Rapid Increase in Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Decrease in Prevalence of Malaria in Three Regional States of Ethiopia (2006-2007)

The Carter Center, P. O. Box 13373, Woreda 17, Kebele 19, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Journal of Tropical Medicine 09/2010; 2010. DOI: 10.1155/2010/750978
Source: PubMed


Following recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, this study aimed to compare ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), and the change in malaria prevalence using two population-based household surveys in three regions of the country. Each survey used multistage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster. Household net ownership tripled from 19.6% in 2006 to 68.4% in 2007, with mean LLIN per household increasing from 0.3 to 1.2. Net use overall more than doubled from 15.3% to 34.5%, but in households owning LLIN, use declined from 71.7% to 48.3%. Parasitemia declined from 4.1% to 0.4%. Large scale-up of net ownership over a short period of time was possible. However, a large increase in net ownership was not necessarily mirrored directly by increased net use. Better targeting of nets to malaria-risk areas and sustained behavioural change communication are needed to increase and maintain net use.

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Available from: Patricia M Graves
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    • "Unlike the present results, other studies of net ownership in Nigeria have observed inequity prior to mass distribution campaigns, though with conflicting trends--some report highest ITN ownership among wealthiest households [3,38], while an earlier report found inverse associations with wealth [9]. It will be important to document whether demand for nets translates into sustained net use in Nigeria once the access to free nets increases, as studies from other African countries have revealed declines in net use among households owning nets following mass distribution campaigns [39,40]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nigeria suffers the world's largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country's aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%-40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%-42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children <=10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%-81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%-63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%-13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%-3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%-20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and LLINs, and sub-optimal net use--especially among age groups with highest observed malaria burden.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "Scale-up of net distribution started in 2006 in Ethiopia and rapidly achieved a high level of net ownership [7,8]. Samples of nets with known batch numbers that were available for distribution in 2007, with assistance from The Carter Center, were collected at three time intervals over three to 32 months in 2007, 2008 and 2009 [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Information is needed on the expected durability of insecticidal nets under operational conditions. The persistence of insecticidal efficacy is important to estimate the median serviceable life of nets under field conditions and to plan for net replacement. Deltamethrin residue levels were evaluated by the proxy method of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry on 189 nets used for three to six months from nine sites, 220 nets used for 14-20 months from 11 sites, and 200 nets used for 26-32 months from ten sites in Ethiopia. A random sample of 16.5-20% of nets from each time period (total 112 nets) were tested by bioassay with susceptible mosquitoes, and nets from the 14-20 month and 26-32 month collections were also tested with wild caught mosquitoes to assess possible insecticide resistance. Mean insecticide levels estimated by X ray fluorescence declined with time in use, from 66.2 (SD 14.6) mg/m2 at three to six months to 44.1 (SD 21.2) mg/m2 (25.9% decline from batch mean level) at 14-20 months and to 41.1 (SD 18.9) mg/m2 (30.8% decline) at 26-32 months. There was wide variation in levels between nets and sites, but 99.5% (n=189), 94.5% (n=220) and 96% (n=200) of nets retained greater than 10 mg/m2 of deltamethrin after use for three to six, 14-20 and 26-32 months respectively. By bioassay with susceptible Anopheles, mortality averaged 89.0% on 28 nets tested at three to six months, 93.3% on 44 nets at 14-20 months and 94.1% on 40 nets at 26-32 months. With wild caught mosquitoes, mortality averaged 85.4% (range 79.1 to 91.7%) at 14-20 months but had dropped significantly to 47.2% (39.8 to 54.7%) at 26-32 months. Insecticide residue level, as estimated by X ray fluorescence, declined by about one third between three and six months and 14-20 months, but remained relatively stable and above minimum requirements thereafter up to 26-32 months. The insecticidal activity of PermaNet(R) 2.0 long-lasting insecticidal nets in the specified study area may be considered effective to susceptible mosquitoes at least for the duration indicated in this study (32 months). However, results indicated that resistance in the wild population is already rendering nets with optimum insecticide concentrations less effective in practice.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Malaria Journal
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    • "Ethiopia’s impressive scale-up of net distribution started after the development of a new strategic plan in 2005, and resulted in household ownership of at least one net (any type) increasing from 4.5% in 2005 to 72.5% by 2007 [2]. In 2006, LLINs were instituted as one of the primary methods of vector control as they removed the need for regular re-treatment of impregnated nets with insecticide [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ethiopia scaled up net distribution markedly starting in 2006. Information on expected net life under field conditions (physical durability and persistence of insecticidal activity) is needed to improve planning for net replacement. Standardization of physical durability assessment methods is lacking. Permanet(R)2.0 long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs), available for distribution in early 2007, were collected from households at three time intervals. The number, size and location of holes were recorded for 189 nets used for three to six months from nine sites (2007) and 220 nets used for 14 to 20 months from 11 sites (2008). In 2009, a "finger/fist" sizing method classified holes in 200 nets used for 26 to 32 months from ten sites into small (<2 cm), medium (> = 2 to < =10 cm) and large (>10 cm) sizes. A proportionate hole index based on both hole number and area was derived from these size classifications. After three to six months, 54.5% (95% CI 47.1-61.7%) of 189 LLINs had at least one hole 0.5 cm (in the longest axis) or larger; mean holes per net was 4.4 (SD 8.4), median was 1.0 (Inter Quartile Range [IQR] 0--5) and median size was 1 cm (IQR 1--2). At 14 to 20 months, 85.5% (95% CI 80.1-89.8%) of 220 nets had at least one hole with mean 29.1 (SD 50.1) and median 12 (IQR 3--36.5) holes per net, and median size of 1 cm (IQR 1--2). At 26 to 32 months, 92.5% of 200 nets had at least one hole with a mean of 62.2 (SD 205.4) and median of 23 (IQR 6--55.5) holes per net. The mean hole index was 24.3, 169.1 and 352.8 at the three time periods respectively. Repairs were rarely observed. The majority of holes were in the lower half of the net walls. The proportion of nets in 'poor' condition (hole index >300) increased from 0% at three to six months to 30% at 26 to 32 months. Net damage began quickly: more than half the nets had holes by three to six months of use, with 40% of holes being larger than 2 cm. Holes continued to accumulate until 92.5% of nets had holes by 26 to 32 months of use. An almost complete lack of repairs shows the need for promoting proper use of nets and repairs, to increase LLIN longevity. Using the hole index, almost one third of the nets were classed as unusable and ineffective after two and a half years of potential use.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Malaria Journal
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