Aquarium Coral Keratoconjunctivitis

Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA.
Archives of ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 4.4). 10/2010; 128(10):1360-2. DOI: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.206
Source: PubMed
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    • "These are beautiful, fast growing, ornamental organisms demanding low maintenance and have gained popularity in aquarium trade. But behind that pleasing appearance lie some specialised stinging cells, nematocysts, which inject a toxin in defence, prey or in stress (Moshirfar et al., 2010). Some zoanthids are also associated with a deadly toxin, palytoxin, found in wide variety of marine organisms, viz. "
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    ABSTRACT: The marine ecosystem carries immense undescribed organisms having huge potential uses for mankind. The zoanthids, classified under phylum Cnidaria, are mostly found in shallow waters, below the low tide mark. Based on morphological features, we identified a zoanthid during an expedition to Kanyakumari. Thorough examination of the color variations, polyp length, tentacle number, colony appearance and comparison with previously reported species of the genus, suggests that the species is Zoanthus pulchellus. This is the first report of this species from India.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Palytoxins are potent marine biotoxins that have recently become endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, and are becoming more frequently associated with seafood. Due to their high toxicity, suitable methods to quantify palytoxins are needed. Thus, we developed an indirect sandwich ELISA for palytoxin and 42-hydroxy-palytoxin. An intra-laboratory study demonstrated sensitivity (limit of detection, LOD=1.1 ng/ml; limit of quantitation, LOQ=2.2 ng/ml), accuracy (bias of 2.1%), repeatability (RSDr=6% and 9% for intra- and inter-assay variability, respectively) and specificity: other common marine toxins (okadaic acid, domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin-3 and yessotoxin) don't cross-react in this assay. It performed well in three different matrices: observed LOQs were 11.0, 9.6, and 2.4 ng/ml for mussel extracts, algal net samples and seawater, respectively, with good accuracy and precision. The LOQ in seafood is 11 µg palytoxin/kg mussel meat, lower than that of the most common detection technique, LC-MS/MS.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Environmental Science & Technology
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    ABSTRACT: Although frequently observed in domestic saltwater aquariums, literature on exposure to palytoxin (PTX) of encrusting anemones (Zoanthidea) kept in aquariums is rare. Handling these animals for propagation purposes or during cleaning work can lead to dermal, ocular or respiratory contact with the PTX generated by some Zoanthids. The present study describes a case of ocular exposure to liquid from a Zoanthid, which led to corneal ulcers. The patient also suffered from systemic symptoms of dyspnea and shivering and a suspected rhabdomyolysis, which required monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit. After symptomatic treatment provided insufficient results, the corneal ulcers improved with an amniotic membrane transplantation. A review of the literature regarding ocular exposures to this diverse order of Hexacorallia reveals that severe and systemic symptoms can develop with minimal contact.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Toxicon