XMRV Prevalence in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or Chronic Immunomodulatory Conditions

Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 10/2010; 202(10):1478-81. DOI: 10.1086/657168
Source: PubMed


We investigated the prevalence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) among 293 participants seen at academic
hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts. Participants were recruited from the following 5 groups of patients: chronic fatigue syndrome
(n = 32), human immunodeficiency virus infection (n = 43), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 97), hematopoietic stem-cell or solid organ transplant (n = 26), or a general cohort of patients presenting for medical care (n = 95). XMRV DNA was not detected in any participant samples. We found no association between XMRV and patients with chronic
fatigue syndrome or chronic immunomodulatory conditions.

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    • "Patients with spondyloarthritis , multiple sclerosis, as well as pediatric patients with idiopathic and respiratory diseases have been shown to be XMRV negative (Jeziorski et al., 2010;Maric et al., 2010). Likewise , XMRV has not been found in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients (Henrich et al., 2010). Independent studies show that XMRV could be detected due to contamination of commercially available reagents for PCR or human DNA samples contaminated with mouse DNA that contains MLV-related virus genomic sequences (Sato et al., 2010;Oakes et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been considered a possible trigger of myalgic encephalomyelitis/ chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and could also be linked with unspecified encephalopathy. The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency of XMRV proviral sequences in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA from 150 patients with ME/CFS and 30 apparently healthy individuals, as well as in PBL and brain tissue DNA from 61 individuals with/without unspecified encephalopathy. Targeting the XMRV proviral gag gene sequence by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) with previously reported primer sets, provirus was not detected either in DNA from patients with ME/CFS and individuals with unspecified encephalopathy, or in apparently healthy individuals. Only the positive control gave the amplimer of 410 base pairs (bp) after the second round that corresponds to the expected XMRV gag gene fragment. In addition, DNA was found to be negative in nPCR assays, targeting XMRV specific env gene sequence, using previously described primer sets. Also only positive control gave the amplimer of 218 bp after the second round, corresponding to the expected XMRV env gene fragment. Using nPCR we found no evidence of XMRV infection either in apparently healthy individuals or in patients with ME/CFS and individuals with unspecified encephalopathy.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM)
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    • "Kunstman et al tested 996 samples from the Chicago Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (562 HIV-1 positive and 434 at high risk for HIV-1 infection, but HIV-1 negative individuals), none of them were XMRV positive [28]. Henrich et al were unable to detect XMRV infection in PBMC samples from 43 HIV positive individuals, 97 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 26 transplant recipients and 95 general patients [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Preliminary studies in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients and XMRV infected animals demonstrated plasma viremia and infection of blood cells with XMRV, indicating the potential risk for transfusion transmission. XMRV and MLV-related virus gene sequences have also been detected in 4-6% of healthy individuals including blood donors in the U.S. These results imply that millions of persons in the U.S. may be carrying the nucleic acid sequences of XMRV and/or MLV-related viruses, which is a serious public health and blood safety concern. To gain evidence of XMRV or MLV-related virus infection in the U.S. blood donors, 110 plasma samples and 71 PBMC samples from blood donors at the NIH blood bank were screened for XMRV and MLV-related virus infection. We employed highly sensitive assays, including nested PCR and real-time PCR, as well as co-culture of plasma with highly sensitive indicator DERSE cells. Using these assays, none of the samples were positive for XMRV or MLV-related virus. Our results are consistent with those from several other studies, and demonstrate the absence of XMRV or MLV-related viruses in the U.S. blood donors that we studied.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Prior reports generally have studied more recent patients and most of the patients have been from more restricted locations in the United States or different geographic areas than those of the original report. Our study more closely resembles that of Satterfield et al. [24] who studied patients from multiple states of the continental United States, whereas other studies have reported patients from a single geographic area of the United States [8-11], two states [7], or other countries [3-6,23,25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In 2009, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was reported in 67% of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to 4% of controls. Since then numerous reports failed to detect XMRV in other cohorts of CFS patients, and some studies suggested that XMRV sequences in human samples might be due to contamination of these samples with mouse DNA. We determined the prevalence of XMRV in patients with CFS from similar areas in the United States as the original 2009 study, along with patients with chronic inflammatory disorders and healthy persons. Using quantitative PCR, we initially detected very low level signals for XMRV DNA in 15% of patients with CFS; however, the frequency of PCR positivity was no different between patients with CFS and controls. Repeated attempts to isolate PCR products from these reactions were unsuccessful. These findings were supported by our observations that PHA and IL-2 stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with apparently low levels of XMRV, which induced virus replication in the 2009 report, resulted in the disappearance of the signal for XMRV DNA in the cells. Immunoprecipitation of XMRV-infected cell lysates using serum from patients from whom we initially detected low levels of XMRV DNA followed by immunoblotting with antibodies to XMRV gp70 protein failed to detect antibody in the patients, although one control had a weak level of reactivity. Diverse murine leukemia virus (MLV) sequences were obtained by nested PCR with a similar frequency in CFS patients and controls. Finally, we did not detect XMRV sequences in patients with several chronic inflammatory disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, Bechet's disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus. We found no definitive evidence for XMRV DNA sequences or antibody in our cohort of CFS patients, which like the original 2009 study, included patients from diverse regions of the United States. In addition, XMRV was not detected in a cohort of patients with chronic inflammatory disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Virology Journal
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