE), as previous studies have shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and other monoamine reuptake inhibitors act as antidepressants [28][29][30] . Studies in mice showed that the 5-HT metabolic rate (5-HIAA/5-HT, 5-HIAA is the 5-HT metabolite) is increased in mice showing depression-like behavior 31 , and the aforementioned antidepressants decrease the 5-HT metabolic rate in the hippocampus 32 . In addition, a previous study indicated the relationship between depression and a hypofunction of the noradrenergic system, and the effect of some antidepressants on the NE and the NE metabolite, MHPG 33 . ...
... Moreover, the 5-HIAA/5-HT level in the NES model group was increased compared to that in the control group at ZT 1 (Fig. 6D). A previous study reported an increased monoamine metabolic rate in mice showing depression-like behavior 31 . Thus, we examined the 5-HT, 5-HIAA, and 5-HIAA/5-HT levels in mice under stress. ...
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The circadian clock system is associated with feeding and mood. Patients with night eating syndrome (NES) delay their eating rhythm and their mood declines during the evening and night, manifesting as time-specific depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that the NES feeding pattern might cause time-specific depression. We established new NES model by restricted feeding with high-fat diet during the inactive period under normal-fat diet ad libitum. The FST (forced swimming test) immobility time in the NES model group was prolonged only after lights-on, corresponding to evening and early night for humans. We examined the effect of the NES feeding pattern on peripheral clocks using PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice and an in vivo monitoring system. Caloric intake during the inactive period would shift the peripheral clock, and might be an important factor in causing the time-specific depression-like behavior. In the NES model group, synthesis of serotonin and norepinephrine were increased, but utilization and metabolism of these monoamines were decreased under stress. Desipramine shortened some mice's FST immobility time in the NES model group. The present study suggests that the NES feeding pattern causes phase shift of peripheral clocks and malfunction of the monoamine system, which may contribute to the development of time-specific depression.
... In this case, genistein (10 mg/kg) was administered during 14 days to ovariectomized rats and reduction of immobility behavior was observed. Data also indicated that genistein increased dopamine and restored the serotonin levels in the hippocampus at a dose of 10 mg/kg [74]. Interestingly, the effect of this compound was also tested after a subacute administration (i.e., three injections in 24 hours) and no effect was observed. ...
... Interestingly, the effect of this compound was also tested after a subacute administration (i.e., three injections in 24 hours) and no effect was observed. This result suggested a genomic mechanism of action [74]. ...
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Menopause transition is recognized as a vulnerable period in women life to develop or aggravate symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Several treatments including antidepressants and hormonal restitution with estrogens have been suggested to ameliorate the symptoms. Also, in this period of life is frequent the use of other drugs to treat is also frequent the use of other drugs to treat comorbid pathologies that might even increase the risk of drug-drug interactions. Literature reports that some phytochemicals with estrogenic activity have beneficial effects during menopausal transition without collateral events. This chapter shows evidence about the use of phytoestrogens as an alternative therapy for the treatment of some psychiatric symptoms associated with the menopausal transition. Data derived from preclinical research related to the use of classical phytoestrogens (isoflavones), considering the beneficial effects, as well as adverse events, are discussed. Also, the use of polyphenols and organosulfurate compounds as an alternative for the treatment of anxiety-and depres-sive-like behavior as well as fibromyalgia is included. A narrative review was conducted using bibliography reporting the use of isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, equol), coumes-tans or lignans for the reduction of depressive-like or anxiety-like behavior. Furthermore, it is described if the use of this compounds impact in other signs of menopause, i.e. vasomotor and osteoporosis. In addition, due to the high frequency of comorbid pathologies as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome with psychiatric disorders, the use of these phytochemicals is discussed.
... It is important to note that these results on the serotonergic metabolic ratio (5-HIAA/5-HT) may be dependent on gonadal hormones. Ovariectomized rats (OVX, surgical removal of both ovaries) showed reduced immobility times on FST after administration of genistein (10 mg/kg, p.o. [34], or by i.m.) [35] for 14 days, but the downward tendency of the serotonergic metabolic ratio caused by FST was only evident in the hippocampus [34]. Sapronov and Kasakova [35] found antidepressant-like effects on FST at the same dose of genistein (10 mg/kg) but in non-ovariectomized rats. ...
... It is important to note that these results on the serotonergic metabolic ratio (5-HIAA/5-HT) may be dependent on gonadal hormones. Ovariectomized rats (OVX, surgical removal of both ovaries) showed reduced immobility times on FST after administration of genistein (10 mg/kg, p.o. [34], or by i.m.) [35] for 14 days, but the downward tendency of the serotonergic metabolic ratio caused by FST was only evident in the hippocampus [34]. Sapronov and Kasakova [35] found antidepressant-like effects on FST at the same dose of genistein (10 mg/kg) but in non-ovariectomized rats. ...
... This result confirms that the AE-PG also contains compounds that do not require biotransformation. It has been reported that pomegranate contains flavonoids such as genistein, coumestrol, quercetin, rutin and non-flavonoids compounds such as ellagic acid and fatty acids that have demonstrated antidepressant-like actions in preclinical trials (Kageyama et al., 2010;Machado et al., 2008;Naveen et al., 2013;Walf et al., 2004) and that could be involved in the antidepressant-like action of the AE-PG. In this regard, another study carried out by Mori-Okamoto et al. (2004) also reported the antidepressant-like effect of a pomegranate extract given by oral route to ovariectomized mice. ...
... Flavonoids isolated from plant sources have been shown to possess antidepressant actions with the monoaminergic systems' involvement. Thus, genistein, an isoflavone, induced antidepressant-like effects by regulating serotonergic metabolism changes in ovariectomized rats (Kageyama et al., 2010). Moreover, kaempferol, apigenin, quercetin, and rutin, also present in pomegranate, have proved to be potent monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (Lee et al., 2001;Sloley et al., 2000). ...
Article
Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit is of particular interest because of its high nutritional value and therapeutic actions. Recently, we showed that an aqueous extract of pomegranate (AE-PG) given by oral route induced antidepressant-like actions mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs) suggesting its potential to function as an alternative to estrogen therapy replacement in menopause-related depression treatment. Orally administered AE-PG allows the biotransformation of ellagitannins into active estrogenic compounds through the intestinal microbiota. However, it is necessary to know if compounds that do not need to be biotransformed by the intestinal microbiota are involved in the antidepressant-like effects. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine if AE-PG produces an antidepressant-like effect when administered intraperitoneally. Also, to determine the participation of specific ER-subtypes (α or β) and to analyze the role of the serotonergic system. Young female Wistar rats were ovariectomized as a surgical model of menopause. The intraperitoneal administration of AE-PG (1 mg/kg; i. p.) was evaluated in the forced swimming test and open field tests. Also, the ERα antagonist (TPBM; 50 μg/rat; s. c.) or the ERβ antagonist (PHTPP; 25 μg/rat; s. c.) were administered with AE-PG to analyze the participation of the specific ERs. Finally, the effect of the serotonin neurotoxin 5,7-DHT (200 μg/rat; i. c.v.) on the antidepressant-like effect of the AE-PG was studied in independent experimental groups. Results showed that AE-PG administered by intraperitoneal route induced antidepressant-like effects. This result suggests that gut microbiota biotransformation is not necessary to exert its actions. The mechanism of action involves the activation of the ERβ and the serotonergic system. Altogether, this information contributes to the elucidation of the antidepressant action of the pomegranate fruit, which could be further considered as an alternative treatment for depression during menopause.
... Daidzein and genistein are known constituents of pomegranate extract, which have been shown to exert antidepressant effects on menopause-related depression in ovariectomized mice [61]. Meanwhile, in a separate study, genistein was shown to have the ability to evoke antidepressant-like effects in rats by adjusting their hippocampal serotonergic metabolism when stressed [62]. Formononetin has also been identified as one of the active compounds with an effective inhibitory effect against monoamine oxidase, an enzyme responsible for the degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine [63]. ...
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Clitorea ternatea has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a brain stimulant to treat mental illnesses and mental functional disorders. In this study, the metabolite profiles of crude C. ternatea root extract (CTRE), ethyl acetate (EA), and 50% aqueous methanol (50% MeOH) fractions were investigated using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–DAD–MS/MS), while their effect on the stress-like behavior of zebrafish, pharmacologically induced with reserpine, was investigated. A total of 32 compounds were putatively identified, among which, a series of norneolignans, clitorienolactones, and various flavonoids (flavone, flavonol, isoflavone, and isoflavanone) was found to comprise the major constituents, particularly in the EA and 50% MeOH fractions. The clitorienolactones, presently unique to the species, were present in both the free and glycosylated forms in the roots. Both the EA and 50% MeOH fractions displayed moderate effects on the stress-induced zebrafish model, significantly decreasing freezing duration and elevating the total distance travelled and average velocity, 72 h post-treatment. The results of the present study provide further evidence that the basis for the use of C. ternatea roots in traditional medicine to alleviate brain-related conditions, such as stress and depression, is attributable to the presence of clitorienolactones and the isoflavonoidal constituents.
... However, the only dose to effectively reduce body mass in Kim et al. (2006) was much higher than our standard chow (1500 mg/kg versus 350-650 mg/kg, respectively), suggesting that the dose used here may not affect body mass in mice. It is also possible that the phytoestrogen content in our chow affected other measures in this study, as previous work has demonstrated that long-term consumption of dietary phytoestrogens at similar or lower concentrations than our chow may confound effects of exogenous E 2 on anxiety-and depressionlike behaviors (Russell et al., 2017) and may have anxiolytic and depression-reducing effects similar to E 2 treatment (Kageyama et al., 2010;Rodríguez-Landa et al., 2017) in OVX rats. However, that longterm E 2 treatment here improved anxiety-like behaviors, and E 2 , DPN, and EGX358 improved vasomotor and memory outcomes, suggests that OVX mice require higher phytoestrogen concentrations than rats to affect these outcomes, which is supported by Kim et al. (2006). ...
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Development of estrogen therapies targeting the β (ERβ) but not α (ERα) estrogen receptor is critically needed for the treatment of negative menopausal symptoms, as ERα activation increases health risks like cancer. Here, we determined the effects of chronic oral treatment with EGX358, a novel highly selective ERβ agonist, on memory, vasodilation, and affect in young ovariectomized mice. Mice were orally gavaged daily for 9 weeks with vehicle, 17β-estradiol (E2), the ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN), or EGX358 at doses that enhance memory when delivered acutely. Tail skin temperature was recorded as a proxy for vasodilation following injection of vehicle or senktide, a tachykinin receptor 3 agonist used to model hot flashes. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM), and depression-like behavior was measured in the tail suspension (TST) and forced swim tests (FST). Finally, memory was assessed in object recognition (OR) and object placement (OP) tasks. E2, DPN, and EGX358 reduced senktide-mediated increases in tail skin temperature compared to vehicle. All treatments also enhanced memory in the OR and OP tasks, whereas vehicle treatment did not. Although E2 increased time spent in the center of the OF, no other treatment effects were observed in the OF, EPM, TST, or FST. These data suggest that chronic ERβ activation can reduce hot flash-like symptoms and enhance spatial and object recognition memories in ovariectomized mice. Thus, the highly selective ERβ agonist EGX358 may be a promising avenue for reducing menopause-related hot flashes and memory dysfunction.
... These biological activities include the ability to protect against hormone-dependent cancers, increase bone density [7], decrease the risk of heart diseases [8], prevent breast and prostate cancers [9,10], and decrease thrombogenicity and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels [11,12]. They may also possess antioxidant [13], serotoninregulator [14] and antifungal activities [15]. On the other hand, DAI and GEN have rather limited water solubility and dissolve with difficulty in organic solvents. ...
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The most bioactive soy isoflavones (SI), daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN) have poor water solubility, which reduces their bioavailability and health benefits and limits their use in industry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a new gelatin matrix to microencapsulate DAI and GEN from soy extract (SE) by spray drying, in order to obtain solid dispersions to overcome solubility problems and to allow controlled release. The influences of 1:2 (MP2) and 1:3 (MP3) SE/polymer ratios on the solid state, yield, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, release kinetics and cumulative release were evaluated. Analyses showed integral microparticles and high drug content. MP3 and MP2 yield were 43.6% and 55.9%, respectively, with similar mean size (p > 0.05), respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed the amorphous solid state of SE. In vitro release tests showed that dissolution was drastically increased. The results indicated that SE microencapsulation might offer a good system to control SI release, as an alternative to improve bioavailability and industrial applications.
... Although the mechanisms by which isoflavones improve depression and insomnia have not been fully explained, experiments in ovariectomized rats revealed that phytoestrogen genistein had antidepressant-like and anxiolyticlike effects probably through their estrogenic activities [32,33]. Recent hypotheses suggest that estrogens affect the hippocampus, a limbic region implicated in mood disorders [34], through ER b [35]. ...
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Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of isoflavones on menopausal symptoms; however, these mostly used high dosages. Because high-dose isoflavone may result in endometrial hyperplasia, we investigated whether low-dose isoflavone aglycone alleviates menopausal symptoms similarly to high dosages. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 90 healthy women aged 40-60 years who had at least one menopausal symptom on the Menopausal Symptom Scale (MSS). The participants were randomized to receive active tablets containing ultralow-dose (12.5 mg/day; n = 30) or low-dose (25 mg/day; n = 30) isoflavone aglycone, or placebo (n = 30) tablets, for 8 weeks. Their menopausal symptoms were evaluated using MSS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) before, and 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. Eighty-seven women (97 %) completed the 8-week treatment. In the low-dose group, significant improvement was observed from baseline, in the following parameters: (1) HADS-depression subscale score, (2) AIS score, (3) MSS-somatic symptom score after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, and (4) MSS-vasomotor symptom score after 8 weeks of treatment. The changes in scores on HADS-depression subscale and AIS from baseline to 8 weeks were significantly higher in the low-dose group than in the placebo group. Low-dose (25 mg/day) isoflavone aglycone significantly alleviated symptoms of depression and insomnia in Japanese middle-aged women. Clinical Trial Registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000011876.
... However, the only dose to effectively reduce body mass in Kim et al. (2006) was much higher than our standard chow (1500 mg/kg versus 350-650 mg/kg, respectively), suggesting that the dose used here may not affect body mass in mice. It is also possible that the phytoestrogen content in our chow affected other measures in this study, as previous work has demonstrated that long-term consumption of dietary phytoestrogens at similar or lower concentrations than our chow may confound effects of exogenous E 2 on anxiety-and depressionlike behaviors (Russell et al., 2017) and may have anxiolytic and depression-reducing effects similar to E 2 treatment (Kageyama et al., 2010;Rodríguez-Landa et al., 2017) in OVX rats. However, that longterm E 2 treatment here improved anxiety-like behaviors, and E 2 , DPN, and EGX358 improved vasomotor and memory outcomes, suggests that OVX mice require higher phytoestrogen concentrations than rats to affect these outcomes, which is supported by Kim et al. (2006). ...
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Women are at greater risk of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) than men, and symptoms associated with the menopausal loss of circulating estrogens, including hot flashes, exacerbate cognitive decline and AD risk. Although estrogen‐based therapies reduce hot flashes and mitigate AD risk early in the menopausal transition, these treatments can increase risks of cancer, among other health issues. These adverse effects are mediated by the alpha (ERα), but not beta (ERβ), estrogen receptor isoform. Moreover, activation of ERβ facilitates memory formation and reduces hot flashes. Thus, ERβ‐selective therapies may promote memory function, reduce hot flashes, and diminish AD risk without complications associated with ERa. Our goal here was to determine whether chronic treatment with EGX358, a novel highly selective ERβ agonist developed by our group, could enhance memory and reduce hot flash‐like symptoms in a mouse model of menopause. Eight‐week‐old ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were orally gavaged each day for 10 weeks with vehicle, the highly potent estrogen 17β‐estradiol (E2; equal affinity for ERα and ERβ), the commercially available ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN), or EGX358 (∼10x greater selectivity for ERβ than DPN). Compounds were administered at doses that enhance memory when delivered acutely. After two weeks of treatment, hot flash‐like symptoms were tested after subcutaneous injection of vehicle or senktide, a tachykinin receptor 3 agonist that induces hot flash‐like symptoms. Tail skin temperature was then recorded using a thermal camera for 30 minutes as a proxy for vasodilation. Six weeks later, mice were trained in object recognition (OR) and object placement (OP) tasks to test object and spatial memory, respectively. Memory in the OR and OP tasks was tested 48 and 24 hours later, respectively. E2, DPN, or EGX358 treatment reduced the senktide‐mediated increase in tail skin temperature. Furthermore, treatment with E2, DPN, or EGX358, but not vehicle, enhanced memory in the OR and OP tasks. These data suggest that chronic EGX358 treatment can reduce hot flash‐like symptoms and improve spatial and object recognition memories. Therefore, ERβ activation may be a promising avenue for reducing menopause‐related hot flashes, memory dysfunction, and AD risk.
... Forced swimming is another stressor used as a behavioral model for evaluation of antidepressant-like effects 21) . In various rat strains, forced swimming enhances secretion of ACTH, glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and prolactin [69][70][71][72] . Many reports have also suggested that melatonin exhibits anti-depressive activity against the forced swim stressor 73,74) . ...
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Life in contemporary society is increasingly stressful, and the body is unconsciously exposed to various stressors involving physical, biological, chemical, and social/psychological factors. Exposure to these stressors causes definite biological responses in the body, termed ‘general adaptation syndrome’. Rapid endocrine responses are among the most important reactions following exposure to stressors. These include glucocorticoid and catecholamine secretion into the bloodstream, and are initial biological responses to the stressors. These responses are necessary for the ‘fight-or-flight’ response and must often occur rapidly for the organism to survive. Most biological events, including rapid endocrine responses, also exert effects on circadian rhythms. Indeed, disruption of biological circadian events contributes to numerous diseases, including psychological disorders, immunopathy, serious disorders of the eye, and increases in the incidence of metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. There is increasing evidence that exposure to stressors can affect the amplitude and/or cycle of biological circadian rhythms, and consequently aggravate and/or provoke adverse diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the relationship between stressors and the stress response, based mainly on results from animal studies. The effects of environmental and social stressors on circadian rhythm are also discussed.
... Increased brain monoamine (norepinephrine and dopamine) levels in ovariectomy induced depressive mice [100] Genistein Genistein administration 10 mg/kg for 14 days displayed an antidepressant-like effect in ovariec- tomized rats via regulation of serotonergic metabolism [101] Sleep, anxi- ety and depression Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice ...
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Menopause jeopardizes the integrity of brain and makes it vulnerable to various diseases, both of psychiatric and degenerative nature. Exogenous estrogen supplementation confers neuroprotection but the results of Women's Health Initiative (WHI), Million Women Study (MWS) and incidence of endometrial cancer, breast cancer and venous thromboembolism reported with estrogen use have engendered doubts over its clinical translation for postmenopausal neurological disorders. Scientific community and general public have started recognizing the protective potential of phytochemicals in climacteric medicine. These phytochemicals are plant-derived, non-steroidal bioactive estrogenic compounds. Emerging preclinical studies have suggested that these phytochemicals display potential benefits in mitigating postmenopausal depression, anxiety, cerebral ischemia and cognitive dysfunction. Thus, the aim of present review is: a) to give an overview of neuroprotective action of estrogen, b) to address the chemical and pharmacological features of various classes of phytoestrogens, and c) to present preclinical and clinical evidence of effect of phytoestrogens on climacteric neurobiology with their possible mechanisms of action.
... Therapeutic alternatives mainly consist of dietary supplements that contain natural compounds, such as phytoestrogens, including isoflavones, flavones, lignans, coumestans, and stilbenes. Preclinical studies have shown that the phytoestrogen genistein reverses anxiety-like behavior in an experimental model of surgical menopause [20] and depression-like behavior [21]. ...
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Menopause is a natural and inevitable period of ageing in women that is well known to represent the end of reproductive life through the failure of ovarian function, accompanied by a decrease in estrogen and progestin production in the periphery and brain. Sexual hormones, such as estradiol and progesterone, help regulate metabolic function and interact with a wide range of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, λ‐aminobutyric acid, and glutamate, among others. Lower concentrations of these hormones during menopause have been associated with the development of specific diseases. Hormonal changes during menopause are also involved in sex differences in brain disorders that develop in aged individuals. The United States National Institutes of Health established a research priority to encourage investigations of the impact of gender on normal brain function and central nervous system‐related diseases. Studying menopause from a multidisciplinary perspective will help unveil different factors that affect health in this specific stage of life in women. During menopause, lower hormone production is related to a higher incidence of vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, osteoporosis, cognitive deterioration, irritability, anxiety, and mood disorders (e.g., depression). Menopause can occur gradually as a natural ageing process, culminating around age 50 years, or it can occur suddenly after surgical procedures, such as oophorectomy, salpingo‐oophorectomny, and hysterectomy. When menopause is caused by surgical manipulations, the negative symptoms can be more severe than when it occurs naturally. Changes that occur during menopause interact with genetic, nutritional, sociocultural, and demographic factors, differentially impacting quality of life in menopausal women. Research on menopause requires considerations of biology, physiology, sociology, and psychology to achieve better knowledge of this physiological state in women and design the therapeutic approaches that focus on pharmacological treatment and psychological and physical therapy.
... The constituents were properties and increased intake of flavanoids reduced depressive symptoms. [20] Furthermore, oleic acid is one another indigenous compound which has an antioxidant property and acts as a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor. [21] A diverse range of flavonoids occur in traditional medicines Table 3 and illustrated in Fig. 3. ...
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Depression is a psychological disorder that has been classified and treated in a variety of ways. Though there are a number of synthetic drugs being used for the treatment of clinically depressed patient, their adverse effects and drug-food interactions compromise the therapeutic outcome. In the traditional systems of medicine, many plants and formulations are used to treat depression for thousands of years. Callistemon citrinus is one such plant which has been claimed in traditional literature to be valuable plant against a wide variety of diseases. In our research on the antidepressant activity of C. citrinus revealed that the alcoholic and chloroform fractions showed significant antidepressant activity by reducing the immobility time in forced swim test and tail suspension test. Therefore the aim of the present study was identification of bioactive compounds from the alcoholic and chloroform fractions of Callistemon citrinus by Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis, followed by in-silico docking to validate the activity of the compounds against active site of Serotonin transporter (SERT). GCMS analysis was done by standard protocol using the equipment JEOL GC MATE II. The identification of components was based on NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) Version-11 library as well as comparison of their retention indices. The molecular docking studies were done using Schrodinger software.
... Decreased hippocampal 5-HT level is accompanied by depressive behavior including sleep disturbance and anhedonia in stressed rats [7,8]. Enhancement of hippocampal 5-HT activity can reduce depressive-like behavior of stressed and ovariectomized rats [9]. ...
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Postmenopausal depression is closely associated with depletion of estrogen which modulates transmission of 5-HT, a key neurotransmitter that regulates stress-managing circuits in the brain. In this study, antidepressive efficacy of white ginseng ( Panax gingseng Meyer, WG) was evaluated in stressed ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were ovariectomized and repeatedly restraint stressed for 2 weeks (2h/day). Thirty minutes before restraint stress, rats were administered saline (control), WG 200 mg/kg (p.o.), WG 400 mg/kg (p.o.), or fluoxetine (PC, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) were performed to assess antidepressant effect of WG. After behavioral tests, levels of serum corticosterone (CORT) and hippocampal 5-HT were measured. Significant decrease of immobility time in TST and FST was shown in rats administered with PC or WG 400 compared to the control. WG200-treated rats showed remarkable reduction in immobility time of TST. PC, WG 200, or WG 400-administred group exhibited significant reduction of CORT compared to the control. PC or WG-treated rats exhibited remarkable increase in hippocampal 5-HT concentration compared to the control. Hippocampal 5-HT levels in WG groups were higher than those in the PC group. The present study demonstrated that WG had antidepressant efficacy in an animal model of menopausal depression. Treatment with WG enhanced hippocampal 5-HT level while suppressing depressive symptom and serum CORT level. These results provide evidence that WG plays an important role in activating serotonergic neurons in stressful situation, suggesting that WG might be a reliable natural alternative of antidepressant drugs to treat menopausal depression.
... 17,18 Genistein, in experimental animal models, has anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. [19][20][21] Genistein has an excellent cardiovascular safety profile in well controlled clinical trials. 22 Finally, genistein has a positive cancer risk profile in humans. ...
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The combination of genistein 27 mg, cholecalciferol 200 IU, citrated zinc bisglycinate (4 mg elemental zinc) 20 mg per capsule in Fosteum(®), a prescription medical food regulated by the FDA and indicated for the dietary management of osteopenia and osteoporosis, was tested for drug interactions and to determine the pharmacokinetic profile for genistein, the principal bone-modulating ingredient in the product. In vitro human liver microsome cytochrome P450 (CYP450) assays were used to test the product for potential drug interactions with the isoforms 1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. Due to specific 2C8 and 2C9 inhibition, a steady-state pharmacokinetic study was performed to assess serum genistein concentrations by high-pressure liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectroscopy in healthy fasting (n = 10) and fed (n = 10) postmenopausal women. The product showed minimal inhibition of 1A2, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4, exhibiting IC(50) > 10 μM, but 2C8 and 2C9 yielded IC(50) of 2.5 μM and 2.8 μM, respectively, concentrations which are theroretically achievable when dosing the product twice daily. After seven days of administration in a steady-state pharmacokinetic study, significant differences were found for unconjugated genistein (including free and protein-bound), regarding time to peak concentration (1.88 ± 1.36 hours), maximum concentration reached (0.052 ± 0.055 μM), elimination half-life (2.3 ± 1.6 hours), and area under the concentration-time curve (53.75 ± 17.59 ng · hour/mL) compared with results for total genistein (including glucuronidated and sulfonated conjugates) time to peak concentration (2.22 ± 1.09 hours), maximum concentration reached (2.95 ± 1.64 μM), elimination half-life (10.4 ± 4.1 hours), and area under the concentration-time curve (10424 ± 6290 ng · hour/mL) in fasting subjects. Coadministration of food tended to extend the time and extent of absorption as well as slow elimination of genistein, but not in a statistically significant manner. Because the serum genistein concentrations achieved during pharmacokinetic testing at therapeutic doses were well below those required for enzyme inhibition in the in vitro liver microsome assays, these results indicate a low potential for drug interactions.
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Genistein, a principal isoflavone property of soybeans, possesses multiple pharmacological activities such as neuroprotection. Recently, it was reported that genistein exerted antidepressant-like effects in animal models, but the mechanism of action remains ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of genistein in mice and explore the underlying mechanism(s), using two mouse models of depression, i.e. forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Chronic, but not acute (single dose), genistein treatment (5, 15 or 45 mg/kg, p.o., once per day for three weeks) exerted dose-dependently antidepressant-like effect in mice, concomitant with escalated levels of brain monoamines and suppressed monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Chemical depletion of brain serotonin by PCPA abrogated the antidepressant-like action of genistein, but it was not the case for ablation of NA by DSP-4. Moreover, the anti-depression by genistein was preferentially counteracted by co-administration of 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, suggesting a pivotal role for 5-HT system coupled with 5-HT1A receptors in mediating such genistein anti-depression. This point was further validated by the fact that genistein action was potentiated by co-treatment with 8-OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Collectively, these findings confirm that chronic genistein administration to mice engenders antidepressant-like efficacy evidenced by lessened behavioral despair. Serotonergic system that preferentially couples with 5-HT1A receptors may be critically responsible for the present genistein anti-depression.
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder, characterized by intense fear, and increased arousal and avoidance of traumatic events. The current available treatments for PTSD have limited therapeutic value. Genistein, a natural isoflavone, modulates a variety of cell functions. In this study, we tested anti-anxiety activity and underlying mechanisms of genistein in a PTSD rat model. The rats were trained to associate a tone with foot shock delivery on day 0, then fear conditioning was performed on day 7, 14 and 21. Genistein (2–8 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally daily for 7 days. The anti-anxiety effects of genistein were measured by contextual freezing behavior and elevated plus maze. By the end of the experiments, the amygdala was extracted and subject to neurochemistry analysis. Genistein alleviated contextual freezing behavior and improved performance in elevated plus maze dose-dependently in PTSD rats. Furthermore, in these rats, genistein enhanced serotonergic transmission in the amygdala, including upregulation of tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin, and phosphorylated (p)-CaMKII and p-CREB, as well. Genistein exerts anti-anxiety effects on a PTSD model probably through enhancing serotonergic system and CaMKII/CREB signaling pathway in the amygdala.
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Polyphenols, a category of plant compounds that contain multiple phenol structural units, are widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom and have multiple benefits for human health including anti-obese, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. Additionally, polyphenols have recently gained attention for their anti-stress effects. In this review article, we summarize physiological responses against exposure to stressors and discuss biomarkers for exposure to stressors that are widely used in animal studies and human trials. We also review commonly used animal models for evaluating anti-stress effects. Finally, we discuss recent findings related to the anti-stress effects of polyphenols evaluated in animal models and human trials, and their putative mechanisms. These emerging data require further investigation in scientific studies and human trials to evaluate the anti-stress effects of polyphenols and their potential use for the prevention of stress-related health problems.
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In this review, we provide an overview of the relationship between stressors and the stress response, based mainly on results from animal studies. The effects of environmental and social stressors on circadian rhythm are also discussed.
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Perimenopause is a transition period between regular menstruation cycles to menopause. During this period important hormonal changes occur in women; for example, estrogen levels oscillations, increases in follicular stimulating and luteinizing hormone levels. These hormonal changes have been associated to the increase in vulnerability to develop psychiatric disorders such as depression in some women. An alternative treatment for depressive states associated to perimenopause is estrogen replacement therapy (ERT); however, controversial results about its effect to treat depression restrict its use. Some factors that may contribute to explain observed discrepancies among clinical studies are age of patients, their endocrine status, estrogens type used in the ERT as well as treatment duration. However, systematic clinical studies are scarce, thus the use of animal models to evaluate the possible contribution of each one of these factors is relevant. The present review analyzed the contribution of different estrogens type, dose, treatment duration, age of animals and the relation between post-OVX time and that of ERT initiation using the FST as the animal model to screen the effect of antidepressant drugs. Results suggest that OVX increased the vulnerability to develop a depressive-like behavior; the closer to surgery, the greater susceptibility occurs, as happens in clinical studies. In relation to estrogens type and dose, lower doses were more effective to reduce depression-like behaviors than supraphysiological ones and estrogen type was important to adjust this factor. The time to start the ERT should be closer to OVX in order to obtain an effect on the FST and duration of restitution depended on the estrogen used. Finally, the age of animals was also a limiting factor for the antidepressant-like effect of estrogens.
Background: Initial evidences have shown that diabetes mellitus occurs concomitantly with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology. Serotonergic psychiatric therapy posits that serotonin is a central character in the management of OCD. Hence, it is worth investigating novel chemical entities affecting the serotonergic system for targeting OCD. An isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, genistein, has been recognized as of great pharmacological value especially for protecting neurodegeneration, depression (serotonin regulation), and diabetes. The effectiveness of genistein pretreatment on the symptoms of OCD in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice is investigated in this study. We also evaluate the probable involvement of the serotonergic system. Methods: Groups of diabetic mice were treated with genistein at the dose of 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg (intraperitoneal, twice daily, 14 days), and symptoms of OCD were assessed by the marble-burying behavior, in comparison with the standard drug fluoxetine. Neurochemical assessment of the serotonergic ratio 5-hydroxyindole-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HIAA/5-HT) in the cortical region of the brain was performed using HPLC (high-pressure liquid chromatography). Results: Chronic treatment with genistein significantly recovered [F(6, 35)=53.00, p<0.0001, R2=0.9008] the symptoms of OCD as assessed by marble burying behavior in normal and diabetic mice. Locomotor performance was not influenced by the diabetic condition or any associated treatment. The turnover of serotonin neurotransmission (5-HIAA/5-HT) was significantly boosted in the diabetic condition; genistein treatment dragged it [F(6, 35)=35.75, p<0.0001, R2=0.8597] toward the respective control. Conclusions: Genistein supplementation might be a potential therapeutic line for the management and/or prevention of diabetes-associated OCD symptomatology.
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Objective: Recent studies have indicated the possibility that genistein may improve depression via regulating the expression of miR221/222. This study is to explore whether genistein could improve depression by altering miR-221/222 levels and investigate the possible mechanisms involved in the improvement effect of genistein. Methods: The animal model of depression was established through unpredictable chronic mild stress. Nest building test and splash test were adapted to evaluate the effects of genistein on depressive symptoms in mice. qRT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of miR-221/222 and connexin 43 (Cx43) in the prefrontal cortex of the mice. In vitro, U87-MG astrocytes were treated with genistein and the expression of miR-221/222 and Cx43 was measured. The dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to verify whether Cx43 was a direct target of miR-221/222. Results: The behavioral tests showed that genistein could significantly reduce depression symptoms of mice, and this remission was not affected by gender. Genistein in vivo and in vitro could reduce increased levels of miR-221 and miR-222 in the prefrontal cortex of depressed mice, while upregulate Cx43 expression. Dual-luciferase reporter assay suggested Cx43 was directly regulated by miR-221/222 in astrocytes. Conclusion: Genistein can play its antidepressant effect through down-regulating miR-221/222 by targeting Cx43.
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the antidepressant-like effects of an aqueous extract of lavender (LAE) using the forced swimming test (FST), the most widely used animal model of depression. LAE was orally administered to rats three times, i.e., 24, 5, and 1 h prior to the FST. The administration of LAE (3428 mg/kg body weight) showed a significant reduction of the immobility time in the FST, the effect of which was comparable to that of the synthetic antidepressant, imipramine (30 mg/kg). In addition, the same dose of LAE did not change the locomotor activity in the open field test. These results suggest that LAE might have antidepressant-like effects that are independent of motor stimulation. Furthermore, the active ingredients of LAE were suggested to be non-volatile constituents, because linalool, the main aroma constituent of lavender, was completely removed during the preparation of LAE. Possible contribution of rosmarinic acid and that of apigenin glycosides to the antidepressant-like effects of LAE were discussed on the basis of their content in LAE.
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A nivel mundial la prevalencia de los trastornos depresivos ha aumentado, encontrándose un mayor número de casos en individuos del género femenino. En particular se sabe que en la mujer la ocurrencia de episodios depresivos varía a lo largo del ciclo reproductivo, observándose picos en aquellos periodos en los que se presentan cambios hormonales importantes como ocurre durante la perimenopausia, periodo que antecede a la menopausia. De hecho se reporta que en la perimenopausia aumenta la vulnerabilidad para desarrollar trastornos afectivos en mujeres vulnerables.
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Soy is one of the most common sources of protein in many commercial formulas for laboratory rodent diets. Soy contains isoflavones, which are estrogenic. Therefore, soy-containing animal diets might influence estrogen-regulated systems, including basal behavioral domains, as well as affective behavior and cognition. Furthermore, the isoflavone content of soy varies, potentially unpredictably confounding behavioral results. Therefore researchers are increasingly considering completely avoiding dietary soy to circumvent this problem. Several animal studies have investigated the effects of soy free diets but produced inconsistent results. In addition, most of these previous studies were performed in outbred rat or mouse strains. In the current study, we assessed whether a soy-free diet altered locomotion, exploration, nesting, anxiety-related behaviors, learning, and memory in C57BL/6 mice, the most common inbred strain used in biomedical research. The parameters evaluated address measures of basic health, natural behavior, and affective state that also are landmarks for animal welfare. Wefound minor differences between feeding groups but no indications of altered welfare. We therefore suggest that a soy-free diet can be used as a standard diet to prevent undesirable side effects of isoflavones and to further optimize diet standardization, quality assurance, and ultimately increase the reproducibility of experiments.
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Genistein, the soy isoflavone structurally similar to estradiol, is widely consumed for putative beneficial health effects. However, there is a lack of data about the genisteins' effects in adult males, especially its effects on the hipothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the effects of genistein on the HPA axis in orchidectomized adult rats, and to create a parallel with those of estradiol. Changes in the hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons and pituitary corticotrophs (ACTH cells) were evaluated stereologically, while corticosterone and ACTH levels were determined biochemically. Orchidectomy (Orx) provoked the enlargement (p<0.05) of: hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus volume (60%), percentage of CRH neurons (23%), percentage of activated CRH neurons (45%); pituitary weight (15%) and ACTH level (57%). In comparison with Orx, estradiol treatment provoked the enlargement (p<0.05) of: percentage of CRH neurons (28%), percentage of activated CRH neurons (2.7-fold), pituitary weight (131%) and volume (82%), ACTH level (69%), the serum (103%) and adrenal tissue (4.8 fold) level of corticosterone. Clearly, Orx has induced the increase in HPA axis activity, which even augments after estradiol treatment. Also, compared to Orx, genistein treatment provoked the enhancement (p<0.05) of: percentage of activated CRH neurons (2.3-fold), pituitary weight (28%) and volume (21%), total number of ACTH cells (22%) ACTH level (45%), the serum (2.6-fold) and adrenal tissue (2.8 fold) level of corticosterone. It can be concluded that an identical tendency, concerning the HPA axis parameters, follows estradiol and genistein administration to the orchidectomized adult rats.
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The phytoestrogen genistein, the principal isoflavone in soybeans , has adverse effects on animal reproduction. As adult physiology and behavior are sensitive to perturbation by developmental estrogens, exposure to genistein during development may produce behavioral alterations as well. Pregnant rats were fed soy-free diets containing 0, 25, 250, or 1250 ppm genistein (approximately 0, 2, 20, or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning on gestational day 7, and offspring continued on these diets through postnatal day (PND) 77. Male and female offspring were assessed for levels of sexually dimorphic behaviors: open field activity, play behavior, running wheel activity, and consumption of saccharin-and sodium chloride flavored solutions. Consumption of the salt solution was affected by genistein, with animals in the 1250-ppm group drinking significantly more than controls; consumption of plain water was unaffected. Genistein treatment also significantly affected play behavior; although no treated group was significantly different from controls, and the effect was not sexually dimorphic. Running wheel activity and saccharin solution consumption showed significant sex differences, but no effects of genistein treatment. Gesta-tional duration, total and live pups per litter, and total and live litter sex ratios were not significantly affected by genistein. However , average weight per live pup at birth and offspring body weights from PND 42–77 were significantly decreased in the 1250-ppm group. Body weight and food intake for the dams were also significantly decreased in the 1250-ppm group. These results indicate that developmental genistein treatment, at levels that decrease maternal and offspring body weight, causes subtle alterations in some sexually dimorphic behaviors.
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For sixteen years, the American institute of Nutrition Rodent Diets, AIN-76 and AIN-76A, have been used extensively around the world. Because of numerous nutritional and technical problems encountered with the diet during this period, it was revised. Two new formulations were derived: AIN-93G for growth, pregnancy and lactation, and AIN-93M for adult maintenance. Some major differences in the new formulation of AIN-93G compared with AIN-76A are as follows: 7 g soybean oil/100 g diet was substituted for 5 g corn oil/ 100 g diet to increase the amount of linolenic acid; cornstarch was substituted for sucrose; the amount of phosphorus was reduced to help eliminate the problem of kidney calcification in female rats; L-cystine was substituted for DL-methionine as the amino acid supplement for casein, known to be deficient in the sulfur amino acids; manganese concentration was lowered to one-fifth the amount in the old diet; the amounts of vitamin E, vitamin K and vitamin B-12 were increased; and molybdenum, silicon, fluoride, nickel, boron, lithium and vanadium were added to the mineral mix. For the AIN-93M maintenance diet, the amount of fat was lowered to 40 g/kg diet from 70 g/kg diet, and the amount of casein to 140 g/kg from 200 g/kg in the AIN-93G diet. Because of a better balance of essential nutrients, the AIN-93 diets may prove to be a better choice than AIN-76A for long-term as well as short-term studies with laboratory rodents.
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Ascorbic acid is highly concentrated in the brain, being considered as a neuromodulator. This study investigated the effect of ascorbic acid in the tail suspension test (TST) and in the forced swimming test (FST) in mice and the contribution of the monoaminergic system to its antidepressant-like effect. Moreover, the effects of fluoxetine, imipramine and bupropion in combination with ascorbic acid in the TST were investigated. Ascorbic acid (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.p., 1-10 mg/kg p.o. or 0.1 nmol/mice i.c.v.) produced an antidepressant-like effect in the TST, but not in the FST, without altering the locomotor activity. The effect of ascorbic acid (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) in the TST was prevented by i.p. pre-treatment with NAN-190 (0.5 mg/kg), ketanserin (5 mg/kg), MDL72222 (0.1 mg/kg), prazosin (62.5 microg/kg), yohimbine (1 mg/kg), propranolol (2 mg/kg), haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg), sulpiride (50 mg/kg), but not with SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c.). Additionally, ascorbic acid (1 mg/kg, p.o.) potentiated the effect of subeffective doses (p.o. route) of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg), imipramine (0.1 mg/kg), or bupropion (1 mg/kg) in the TST. The combined treatment of ascorbic acid with antidepressants produced no alteration in the locomotion in the open-field test. In conclusion, our results show that administration of ascorbic acid produces an antidepressant-like effect in TST, which is dependent on its interaction with the monoaminergic system. Moreover, ascorbic acid caused a synergistic antidepressant-like effect with conventional antidepressants. Therefore, the present findings warrant further studies to evaluate the therapeutical relevance of ascorbic acid for the treatment of depression and as a co-adjuvant treatment with antidepressants.
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Antidepressants (ADs) are slow to produce their therapeutic effect. This long latency promotes the development of new strategies to short their onset of action. Previous reports indicated that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) promotes the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine (FLX) and desipramine (DMI) in the forced swimming test (FST). The aim of the present work was to analyze if E(2) reduces the antidepressant-like onset of action of venlafaxine (VLX), FLX, and DMI. Independent groups of ovariectomized female Wistar rats were tested in the FST and in the open field after chronic (1 to 14 days) treatment with VLX (20 mg/kg/day), FLX (1.25 mg/kg/day), or DMI (1.25 mg/kg/day) alone or in combination with a single injection of E(2) (2.5 microg/rat sc, 8 h before FST). VLX, FLX, or DMI by themselves at these doses did not induce changes in the FST at short intervals after their injection (from 1 to 7 days). The addition of E(2) promoted the antidepressant-like effect of VLX and DMI as early as day 1. Such action was also evident after 3, for FLX, and 14 days for both FLX and DMI, but not for VLX. The behavioral actions of these ADs combined with E(2) were not accompanied by increases in general activity in the open-field test. E(2) clearly reduced the latency to the onset of action for these ADs in the FST. These results represent an interesting therapeutic strategy for the treatment of depression in perimenopausal women.
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Concentrations of corticosterone in brain areas of TO strain mice were measured by radioimmunoassay. The studies examined the effects of routine laboratory maneuvers, variation during the circadian peak, adrenalectomy, social defeat and acute injections of alcohol on these concentrations. Brief handling of mice increased corticosterone levels in plasma but not in striatum and reduced those in the hippocampus. Single injections of isotonic saline raised the plasma concentrations to a similar extent as the handling, but markedly elevated concentrations in the three brain regions. Five minutes exposure to a novel environment increased hippocampal and cerebral cortical corticosterone levels and striatal concentrations showed a larger rise. However, by 30 min in the novel environment, plasma concentrations rose further while those in striatum and cerebral cortex fell to control levels and hippocampal corticosterone remained elevated. Over the period of the circadian peak the hippocampal and striatal concentrations paralleled the plasma concentrations but cerebral cortical concentrations showed only small changes. Adrenalectomy reduced plasma corticosterone concentrations to below detectable levels after 48 h but corticosterone levels were only partially reduced in the hippocampus and striatum and remained unchanged in the cerebral cortex. Single or repeated social defeat increased both brain and plasma concentrations after 1 h. Acute injections of alcohol raised the regional brain levels in parallel with plasma concentrations. The results show that measurements of plasma concentrations do not necessarily reflect the levels in brain. The data also demonstrate that corticosterone levels can change differentially in specific brain regions. These results, and the residual hormone seen in the brain after adrenalectomy, are suggestive evidence for a local origin of central corticosterone.
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The rat, mouse and human estrogen receptor (ER) exists as two subtypes, ER alpha and ER beta, which differ in the C-terminal ligand-binding domain and in the N-terminal transactivation domain. In this study, we investigated the estrogenic activity of environmental chemicals and phytoestrogens in competition binding assays with ER alpha or ER beta protein, and in a transient gene expression assay using cells in which an acute estrogenic response is created by cotransfecting cultures with recombinant human ER alpha or ER beta complementary DNA (cDNA) in the presence of an estrogen-dependent reporter plasmid. Saturation ligand-binding analysis of human ER alpha and ER beta protein revealed a single binding component for [3H]-17beta-estradiol (E2) with high affinity [dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.05 - 0.1 nM]. All environmental estrogenic chemicals [polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and derivatives, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, methoxychlor and chlordecone] compete with E2 for binding to both ER subtypes with a similar preference and degree. In most instances the relative binding affinities (RBA) are at least 1000-fold lower than that of E2. Some phytoestrogens such as coumestrol, genistein, apigenin, naringenin, and kaempferol compete stronger with E2 for binding to ER beta than to ER alpha. Estrogenic chemicals, as for instance nonylphenol, bisphenol A, o, p'-DDT and 2',4',6'-trichloro-4-biphenylol stimulate the transcriptional activity of ER alpha and ER beta at concentrations of 100-1000 nM. Phytoestrogens, including genistein, coumestrol and zearalenone stimulate the transcriptional activity of both ER subtypes at concentrations of 1-10 nM. The ranking of the estrogenic potency of phytoestrogens for both ER subtypes in the transactivation assay is different; that is, E2 > zearalenone = coumestrol > genistein > daidzein > apigenin = phloretin > biochanin A = kaempferol = naringenin > formononetin = ipriflavone = quercetin = chrysin for ER alpha and E2 > genistein = coumestrol > zearalenone > daidzein > biochanin A = apigenin = kaempferol = naringenin > phloretin = quercetin = ipriflavone = formononetin = chrysin for ER beta. Antiestrogenic activity of the phytoestrogens could not be detected, except for zearalenone which is a full agonist for ER alpha and a mixed agonist-antagonist for ER beta. In summary, while the estrogenic potency of industrial-derived estrogenic chemicals is very limited, the estrogenic potency of phytoestrogens is significant, especially for ER beta, and they may trigger many of the biological responses that are evoked by the physiological estrogens.
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The phytoestrogen genistein, the principal isoflavone in soybeans, has adverse effects on animal reproduction. As adult physiology and behavior are sensitive to perturbation by developmental estrogens, exposure to genistein during development may produce behavioral alterations as well. Pregnant rats were fed soy-free diets containing 0, 25, 250, or 1250 ppm genistein (approximately 0, 2, 20, or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning on gestational day 7, and offspring continued on these diets through postnatal day (PND) 77. Male and female offspring were assessed for levels of sexually dimorphic behaviors: open field activity, play behavior, running wheel activity, and consumption of saccharin- and sodium chloride-flavored solutions. Consumption of the salt solution was affected by genistein, with animals in the 1250-ppm group drinking significantly more than controls; consumption of plain water was unaffected. Genistein treatment also significantly affected play behavior; although no treated group was significantly different from controls, and the effect was not sexually dimorphic. Running wheel activity and saccharin solution consumption showed significant sex differences, but no effects of genistein treatment. Gestational duration, total and live pups per litter, and total and live litter sex ratios were not significantly affected by genistein. However, average weight per live pup at birth and offspring body weights from PND 42-77 were significantly decreased in the 1250-ppm group. Body weight and food intake for the dams were also significantly decreased in the 1250-ppm group. These results indicate that developmental genistein treatment, at levels that decrease maternal and offspring body weight, causes subtle alterations in some sexually dimorphic behaviors.
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The present study evaluated the possible antidepressant-like action of the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E(2), 2.5-10 microg/rat), the synthetic steroidal estrogen ethinyl-estradiol (EE(2), 1.25-10.0 microg/rat), and the nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen, diethyl-stilbestrol (DES, 0.25-1.0 mg/rat) in ovariectomized adult female Wistar rats using the forced swimming test (FST). The behavioral profile induced by the estrogens was compared with that induced by the antidepressants fluoxetine (FLX, 2.5-10 mg/kg) and desipramine (DMI, 2.5-10 mg/kg). In addition, the temporal course of the antidepressant-like action of the estrogenic compounds was analyzed. FLX and DMI induced an antidepressant-like effect characterized by a reduced immobility and increased swimming for FLX and decreased immobility and increased climbing for DMI. Both E(2) and EE(2) produced a decrease in immobility and an increase in swimming, suggesting an antidepressant-like action. DES did not affect the responses in this animal model of depression at any dose tested. The time course analysis of the actions of E(2) (10 microg/rat) and EE(2) (5 microg/rat) showed that both compounds induced an antidepressant-like effect observed 1 h after their injection lasting for 2-3 days.
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Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. Few studies have examined the nociception and stress hormone responses after consumption of soy isoflavones. In this study, ovariectomized (OVX) female Long-Evans rats were fed either an isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600) or an isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free). We examined the effects of soy isoflavones on metabolism by measuring body weights, food/water intake, adipose tissue weights as well as serum leptin levels. Also, circulating isoflavone levels were quantified. During chemically induced estrous, nociceptive thresholds were recorded. Then, the animals were subjected to a stressor and stress hormone levels were quantified. Body weights were significantly lower in Phyto-600 fed rats compared to Phyto-free values within one week and during long-term consumption of soy isoflavones. Correspondingly, Phyto-600 fed animals displayed significantly less adipose deposition and lower serum leptin levels than Phyto-free values. However, rats on the Phyto-600 diet displayed greater food/water intake compared to Phyto-free levels. No changes in thermal pain threshold or stress hormone levels (ACTH and corticosterone) were observed after activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis. In summary, these data show that consumption of soy isoflavones 1) increases metabolism, demonstrated by significantly decreased body weights, adipose tissue deposition and leptin levels, but 2) does not alter nociception or stress hormone responses, as indexed by thermal pain threshold, serum corticosterone and ACTH levels in chemically-induced estrous OVX rats.
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Isoflavones present in soy may have risk and benefits to human health. Human gut microflora have been shown to exert metabolic activities on isoflavones, which influences bioavailability and bioactivity. Absorption of isoflavones is likely to occur in the small intestine where there is a diverse range of microfloral species able to hydrolyze conjugated isoflavones, releasing the bioactive aglycone for absorption or further metabolism and reconjugation. The identification of gut microbes that metabolize isoflavone aglycones is not well established. Such information may lead to a better understanding of the bioavailability of isoflavones in functional foods.
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Depression is twice as common in women as in men, with three peaks of occurrence coinciding with major hormonal changes-premenstrual, postnatal, and climacteric. The following review covers studies of all three peaks and the hormonal treatments used. (C)1994The North American Menopause Society
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This review discusses the usefulness of seed polysaccharides and flavonoids sensu lato for legume classification and other areas of research. As to the seed polysaccharides in the Leguminosae, three types of carbohydrate reserves provide taxonomic characters: starch, galactomannans and amyloid. In contrast to common belief, the great majority of legume species do produce endosperm in their ripe seeds, although the amounts vary. Many taxa in the Papilionoideae store large amounts of starch in mature seeds, e.g. most of the Phaseoleae, Vicieae, Cicereae and Swartzieae. In the other tribes of this subfamily the occurrence of starch is erratic or absent, and in the Caesalpinioideae storage of starch grains is rather an exception. In the Mimosoideae the situation is similar, although storage of small starch grains in seeds occurs slightly more frequently. Members of all three subfamilies which have a thick-walled endosperm store galactomannans, and the presence of this type of reserve cellulose is now considered to be a taxonomically valuable tool. Some caesalpinioids with fleshy, thick-walled cotyledons store amyloid as reserve carbohydrates. Presence of large amounts of amyloid is restricted to the tribes Detarieae and Amherstieae of this subfamily, and can be considered as a key character of these tribes. Physiologically dissimilar amyloid is present in some starch accumulators of the papilionoid tribe Phaseoleae which have thin-walled cotyledons. The family Leguminosae is particularly rich in flavonoids and related compounds; about 28% of all flavonoid and 95% of all isoflavonoid aglycone structures known from the plant kingdom are produced by legumes. The most characteristic feature of these compounds in legumes is the frequent absence of the 5-hydroxyl group. In fact 50% of the flavonoid and 66% of the isoflavonoid structures reported from Leguminosae show this characteristic. Many flavonoids and isoflavonoids in the heartwood, roots and seeds of Leguminosae contain isoprenyl groups or modifications thereof such as dimethylpyrano groups. In contrast to the aglycones, the flavonoid glycosides reported from the Leguminosae do not show many unusual structural features. However, some of the classes of C-glycosylflavonoids are not yet known from other families, e.g. C-glycosylchalcones and C-glycosylisoflavones. Although all three subfamilies are united in containing flavonoid structures lacking the 5-hydroxyl group, the Caesalpinioideae and Mimosoideae on the one hand and the Papilionoideae on the other are distinguished by a number of differences in flavonoid metabolism. At lower levels of the taxonomic hierarchy, leaf flavonoids and isoflavonoid phytoalexins can provide useful characters for legume classification.
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The present study was designed to gain insight into the effects of s-limonene on the brain after 1-wk administration. For this purpose, neurotransmitters such as dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid (Glu) and some of their metabolites (DOPAC and 5-HIAA) were determined by HPLC-ECD and amino acid analyzer after 1-wk administration of s-limonene of different concentrations (0, 5, 25, 50 mg/kg). Significant changes, such as GABA, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-HT, were confirmed. At the same time, basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity after 1-wk administration of s-limonene was evaluated by corticosterone. Considering the increment of GABA and the changes of other neurotransmitters, anti-stress effects after 1-wk administration were observed. The experimental results showed that s-limonene could inhibit HPA activity under physical stress and this anti-stress effect of s-limonene may act through the GABA(A) receptor.
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Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are mitochondrial enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines in multiple tissues, including the brain. Elevated MAO activity has long been implicated in the etiology of depression, anxiety, and neurodegenerative disease, fuelling the search for inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of these disorders. We hypothesized that emerging neuroprotective effects of anthocyanins from berry fruits may be explained by an affinity of these polyphenols for MAO isoforms A or B. Using a luminometric MAO assay, 25 anthocyanidins, anthocyanidin-3-glycosides, anthocyanidin-3,5-diglucosides, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic metabolites were examined. For MAO A and B, IC(50) values in the low micromolar range were reached by anthocyanidins and anthocyanidin-3-glycosides, as opposed to values in the low millimolar range for phenolic acids. Kinetic analyses, performed with cyanidin and cyanidin-3-glucoside, indicated a competitive interaction of cyanidin with MAO A plus a mixed competitive and non-competitive mode of interaction of cyanidin with MAO B and of cyanidin-3-glucoside with both enzyme isoforms. Thus anthocyanins and their aglycons achieve MAO inhibition in vitro that is compatible with central nervous functionalities. For extrapolation of the present findings to in vivo effects, future studies will need to address in more detail the bioavailability of these dietary constituents.
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Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) has several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including depression. In this study, the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the stems and leaves of this plant was investigated in two behavioral models, the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. The extract of R. officinalis produced an antidepressant-like effect, since the acute treatment of mice with the extract by p.o. route significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST (100 mg/kg) and TST (10-100 mg/kg), as compared to a control group, without accompanying changes in ambulation in the open-field test. Moreover, the repeated administration (14 days) of the hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis by p.o. route also produced an antidepressant-like effect in the TST (100-300 mg/kg). The pretreatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, for 4 consecutive days), NAN-190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), ketanserin (5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist), 1-(m-chlorophenyl) biguanide (mCPBG, 10 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(3) receptor agonist), prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1-)adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist) or sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist), but not yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2-)adrenoceptor antagonist) was able to reverse the anti-immobility effect of the extract (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST. The combination of MDL72222, (0.1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist) with a sub-effective dose of the extract of R. officinalis (1 mg/kg, p.o.) produced an anti-immobility effect in the TST. The results suggest that the antidepressant action of the extract of R. officinalis is mediated by an interaction with the monoaminergic system and that this plant should be further investigated as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.
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Effects of chronic (for 14 days) intramuscular injections of tamoxifen (10 mg/kg), klimadynon (Cimicifuga extract; 20 mg/kg), and genistein (10 mg/kg) on depression-like state were studied in female rats under conditions of natural fluctuations of blood estrogen levels and ovariectomy. Chronic tamoxifen caused a pronounced depression, while chronic klimadynon and genistein exhibited a pronounced antidepressant effect in intact and ovariectomized rats.
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Curcumin, a yellow pigment extracted from rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa (turmeric), has been widely used as food additive and also as a herbal medicine throughout Asia. The present study was designed to study the pharmacological, biochemical and neurochemical effects of daily administration of curcumin to rats subjected to chronic unpredictable stress. Curcumin treatment (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p., 21 days) significantly reversed the chronic unpredictable stress-induced behavioral (increase immobility period), biochemical (increase monoamine oxidase activity) and neurochemical (depletion of brain monoamine levels) alterations. The combination of piperine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p., 21 days), a bioavailability enhancer, with curcumin (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p., 21 days) showed significant potentiation of its anti-immobility, neurotransmitter enhancing (serotonin and dopamine) and monoamine oxidase inhibitory (MAO-A) effects as compared to curcumin effect per se. This study provided a scientific rationale for the use of curcumin and its co-administration with piperine in the treatment of depressive disorders.
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A MAJOR problem in the search for new antidepressant drugs is the lack of animal models which both resemble depressive illness and are selectively sensitive to clinically effective antidepressant treatments. We have been working on a new behavioural model in the rat which attempts to meet these two requirements. The method is based on the observation that a rat, when forced to swim in a situation from which there is no escape, will, after an initial period of vigorous activity, eventually cease to move altogether making only those movements necessary to keep its head above water. We think that this characteristic and readily identifiable behavioural immobility indicates a state of despair in which the rat has learned that escape is impossible and resigns itself to the experimental conditions. This hypothesis receives support from results presented below which indicate that immobility is reduced by different treatments known to be therapeutic in depression including three drugs, iprindole, mianserin and viloxazine which although clinically active1-3 show little or no `antidepressant' activity in the usual animal tests4-6.
Article
Two new phenolic compounds, glicoricone (3) and licofuranone (4), were isolated from a species of licorice brought from the northwestern region of China, and their structures were assigned. Among the twelve licorice constituents examined for the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO), six compounds, 3, 4, genistein (6), licopyranocoumarin (7), licocoumarone (14) and glycyrrhisoflavone (15), inhibited the enzyme with the IC50 (concentration required for 50% inhibition of the enzyme activity) values of 6.0 x 10(-5)-1.4 x 10(-4) M. Glycyrrhizin (1) also inhibited MAO with the IC50 value of 1.6 x 10(-4) M.
Article
Antidepressant-induced anti-immobility effects have been assessed in animals exposed or not to a pretest session using the forced swimming test. Desipramine, maprotiline, mianserine (15 and 30 mg/kg), nomifensine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (1 and 2 mg/kg) and muscimol (1 and 2 mg/kg), unlike imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), LY-171555 (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg) and scopolamine (0.5 and 0.1 mg/kg), did not reduce immobility time in rats which had not received the pretest session. On the other hand, all of the drugs tested reduced immobility time in rats exposed to a pretest session. In addition, the degree of antiimmobility effects of desipramine (20 mg/kg) and nomifensine (5 mg/kg) increased proportionally with the level of water (0, 4, 15 and 30 cm) to which animals were exposed at the time of pretest. Furthermore, desipramine reduced immobility time in rats pre-exposed to types of stress different from forced swimming, cold, restraint or foot-shock. All drugs were injected intraperitoneally three times, 24, 5 and 1 h before testing. The present findings suggest that a stressful pretest session may reveal pharmacological properties of antidepressants in the forced swimming test. This is also substantiated by the fact that diazepam (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) administered 30 min before the swimming pretest antagonized the anti-immobility effect of 15 mg/kg desipramine.
Article
The isoflavonoids in soy, genistein and daidzein, have been proposed to contribute an important part of the anti-cancer effect of soy. Although there have been many interesting studies on the effects of isoflavones on biochemical targets in tissue culture experiments, in most cases the concentrations used by investigators have exceeded 10 microM. However, based on simple pharmacokinetic calculations involving daily intake of isoflavones, absorption from the gut, distribution to peripheral tissues, and excretion, it is unlikely that blood isoflavone concentrations even in high soy consumers could be greater than 1-5 microM. Experiments designed to evaluate these pharmacological principles were carried out in anesthetized rats with indwelling biliary catheters and in human volunteers consuming soy beverages. The data from these experiments indicate that genistein is efficiently absorbed from the gut, taken up by the liver and excreted in the bile as its 7-O-beta-glucuronide. Re-infused genistein 7-O-beta-glucuronide was also well absorbed from the gut, although this occurred in the distal small intestine. In human subjects fed a soy beverage for a period of two weeks, plasma levels of genistein and daidzein, determined by HPLC-mass spectrometry, ranged from 0.55-0.86 microM, mostly as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. In summary, genistein is well absorbed from the small intestine and undergoes an enterohepatic circulation. Although the plasma genistein levels achievable with soy food feeding are unlikely to be sufficient to inhibit the growth of mature, established breast cancer cells by chemotherapeutic-like mechanisms, these levels are sufficient to regulate the proliferation of epithelial cells in the breast and thereby may cause a chemopreventive effect.
Article
This study compared the bioavailability of conjugates of the soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein in rats. Rats were given a single oral dose of a soy extract that provided 74 micromol genistein and 77 micromol daidzein/kg body wt (as conjugates). Plasma samples were obtained from treated and untreated rats; urine and fecal samples were obtained before and after treatment. Isoflavones, equol (the main end product of bacterial degradation of daidzein), and 4-ethyl phenol (the main end product from genistein) were measured by HPLC. The plasma daidzein concentration was maximal at 2 h (9.5 +/- 0.71 micromol/L) and was almost double that of genistein (P = 0.009). Between 2 and 15 h, the plasma daidzein concentration declined by 32%, but the concentration of genistein changed little. At 15 h, the concentrations of daidzein and genistein were not significantly different. Urinary excretion of daidzein over the 48-h postdose period was 17.4 +/- 1.2% of the dose, but only 11.9 +/- 1.1% of the genistein dose was excreted in urine. Equol excretion was 5.0 +/- 1.5% of the daidzein dose, but 41.9 +/- 5.0% of the genistein dose was excreted as 4-ethyl phenol. Fecal daidzein accounted for 2.3 +/- 0.5% and fecal genistein for 3.4 +/- 0.4% of the respective doses. It is concluded that conjugates of daidzein are more bioavailable than those of genistein, probably because of the greater resistance of the former to degradation by gut bacteria.
Article
The effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on rat brain or livermonoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and -B activity, biogenic amine concentration in nervous tissue, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)- and N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4)-induced neurotoxicity and antioxidant activity was investigated to determine the effects of the extract on monoamine catabolism and neuroprotection. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract was shown to produce in-vitro inhibition of rat brain MAO-A and -B. The Ginkgo biloba extract was chromatographed on a reverse-phase HPLC system and two of the components isolated were shown to be MAO inhibitors (MAOIs). These MAOIs were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry as kaempferol and isorhamnetin. Pure kaempferol and a number of related flavonoids were examined as MAOIs in-vitro. Kaempferol, apigenin and chrysin proved to be potent MAOIs, but produced more pronounced inhibition of MAO-A than MAO-B. IC50 (50% inhibition concentration) values for the ability of these three flavones to inhibit MAO-A were 7 times 10−7, 1 times 10−6 and 2 times 10−6 m, respectively. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and kaempferol were found to have no effect ex-vivo on rat or mouse brain MAO or on concentrations of dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Kaempferol was shown to protect against NMDA-induced neuronal toxicity in-vitro in rat cortical cultures, but did not prevent DSP-4-induced noradrenergic neurotoxicity in an in-vivo model. Both Ginkgo biloba extract and kaempferol were demonstrated to be antioxidants in a lipid-peroxidation assay. This data indicates that the MAO-inhibiting activity of Ginkgo biloba extract is primarily due to the presence of kaempferol. Ginkgo biloba extract has properties indicative of potential neuroprotective ability.
Article
An extract of the leaves of Apocynum venetum L. (Apocynaceae) markedly shortened the immobility time of male rats in a forced swimming test (FST) in a dose range of 30-125 mg/kg, indicating a possible antidepressant activity. This effect was comparable to that of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (20 mg/kg). Neither imipramine (20 mg/kg) nor the Apocynum extract in various doses (30, 60, 125 mg/kg) produced any overt behavioural change or motor dysfunction in the open field test. This result confirms the assumption that the antidepressant effect of an Apocynum extract in the FST is specific. Further, it can be speculated that this effect might be related to hyperoside and isoquercitrin which are major flavonoids in the extract.
Article
Genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) is a common precursor in the biosynthesis of antimicrobial phytoalexins and phytoanticipins in legumes, and an important nutraceutical molecule found in soybean seeds. Genistein is a phytoestrogen with a wide variety of pharmacological effects in animal cells, including tyrosine kinase inhibition, and dietary genistein ingestion has been linked, through epidemiological and animal model studies, with a range of potential health beneficial effects. These include chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancers, cardiovascular disease and post-menopausal ailments. In spite of an extensive literature on the effects of dietary genistein, questions still exist as to its potential overall benefits as a component of the human diet. Genistein can be synthesized chemically via the deoxybenzoin or chalcone route. Genistein is synthesized in plants from the flavanone naringenin by a novel ring migration reaction catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 enzyme isoflavone synthase (IFS). IFS genes have recently been cloned from a number of plant species, and production of genistein can be now achieved in non-legumes by recombinant DNA approaches.
Article
Despite decades of accumulated observational evidence, the balance of risks and benefits for hormone use in healthy postmenopausal women remains uncertain. To assess the major health benefits and risks of the most commonly used combined hormone preparation in the United States. Estrogen plus progestin component of the Women's Health Initiative, a randomized controlled primary prevention trial (planned duration, 8.5 years) in which 16608 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years with an intact uterus at baseline were recruited by 40 US clinical centers in 1993-1998. Participants received conjugated equine estrogens, 0.625 mg/d, plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5 mg/d, in 1 tablet (n = 8506) or placebo (n = 8102). The primary outcome was coronary heart disease (CHD) (nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death), with invasive breast cancer as the primary adverse outcome. A global index summarizing the balance of risks and benefits included the 2 primary outcomes plus stroke, pulmonary embolism (PE), endometrial cancer, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, and death due to other causes. On May 31, 2002, after a mean of 5.2 years of follow-up, the data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping the trial of estrogen plus progestin vs placebo because the test statistic for invasive breast cancer exceeded the stopping boundary for this adverse effect and the global index statistic supported risks exceeding benefits. This report includes data on the major clinical outcomes through April 30, 2002. Estimated hazard ratios (HRs) (nominal 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were as follows: CHD, 1.29 (1.02-1.63) with 286 cases; breast cancer, 1.26 (1.00-1.59) with 290 cases; stroke, 1.41 (1.07-1.85) with 212 cases; PE, 2.13 (1.39-3.25) with 101 cases; colorectal cancer, 0.63 (0.43-0.92) with 112 cases; endometrial cancer, 0.83 (0.47-1.47) with 47 cases; hip fracture, 0.66 (0.45-0.98) with 106 cases; and death due to other causes, 0.92 (0.74-1.14) with 331 cases. Corresponding HRs (nominal 95% CIs) for composite outcomes were 1.22 (1.09-1.36) for total cardiovascular disease (arterial and venous disease), 1.03 (0.90-1.17) for total cancer, 0.76 (0.69-0.85) for combined fractures, 0.98 (0.82-1.18) for total mortality, and 1.15 (1.03-1.28) for the global index. Absolute excess risks per 10 000 person-years attributable to estrogen plus progestin were 7 more CHD events, 8 more strokes, 8 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while absolute risk reductions per 10 000 person-years were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures. The absolute excess risk of events included in the global index was 19 per 10 000 person-years. Overall health risks exceeded benefits from use of combined estrogen plus progestin for an average 5.2-year follow-up among healthy postmenopausal US women. All-cause mortality was not affected during the trial. The risk-benefit profile found in this trial is not consistent with the requirements for a viable intervention for primary prevention of chronic diseases, and the results indicate that this regimen should not be initiated or continued for primary prevention of CHD.
Article
Polyphenols, which have beneficial effects on health and occur ubiquitously in plant foods, are extremely diverse. We developed a method for simultaneously determining all the polyphenols in foodstuffs, using HPLC and a photodiode array to construct a library comprising retention times, spectra of aglycons, and respective calibration curves for 100 standard chemicals. The food was homogenized in liquid nitrogen, lyophilized, extracted with 90% methanol, and subjected to HPLC without hydrolysis. The recovery was 68-92%, and the variation in reproducibility ranged between 1 and 9%. The HPLC eluted polyphenols with good resolution within 95 min in the following order: simple polyphenols, catechins, anthocyanins, glycosides of flavones, flavonols, isoflavones and flavanones, their aglycons, anthraquinones, chalcones, and theaflavins. All the polyphenols in 63 vegetables, fruits, and teas were then examined in terms of content and class. The present method offers accuracy by avoiding the decomposition of polyphenols during hydrolysis, the ability to determine aglycons separately from glycosides, and information on simple polyphenol levels simultaneously.
Article
Absence of a common diagnostic interview has hampered cross-national syntheses of epidemiological evidence on major depressive episodes (MDE). Community epidemiological surveys using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered face-to-face were carried out in 10 countries in North America (Canada and the US), Latin America (Brazil, Chile, and Mexico), Europe (Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands, and Turkey), and Asia (Japan). The total sample size was more than 37,000. Lifetime prevalence estimates of hierarchy-free DSM-III-R/DSM-IV MDE varied widely, from 3% in Japan to 16.9% in the US, with the majority in the range of 8% to 12%. The 12-month/lifetime prevalence ratio was in the range 40% to 55%, the 30-day/12-month prevalence ratio in the range 45% to 65%, and median age of onset in the range 20 to 25 in most countries. Consistent socio-demographic correlates included being female and unmarried. Respondents in recent cohorts reported higher lifetime prevalence, but lower persistence than those in earlier cohorts. Major depressive episodes were found to be strongly co-morbid with, and temporally secondary to, anxiety disorders in all countries, with primary panic and generalized anxiety disorders the most powerful predictors of the first onset of secondary MDE. Major depressive episodes are a commonly occurring disorder that usually has a chronic-intermittent course. Effectiveness trials are needed to evaluate the impact of early detection and treatment on the course of MDE as well as to evaluate whether timely treatment of primary anxiety disorders would reduce the subsequent onset, persistence, and severity of secondary MDE. Copyright
Article
Isoflavones present in soy may have risk and benefits to human health. Human gut microflora have been shown to exert metabolic activities on isoflavones, which influences bioavailability and bioactivity. Absorption of isoflavones is likely to occur in the small intestine where there is a diverse range of microfloral species able to hydrolyze conjugated isoflavones, releasing the bioactive aglycone for absorption or further metabolism and reconjugation. The identification of gut microbes that metabolize isoflavone aglycones is not well established. Such information may lead to a better understanding of the bioavailability of isoflavones in functional foods.
Article
Genistein, the major isoflavone in soybeans, has been shown to have a wide range of effects. We used an HPLC-UV combined with microdialysis method to detect unbound genistein in rat blood, brain and bile. Genistein dialysates were eluted with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile-water (40:60, v/v, pH 3.5 adjusted by 0.1% acetic acid). Samples were separated using a phenyl (5 microm) column maintained at ambient temperature. The UV detector wavelength was set at 259 nm. The flow rate was 1.0 m/min. The limit of quantitation for genistein was 50 ng/ml. The in vitro recoveries of genistein were 31 +/- 1, 13 +/- 1 and 59 +/- 4% in microdialysis probes of blood, brain and bile, respectively (n = 4). Inter- and intra-assay accuracy and precision of the analysis were less than 10% in the concentration ranges of 0.05-5.0 microg/ml. A small ratio of genistein penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and goes through hepatobiliary excretion after genistein administration (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.v.). The brain-to-blood (AUC(brain)/AUC(blood)) and bile-to-blood (AUC(bile)/AUC(blood)) distribution ratios were 0.04 +/- 0.01 and 1.85 +/- 0.42, respectively for the dosage of genistein 30 mg/kg. After co-administration of cyclosporine, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, the distribution ratios of genistein in brain and bile were not significantly altered. These results suggest that the BBB penetration and hepatobiliary excretion of genistein may not regulated by P-gp.
Article
Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) are a complex product prepared from green leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree. In the present study, the antidepressant effect of EGB was examined using two behavioral models, the forced swimming test (FST) in rats and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. EGB significantly reduced immobility time in the FST at a dosage of 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight after repeated oral treatment for 14 d, although no change of motor dysfunction was observed with the same dosage in the open field test. These results indicate that EGB might possess an antidepressant activity. In addition, EGB markedly shortened immobility time in the TST after acute inter-peritoneal treatment at a dosage of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The present study clearly demonstrated that EGB exerts an antidepressant effect in these two behavioral models.
Article
Estradiol (E(2)) may influence some of the sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders that emerge post-puberty. Studies in our laboratory, and others, have shown that actions at the beta isoform of estrogen receptor (ER) are important for E(2)'s effects for anxiety and/or depressive behavior. Whether ERbeta in the hippocampus is a target for these effects was investigated in the present study. We hypothesized that if actions at ERbeta in the hippocampus are important for the anti-anxiety and anti-depressive effects, then administration of selective ER modulator (SERMs) with greater affinity for ERbeta than ERalpha to the hippocampus, but not a control region/missed sites (i.e. the ventral tegmental area), should decrease anxiety and depressive behavior, compared to vehicle and that ERalpha-specific SERMs should not have the same effect. To investigate this, ovariectomized (ovx) rats were surgically-implanted with guide cannulae aimed at the hippocampus (target site) or ventral tegmental area (control site). Rats were administered vehicle, or 17beta-E(2) (equal affinity for ERalpha and ERbeta), SERMs with greater affinity for ERalpha vs. ERbeta (17alpha-E(2) or propyl pyrazole triol), or SERMs with greater affinity for ERbeta vs. ERalpha (coumestrol or diarylpropionitrile) to these sites (2 microg/microl/side) before testing in anxiety (open field, elevated plus maze) or depression (forced swim) tasks. ERbeta-selective SERMs to the hippocampus, but not the ventral tegmental area, decreased anxiety and depressive behavior. Rats administered 17beta-E(2) or ERbeta SERMs entered more central squares in an open field, spent more time on the open arms of the plus maze, and spent less time immobile compared to rats administered vehicle. Administration of ERalpha-specific SERMs produced similar effects as vehicle administration. Thus, E(2)'s anti-anxiety and anti-depressive effects may involve ERbeta in the hippocampus.
Article
Evidence from clinical and basic research studies demonstrates that estradiol (E(2)) reduces anxiety and/or depressive behavior; however, this effect is not observed in all studies. One factor that may mitigate differential responses to E(2) may be previous E(2) experience, i.e. parity. To investigate this, performance in tasks that are utilized to assess whether compounds, such as E(2), can alter anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus maze) and have anti-depressant-like effects (forced swim test) were determined. Performance of ovariectomized (ovx), young (3-6 months old) rats that had never had a litter (nulliparous) was compared to that of those that had several litters in their lifetime (multiparous) following 48 h of oil vehicle or E(2) (10 microg) administration. We predicted that E(2) would decrease anxiety-like behavior and increase anti-depressant-like effects of ovx rats and that this pattern may be influenced by parity. Multiparous rats, irrespective of E(2)-priming, had increased open arm time compared to nulliparous rats. Administration of E(2) to ovx, nulliparous or multiparous rats decreased immobility in the forced swim test compared to vehicle-administration. Together, these data suggest that E(2) can alter affective behavior and rats with greater reproductive experience have decreased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, irrespective of E(2)-priming.
Article
The present study evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of the quercetin-rich vegetable, onion, by using the rat behavioral model of depression, the forced swimming test (FST). Daily administration of onion powder at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight/day for 14 days significantly reduced the immobility time in FST without changing the motor dysfunction, indicating that the daily consumption of onion exerted antidepressant-like activity. The plasma corticosterone level was elevated after an FST trial, and pretreatment with onion powder did not modulate this elevation. Although the FST trial tended to increase the dopaminergic activity in the rat hypothalamus, the administration of onion powder (50 mg/kg) suppressed the increase in the turnover of this neurotransmitter. However, the same prevention was also observed with a higher dosage of onion, in which no significant antidepressant effect was apparent. The results of the present study suggest that onion exerted antidepressant-like activity in a behavioral model that acted independently of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
Article
Apigenin is one type of bioflavonoid widely found in citrus fruits, which possesses a variety of pharmacological actions on the central nervous system. A previous study showed that acute intraperitoneal administration of apigenin had antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test (FST) in ddY mice. To better understand its pharmacological activity, we investigated the behavioral effects of chronic oral apigenin treatment in the FST in male ICR mice and male Wistar rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS). The effects of apigenin on central monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and platelet adenylyl cyclase activity were simultaneously examined in the CMS rats. Apigenin reduced immobility time in the mouse FST and reversed CMS-induced decrease in sucrose intake of rats. Apigenin also attenuated CMS-induced alterations in serotonin (5-HT), its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA) levels and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in distinct rat brain regions. Moreover, apigenin reversed CMS-induced elevation in serum corticosterone concentrations and reduction in platelet adenylyl cyclase activity in rats. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like actions of oral apigenin treatment could be related to a combination of multiple biochemical effects, and might help to elucidate its mechanisms of action that are involved in normalization of stress-induced changes in brain monoamine levels, the HPA axis, and the platelet adenylyl cyclase activity.
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