Article

Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato attenuate dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in rats by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes and reducing COX-2 and iNOS expression

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Abstract

Anthocyanins of the purple sweet potato exhibit antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities via a multitude of biochemical mechanisms. However, the signaling pathways involved in the actions of anthocyanin-induced antioxidant enzymes against chronic liver injury are not fully understood. We examined whether an anthocyanin fraction (AF) from purple sweet potato may prevent dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver injury by inducing antioxidants via nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathways and by reducing inflammation. Treatment with AF attenuated the DMN-induced increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. It also prevented the formation of hepatic malondialdehyde and the depletion of glutathione and maintained normal glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the livers of DMN-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, AF increased the expression of Nrf2, NADPH:quinine oxidoreductase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and GSTα, which were reduced by DMN, and decreased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. An increase in the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was observed in the DMN-induced liver injury group, but AF inhibited this translocation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AF increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 and at the same time decreases the expression of inflammatory mediators in DMN-induced liver injury. These data imply that AF induces antioxidant defense via the Nrf2 pathway and reduces inflammation via NF-κB inhibition.

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... Increases in GPx activity in response to anthocyanins may be dependent on the c-Jun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK)-mediated Nrf2 activation, since anthocyanin metabolites behave in such a manner [117]. Consumption of anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potatoes increased hepatic Nrf2 expression in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats [118]. Increases in GPx activity were also seen in both healthy and at risk populations [68,69], while most studies did not see an effect [102,107,119,120]. ...
... Increases in GPx activity were also seen in both healthy and at risk populations [68,69], while most studies did not see an effect [102,107,119,120]. The same pattern is seen in GSH concentrations, with no change after anthocyanin consumption in humans [119] but increases seen in liver in most animal studies [21,60,112,116,118], with the exception being two studies that used anthocyanin-rich red potato flakes [59,64]. However, Rosenblat et al. did report that pomegranate juice consumption (50 mL/day for 3 months) increased total serum thiols, which includes GSH, in diabetic patients [121]. ...
... Cellular GSH content increased as well in human monocytes-derived macrophages (HMDM) from the same individuals [121]. Meanwhile, it was shown that hepatic and intestinal GST activity remains unchanged after anthocyanin supplementation in apoE − /− mice [111], while it is increased in rat livers [118]. In adult men with CVD risk factors, a wild blueberry drink providing 375 mg of anthocyanins did not alter GST activity after consumption for 6 weeks [122]. ...
Article
Atherosclerosis develops due to lipid accumulation in the arterial wall and sclerosis as result of increased hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation. However, improving antioxidant status through diet may prevent the progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is believed that polyphenol-rich plants contribute to the inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and chronic disease. Anthocyanins are flavonoid polyphenols with antioxidant properties that have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The consumption of anthocyanins increases total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant defense enzymes, and HDL antioxidant properties by several measures in preclinical and clinical populations. Anthocyanins appear to impart antioxidant actions via direct antioxidant properties, as well as indirectly via inducing intracellular Nrf2 activation and antioxidant gene expression. These actions counter oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling in cells present in atherosclerotic plaques, including macrophages and endothelial cells. Overall, anthocyanins may protect against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease through their effects on cellular antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and inflammation; however, their underlying mechanisms of action appear to be complex and require further elucidation.
... The antioxidant activities of these compounds are four times stronger than that of α-tocopherol [182][183][184]. In addition, some of these compounds such as anthocyanins and ferulic acid derivatives are also able to activate AREregulated phase II enzyme expression [185][186][187][188][189]. Phenolic compounds consist of at least one aromatic ring and one hydroxyl group [172,173]. ...
... The antioxidant activities of these compounds are four times stronger than that of α-tocopherol [182][183][184]. In addition, some of these compounds such as anthocyanins and ferulic acid derivatives are also able to activate ARE-regulated phase II enzyme expression [185][186][187][188][189]. Phenolic compounds consist of at least one aromatic ring and one hydroxyl group [172,173]. ...
... The antioxidant activities of these compounds are four times stronger than that of α-tocopherol [182][183][184]. In addition, some of these compounds such as anthocyanins and ferulic acid derivatives are also able to activate AREregulated phase II enzyme expression [185][186][187][188][189]. Antioxidants (phenolic compounds) in rice and structure-activity relationship. ...
Article
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Redox homeostasis may be defined as the dynamic equilibrium between electrophiles and nucleophiles to maintain the optimum redox steady state. This mechanism involves complex reactions, including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway, activated by oxidative stress in order to restore the redox balance. The ability to maintain the optimal redox homeostasis is fundamental for preserving physiological functions and preventing phenotypic shift toward pathological conditions. Here, we reviewed mechanisms involved in redox homeostasis and how certain natural compounds regulate the nucleophilic tone. In addition, we focused on the antioxidant properties of rice and particularly on its bioactive compound, γ-oryzanol. It is well known that γ-oryzanol exerts a variety of beneficial effects mediated by its antioxidant properties. Recently, γ-oryzanol was also found as a Nrf2 inducer, resulting in nucleophilic tone regulation and making rice a para-hormetic food.
... However, the low concentrations of polyphenols and phenolic metabolites present in the plasma suggest they are unlikely to act as direct antioxidants in vivo (18). We and others have hypothesized that it is more likely that antioxidant effects in vivo arise from nuclear translocation and activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling after exposure to phenolic metabolites (7,19,20). ...
... Although not sufficient to elicit direct antioxidant effects, the increase in plasma concentrations of phenolic compounds appears to have been sufficient to elicit a significant upregulation of endogenous antioxidant gene and protein expression in skeletal muscle in the MCC condition. The mechanism hypothesized to underpin these changes is an upregulation of endogenous antioxidant production via the Nrf2 antioxidant response element pathway after exposure to the aforementioned elevation in phenolic metabolites (19,20). Nrf2 is widely accepted as the "master regulator" of antioxidant defense, and upregulation induces an expression profile protective against Under normal homeostatic conditions, Nrf2 is repressed through binding to Keap1 within the cytoplasm, where it is ubiquitinated and subsequently proteolysed (35). ...
... Previous in vitro and rodent model research has shown evidence that polyphenol exposure can induce Nrf2 gene expression and translocation, as well as augment activity of antioxidant enzymes, including GPX and SOD (19,41); however, to the authors' knowledge, this study presents the first in vivo evidence of upregulation of antioxidant enzyme gene and protein expression in human skeletal muscle after polyphenol supplementation. These novel data provide strong evidence that increased expression of endogenous antioxidant and cytoprotective genes after exposure to phenolic acids confers protection against oxidative stressors, such as intensive exercise and the resulting inflammatory response, thereby contributing to observed improvements in functional recovery (20,34) (Fig. 7). ...
Article
Introduction: Montmorency cherry concentrate (MCC) supplementation enhances functional recovery from exercise, potentially due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, to date, supporting empirical evidence for these mechanistic hypotheses is reliant on indirect blood biomarkers. This study is the first to investigate functional recovery from exercise alongside molecular changes within the exercised muscle after MCC supplementation. Methods: Ten participants completed two maximal unilateral eccentric knee extension trials after MCC or placebo (PLA) supplementation for 7 d before and 48 h after exercise. Knee extension maximum voluntary contractions, maximal isokinetic contractions, single leg jumps, and soreness measures were assessed before, immediately, 24 h, and 48 h after exercise. Venous blood and vastus lateralis muscle samples were collected at each time point. Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, and phenolic acids were quantified. Intramuscular mRNA expressions of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD3, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), GPX3, GPX4, GPX7, catalase, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and relative intramuscular protein expressions of SOD1, catalase, and GPX3 were quantified. Results: MCC supplementation enhanced the recovery of normalized maximum voluntary contraction 1-s average compared with PLA (postexercise PLA, 59.5% ± 18.0%, vs MCC, 76.5% ± 13.9%; 24 h PLA, 69.8% ± 15.9%, vs MCC, 80.5% ± 15.3%; supplementation effect P = 0.024). MCC supplementation increased plasma hydroxybenzoic, hippuric, and vanillic acid concentrations (supplementation effect P = 0.028, P = 0.002, P = 0.003); SOD3, GPX3, GPX4, GPX7 (supplement effect P < 0.05), and GPX1 (interaction effect P = 0.017) gene expression; and GPX3 protein expression (supplementation effect P = 0.004) versus PLA. There were no significant differences between conditions for other outcome measures. Conclusions: MCC supplementation conserved isometric muscle strength and upregulated antioxidant gene and protein expression in parallel with increased phenolic acid concentrations.
... Anthocyanins, like many flavonoids, are unique antioxidants in that they are able to scavenge damaging ROS and RNS directly, as evidenced by their high oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) values, in addition to enhancing the cell's intrinsic antioxidant defenses [35][36][37][38]. Direct scavenging of various ROS including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), alkyl, and hydroxyl radicals has been reported using electron spin resonance spectroscopy [39]. ...
... Both pure anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts have also been shown to reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction induced by Bcl-2 inhibition, hydrogen peroxide, or rotenone toxicity [51,60,61,63]. These activities are thought to be modulated in part by the ability of anthocyanins to induce nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) activity, which acts as a master regulator of many antioxidant genes including catalase and the regulatory subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase, the enzyme responsible for carrying out the rate limiting step of GSH synthesis, in addition to a host of other phase II detoxification enzymes [35,36,58,64]. This is supported by a recent study demonstrating that aged rats fed an anthocyanin-rich acai pulp diet showed significantly elevated Nrf-2 levels in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in addition to enhanced levels of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD1 and glutathione S-transferase [57]. ...
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Neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are characterized by the death of neurons within specific regions of the brain or spinal cord. While the etiology of many neurodegenerative diseases remains elusive, several factors are thought to contribute to the neurodegenerative process, such as oxidative and nitrosative stress, excitotoxicity, endoplasmic reticulum stress, protein aggregation, and neuroinflammation. These processes culminate in the death of vulnerable neuronal populations, which manifests symptomatically as cognitive and/or motor impairments. Until recently, most treatments for these disorders have targeted single aspects of disease pathology; however, this strategy has proved largely ineffective, and focus has now turned towards therapeutics which target multiple aspects underlying neurodegeneration. Anthocyanins are unique flavonoid compounds that have been shown to modulate several of the factors contributing to neuronal death, and interest in their use as therapeutics for neurodegeneration has grown in recent years. Additionally, due to observations that the bioavailability of anthocyanins is low relative to that of their metabolites, it has been proposed that anthocyanin metabolites may play a significant part in mediating the beneficial effects of an anthocyanin-rich diet. Thus, in this review, we will explore the evidence evaluating the neuroprotective and therapeutic potential of anthocyanins and their common metabolites for treating neurodegenerative diseases.
... 2,5 Various studies have been conducted in vitro including animal models and cell cultures as well as in vivo on animals and humans. [6][7][8] However, epidemiological studies, which are focused on anticancer activities of anthocyanins, indicate the lack of correlation between the effectiveness of anthocyanins in model systems and those conducted in humans. Hence, studies aimed at enhancing the absorption of anthocyanins and/or their metabolites are recommended in order to use them as an integral part of chemoprevention against human cancers. ...
... This observation was proved by their high oxygen radical absorption capacity values and ability to enhance the cell's intrinsic antioxidant defenses. 7 Furthermore, it is mainly anthocyanins that are proved to scavenge superoxide radicals at a higher capacity than other flavonoids e.g. quercetin. ...
Article
The aim of study was to broadly determine the biological activities of purple potato ethanolic extract of the Blue Congo variety (BCE). The antioxidative activity of BCE was determined in relation to liposome membranes, and peroxidation was induced by UVB and AAPH. To clarify the antioxidant activity of BCE, we investigated its interactions with hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of a membrane using fluorimetric and FTIR methods. Next, we investigated the cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic activities of BCE on two human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2) and on normal cells (IPEC-J2 ). In addition, the ability to inhibit enzymes which are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions was examined. Furthermore, BCE interactions with serum albumin and plasmid DNA were investigated using steady state fluorescence spectroscopy and single molecule fluorescence technique (TCSPC-FCS). We proved that BCE effectively protects lipid membranes against the process of peroxidation and successfully inhibits the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. What is more, it interacts with the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts of lipid membranes as well as with albumin and plasmid DNA. It occurred, that BCE is more cytotoxic against colon cancer cell lines than normal IPEC-J2 cells, it also induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines, but does not induce cell death on normal cells.
... However, anti-inflammatory activity may also be due to the presence of anthocyanins and glucosinolates present in T. tuberosum. ACNs have been consistently shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, as evidenced by their ability to lower the concentration and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators while increasing that of anti-inflammatory molecules, attenuating iNOS activity and thus nitric oxide overexpression, and reducing COX-2 activity and thus PGE2 expression (Hwang et al., 2011). As for their mechanisms of action, most of the evidence points to involvement of the NF-κB pathway; ACNs have consistently showed both in vitro and in vivo the inhibition of translocation and activation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of their upstream inhibitor (Lim et al., 2011). ...
... Journal of Ethnopharmacology 247 (2020) 112152 involvement of other pathways that are at least partially involved in the inflammatory response, such as the phosphorylation of MAPKs or the AP-1. Some authors have suggested a direct binding of ACNs to several proteins in these pathways, such as Fyn kinase (Miyake et al., 2012;Hwang et al., 2011). Also, glucosinolates have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties through regulation of NF-κB, its downstream signalling, inhibition of TNF-α and LPS-stimulated inflammatory response (Folkard et al., 2014;Dey et al., 2006;Rose et al., 2005;Xu et al., 2005;Heiss et al., 2001). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruíz & Pavón (Tropaeolaceae). Sim (commonly called Mashua) is an indigenous plant that has medicinal values for various ethnic groups of the regions of the Andes mountain range of South America, which use it for the treatment of diseases venereal, lung and skin; for the healing of internal and external wounds; and as an analgesic for kidney and bladder pain. Aim of the review: We critically summarised the current evidence on the botanic characterisation and distribution, ethnopharmacology, secondary metabolites, pharmacological activities, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and toxicology of T. tuberosum. Materials and methods: The relevant information on T. tuberosum was gathered from worldwide accepted scientific databases via electronic search (Google scholar, Elsevier, SciFinder, ScienceDirect, PubMed, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Scopus, Wiley Online, Mendeley, Scielo and Dialnet electronic databases). Information was also obtained from the literature and books as well as PhD and MSc dissertations. Plant names were validated by 'The Plant List' (www.theplantlist.org). Results: T. tuberosum has diverse uses in local and popular medicine, specifically for relieving pain and infections in humans. Regarding its biological activities, polar extracts (aqueous, hydroalcoholic) and isolated compounds from the tubers have exhibited a wide range of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities. Quantitative analysis (e.g., NMR, HPLC, GC-MS) indicated the presence of a set of secondary metabolites, including hydroxybenzoic acids, tannins, flavanols, anthocyanins, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, phytosterols, fatty acids and alkamides in the tubers of T. tuberosum. Likewise, glucosinolates have been identified in the seeds and isothiocyanates have been detected in leaves, flowers and seeds. Conclusions: T. tuberosum has been tested for various biological activities and the extracts (tubers in particular) demonstrated a promising potential as an antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A lack of alignment between the ethno-medicinal uses and existing biological screenings was observed, indicating the need to explore its potential for the treatment against respiratory affections, urinary affections and blood diseases. Likewise, it is necessary to analyse deeply the relationship that exists between the different tuber colours of T. tuberosum and its use for the treatment of certain diseases. Validation of clinical studies of the antibacterial, antioxidant/anti-inflammatory, anti-spermatogenic activities and as inhibitors of benign prostatic hyperplasia is required. Moreover, studies on the toxicity, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetics, in addition to clinical trials, are indispensable for assessing the safety and efficacy of the active metabolites or extracts obtained from T. tuberosum. Other areas that need investigation are the development of future applications based on their active metabolites, such as neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease). Finally, the work purposes to motivate other research groups to carry out a series of scientific studies that can fill the gaps that exist with respect to Mashua properties, and thus be able to change the focus of T. tuberosum (Mashua) that currently has in the consumer society.
... On the contrary, Ávila-Román et al. [57] demonstrated reduced Nrf-2 and HO-1 expression levels in colon samples from a TNBS chronic colitis model. In addition, several dietary phytochemicals, such as green tea polyphenol components [58], anthocyanins [59] and carotenoids [56], have been implicated in reversing inflammatory processes by increasing the expression of Nrf-2 and HO-1. Our research has revealed that Ach administration generated an upward trend in this antioxidant pathway, which may prevent ROS production. ...
Article
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Nutraceuticals include a wide variety of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, which have been highlighted for their remarkable health benefits. Specially, maqui berries have shown great antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects on some inflammatory diseases. The objectives of the present study were to explore the therapeutic effects of maqui berries on acute-phase inflammation in Crohn’s disease. Balb/c mice were exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) via intracolonic administration. Polyphenolic maqui extract (Ach) was administered orally daily for 4 days after TNBS induction (Curative Group), and for 7 days prior to the TNBS induction until sacrifice (Preventive Group). Our results showed that both preventive and curative Ach administration inhibited body weight loss and colon shortening, and attenuated the macroscopic and microscopic damage signs, as well as significantly reducing transmural inflammation and boosting the recovery of the mucosal architecture and its muco-secretory function. Additionally, Ach promotes macrophage polarization to the M2 phenotype and was capable of down-regulating significantly the expression of inflammatory proteins COX-2 and iNOS, and at the same time it regulates the antioxidant Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. In conclusion, this is the first study in which it is demonstrated that the properties of Ach as could be used as a preventive and curative treatment in Crohn’s disease.
... Several studies have demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich extracts from colored fruits and vegetables presented chemopreventive effects against various chemically induced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Their inhibitory mechanisms could be involved with the modulation of antioxidant systems and the induction of apoptotic pathways, as well as suppression of the inflammatory response through modulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway [22][23][24][25]. Anthocyanins might act as cancer chemopreventive agents in defatted purple rice bran. ...
Article
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Use of natural products is one strategy to lessen cancer incidence. Rice bran, especially from colored rice, contains high antioxidant activity. Cancer chemopreventive effects of hydrophilic purple rice bran extract (PRBE) and white rice bran extract (WRBE) on carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesion formation in livers of rats were investigated. A 15-week administration of PRBE and WRBE did not induce hepatic glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci formation as the biomarker of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. PRBE and WRBE at 500 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased number and size of GST-P positive foci in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated rats. The number of proliferating nuclear antigen positive hepatocytes were also reduced in preneoplastic lesions in both PRBE and WRBE fed DEN-treated rats. Notably, the inhibitory effect on GST-P positive foci formation induced by DEN during the initiation stage was found only in rats treated by PRBE for five weeks. Furthermore, PRBE attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines involving genes including TNF-α, iNOS, and NF-κB. PBRE contained a higher number of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds and vitamin E. PRBE might protect DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats via attenuation of cellular inflammation and cell proliferation. Anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, as well as vitamin E, might play a role in cancer chemopreventive activity in rice bran extract.
... It has been shown to manipulate the Nrf2 and NF-κB transcription factors to provide oxidative stress defense and suppress inflammation (Gessner et al., 2013;Fiesel et al., 2014). Several studies have demonstrated that phytochemicals including curcumin (Shehzad et al., 2011), caffeic acid (Lee et al., 2010), epicatechin (Bahia et al., 2008), grape seed extract (Gessner et al., 2013), cinnamaldehyde (Wondrak et al., 2010) and anthocyanins (Hwang et al., 2011) increased the expression or translocation of Nrf2 and reduced or inhibited the activation of NF-κB, suggesting that phytogenic compounds can protect against oxidative stress and reduce inflammation, and eventually lead to the improvement of animal health and growth performance (Yang et al., 2015). Limonene, the main active substance of lemon oil was shown to reduce leukocytes and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-a) after an induced acute inflammation (Kostas et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Phytogenics are bioactive compounds having natural growth promoters or non-antibiotic growth promoters derived from herbs, spices or other plants. With the ban of use of antibiotics in animal feed as growth promoters, there is a need to have alternative strategy to promote growth and health of animals. Plant derived feed additives can facilitate digestibility and in turn positively influence feed efficiency and growth. Also, the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of phytogenics from essential oils, saponins, flavonoids, tannins etc. promote health thereby enhancing its beneficial effects.
... Vishnu et al. (2019) found that peonidin derivatives were the major anthocyanins in tubers and the leaves, but that the contents of the cyanidin derivatives were greater in leaves than in tubers [12]. Studies have shown that anthocyanins from sweet potato have good properties regarding scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals [13], and protect the liver [14,15], have anti-tumor properties [16], lower blood sugar levels [17], and have other positive physiological functions on the human body [18,19]. ...
Article
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Sweet potato anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with many physiological functions. Previous research on anthocyanin accumulation in sweet potato has focused on the roots, but the accumulation progress in the leaves is still unclear. Two purple sweet potato cultivars (Fushu No. 23 and Fushu No. 317) with large quantities of anthocyanin in the leaves were investigated. Anthocyanin composition and content were assessed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection (UPLC-DAD) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS), and the expressions of genes were detected by qRT-PCR. The two cultivars contained nine cyanidin anthocyanins and nine peonidin anthocyanins with an acylation modification. The acylation modification of anthocyanins in sweet potato leaves primarily included caffeoyl, p-coumaryl, feruloyl, and p-hydroxy benzoyl. We identified three anthocyanin compounds in sweet potato leaves for the first time: cyanidin 3-p-coumarylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin 3-p-coumarylsophoroside-5-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-p-coumarylsophoroside-5-glucoside. The anthocyanidin biosynthesis downstream structural genes DFR4, F3H1, anthocyanin synthase (ANS), and UDP-glucose flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT3), as well as the transcription factor MYB1, were found to be vital regulatory genes during the accumulation of anthocyanins in sweet potato leaves. The composition of anthocyanins (nine cyanidin-based anthocyanins and nine peonidin-based anthocyanins) in all sweet potato leaves were the same, but the quantity of anthocyanins in leaves of sweet potato varied by cultivar and differed from anthocyanin levels in the roots of sweet potatoes. The anthocyanidin biosynthesis structural genes and transcription factor together regulated and controlled the anthocyandin biosynthesis in sweet potato leaves.
... It has been shown to manipulate the Nrf2 and NF-κB transcription factors to provide oxidative stress defense and suppress inflammation (Gessner et al., 2013;Fiesel et al., 2014). Several studies have demonstrated that phytochemicals including curcumin (Shehzad et al., 2011), caffeic acid (Lee et al., 2010), epicatechin (Bahia et al., 2008), grape seed extract (Gessner et al., 2013), cinnamaldehyde (Wondrak et al., 2010) and anthocyanins (Hwang et al., 2011) increased the expression or translocation of Nrf2 and reduced or inhibited the activation of NF-κB, suggesting that phytogenic compounds can protect against oxidative stress and reduce inflammation, and eventually lead to the improvement of animal health and growth performance (Yang et al., 2015). Limonene, the main active substance of lemon oil was shown to reduce leukocytes and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-a) after an induced acute inflammation (Kostas et al., 2015). ...
... Previous studies showed that anthocyanins present in purple potatoes possess many biological activities, including antioxidative [15,16], anti-atherosclerotic [17], antimicrobial [10], anti-mutagenic [16,18], and hepatoprotective activity [19]; moreover, these compounds can protect against oxidative stress damage [20]. In addition, Zhao et al. [16] showed that extracts from purple sweet potato inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. ...
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This study was designed to evaluate the effects of purple potato extract of the Blue Congo variety (PP) on diabetes and its antioxidant activities after two-week administration tostreptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The activities of PP were evaluated at a dose of 165 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) by estimating biochemical changes in blood plasma and through a histopathological study of kidney, muscles, and liver tissue. We evaluated the effect of treatment with extract on glucose level, glycated hemoglobin, activities of enzymatic antioxidants (including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase), and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, we determined advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and the level of oxidative modified proteins (OMPs) as markers of carbonyl-oxidative stress in rats with diabetes. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we identified five anthocyanins and six phenolic acids in the extract from Blue Congo with the dominant acylated anthocyanin as petunidin-3-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-glucoside. The administration of Blue Congo extract lowered blood glucose, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased the amount of glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, PP demonstrated an antioxidative effect, suppressed malondialdehyde levels, and restored antioxidant enzyme activities in diabetic rats. After administration of PP, we also noticed inhibition of OMP, AGE, and AOPP formation in the rats′ blood plasma.
... The type of lipid present is important as they decide the storage quality and off-flavor development during the storage of processed products like flakes and chips [10]. According to [11], when passing through the digestive system, sweet potato cyanide and peonidin and other color-related phytonutrients may be able to lower the potential health risk posed by heavy metals and oxygen radicals like mercury, cadmium or arsenic in the diets. Unlike other starchy root vegetables, sweet potato can improve blood sugar regulation even in persons with type two diabetes as it helps to lower insulin resistance. ...
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The effects of different cooking methods on the proximate and sensory evaluation of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes were investigated. The cooking methods used were boiling, roasting, steaming, and frying. The result of the proximate composition showed that the roasted orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) had the highest ash content ranging from 1.26-1.99%, crude protein 2.12-3.99%, crude fiber 0.45-1.55%, and carbohydrate content 15.25-40.75% with a decrease in the moisture content from 72.44%-50.23%. The fat content of the OFSP, ranging from 0.26-2.56%, with the fried sample having the highest than the other samples. Sensory analysis results showed that color ranged from 5.20-6.36 with the roasted sample as the least preferred and fried sample as most preferred. Results show that the toasted sample was significantly (p<0.05) different from all others. Roasting had an effect on the color of the OFSP due to crust that was formed on the toasted potato. The taste of the OFSP samples ranged from 4.75-6.12 with the boiled and steamed samples having the least values and with a roasted and fried sample as most preferred in terms of taste. The mouthfeel of the processed OFSP ranged from 4.01-5.20 with the boiled and steamed samples as the least, while fried and toasted samples as the highest. The texture ranged from 4.85-5.56 with the fried sample as the most preferred. Overall, the acceptability of the OFSP ranged from 4.97-5.75 with steamed and boiled samples having the least and fried sample as most preferred. Samples with different cooking methods showed a significant (p<0.05) difference in taste, mouthfeel, texture, and overall acceptability from each other.
... Hanieh et al. (2010) suggested that anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato can boost immune response in broilers after vaccination; however, further research is required to elucidate this mechanism of action. Similarly, Hwang et al. (2011a) proved that anthocyanins derived from purple sweet potato have the potential to enhance immunity via upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) while decreasing inflammatory mediators via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in mice models. The extract of purple sweet potato significantly (P<0.05) ...
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This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of increased supplementation of zinc oxide (ZnO) on performance, quality of egg, blood chemistry, and antioxidant ability in serum of laying chickens (Hisex Brown) reared from 22 to 34 weeks of age. Seventy-two 22-week-old laying hens (Hisex Brown) were haphazardly separated into 3 handling collections of 24 chickens (6 replicates per treatment and four laying hens per replicate). Dietary treatments included basal diet without zinc addition for control group while the 2nd and 3rd groups contained basal diet with 25 or 75 mg ZnO/kg diet. Results showed that the higher level of ZnO (75 mg ZnO/kg diet) elevated (P < 0.01) feed intake during all studied periods compared with the control group and other groups that contained ZnO. The handling groups supplied with 75 mg ZnO/kg diet gave the worst feed: egg ratio within the whole period and the intervals compared with the control and other ZnO levels. Supplementation of zinc decreased egg number and egg output when compared with the control groups. Egg quality traits were statistically differed due to dietary ZnO supplementation except egg shape index, yolk %, and albumin %. Supplementation of zinc decreased triglyceride (P = 0.001) of laying hens. The low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol level in serum was decreased with 75 mg ZnO/kg in comparison with all treatment groups. Zinc supplementation increased the level of serum zinc without differences in supplemented zinc levels. Dietary supplemental zinc did not affect antioxidant parameters in the serum. It is concluded that dietary zinc supplementation up to 75 mg/kg used as effective supplement to enhance zinc status and antioxidant ability and activities in laying hens.
... Antioxidant enzymes including GST, HO-1, and NQO1 prevent cells from oxidative stress (Banerjee et al., 1999). Recently, the upregulation of these antioxidant enzymes by chemical or natural products is a common strategy to provide protection to cells in case of diseases as well as cancer (Hwang et al., 2011). In addition, iNOS plays a crucial role in inflammatory response often induced by oxidative stress via NF-κB pathway (Chung et al., 2007). ...
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Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection produces a profound inflammatory response in the respiratory tract and evade birds’ immune recognition to establish a chronic infection. Previous reports documented that the flavonoid baicalin possess potent anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. However, whether baicalin prevent immune dysfunction is largely unknown. In the present study, the preventive effects of baicalin were determined on oxidative stress generation and apoptosis in the spleen of chickens infected with MG. Histopathological examination showed abnormal morphological changes including cell hyperplasia, lymphocytes depletion, and the red and white pulp of spleen were not clearly visible in the model group. Oxidative stress-related parameters were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the model group. However, baicalin treatment significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated oxidative stress and partially alleviated the abnormal morphological changes in the chicken spleen compared to model group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick endlabeling assay results, mRNA, and protein expression levels of mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes showed that baicalin significantly attenuated apoptosis. Moreover, baicalin restored the mRNA expression of mitochondrial dynamics-related genes and maintain the balance between mitochondrial inner and outer membranes. Intriguingly, the protective effects of baicalin were associated with the upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway and suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in the spleen of chicken. In summary, these findings indicated that baicalin promoted mitochondrial dynamics imbalance and effectively prevents oxidative stress and apoptosis in the splenocytes of chickens infected with MG.
... The resulting reduction in superoxide production and, hence, reduced NO degradation to peroxynitrite will also improve NO bioavailability. Anthocyanins and their metabolites have been shown to interact with cysteine residues present in Kelch-like ECHassociated protein 1 (Keap1), resulting in nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of Nrf2 (20,26,28), with subsequent signaling through the antioxidant response element pathway to increase production of downstream phase II antioxidant enzymes, such as the peroxiredoxins (1). The increased plasma PRX2 concentration observed after MC supplementation is consistent with this mechanism and suggests that enhanced capability to quench ROS may contribute to the improved NO bioavailability evident in the present study. ...
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Flavonoid supplementation improves brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), but it is not known whether flavonoids protect against vascular dysfunction induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and associated respiratory burst. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we investigated whether 4 wk supplementation with freeze-dried Montmorency cherry (MC) attenuated suppression of FMD after IR induced by prolonged forearm occlusion. Twelve physically inactive overweight, middle-aged men (52.8 ± 5.8 yr, BMI: 28.1 ± 5.3 kg/m2) consumed MC (235 mg/day anthocyanins) or placebo capsules for 4 wk, with supplementation blocks separated by 4 wk washout. Before and after each supplementation block, FMD responses and plasma nitrate and nitrite ([ N O 2 - ]) concentrations were measured at baseline and 15, 30, and 45 min after prolonged (20 min) forearm occlusion. FMD response was significantly depressed by the prolonged occlusion ( P < 0.001). After a 45-min reperfusion, FMD was restored to baseline levels after MC (ΔFMD presupplementation: -30.5 ± 8.4%, postsupplementation: -0.6 ± 9.5%) but not placebo supplementation (ΔFMD presupplementation: -11.6 ± 10.6, postsupplementation: -25.4 ± 4.0%; condition × supplement interaction: P = 0.038). Plasma [ N O 2 - ] decreased after prolonged occlusion but recovered faster after MC compared with placebo (Δ45 min to baseline; MC: presupplementation: -15.3 ± 9.6, postsupplementation: -6.2 ± 8.1; Placebo: presupplementation: -16.3 ± 5.9, postsupplementation: -27.7 ± 11.1 nmol/l; condition × supplement × time interaction: P = 0.033). Plasma peroxiredoxin concentration ([Prx2]) was significantly higher after MC (presupplementation: 22.8 ± 1.4, postsupplementation: 28.0 ± 2.4 ng/ml, P = 0.029) but not after placebo supplementation (presupplementation: 22.1 ± 2.2, postsupplementation: 23.7 ± 1.5 ng/ml). In conclusion, 4 wk MC supplementation enhanced recovery of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation after IR, in parallel with faster recovery of plasma [ N O 2 - ], suggesting NO dependency. These protective effects seem to be related to increased plasma [Prx2], presumably conferring protection against the respiratory burst during reperfusion. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to demonstrate that 4 wk of Montmorency cherry powder supplementation exerted protective effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation after transient ischemia-reperfusion injury in overweight, physically inactive, nonmedicated, hypertensive middle-aged men. These effects seem to be due to increased nitric oxide availability, as evidenced by higher plasma nitrite concentration and peak arterial diameter during the flow-mediated dilation measurement. This may be a consequence of increased concentration of peroxiredoxin and other antioxidant systems and, hence, reduced reactive oxygen species exposure.
... Numerous studies have shown that induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein is an important cellular protective mechanism against oxidative injury (Croft et al., 2017;Loboda, Damulewicz, Pyza, Jozkowicz, & Dulak, 2016). ACNs can protect various cells by upregulating the expression of the antioxidant enzyme HO-1 (Ali et al., 2018;Hwang et al., 2011;. Bilberry anthocyanin-rich extract (BAE) was found to reduce the H 2 O 2 -induced ROS via the modulation of HO-1 in RPE cells (Milbury, Graf, Curran-Celentano, & Blumberg, 2007). ...
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Bilberry anthocyanins are functional ingredients for preventing retinal degeneration. This study was to determine whether the molecular mechanism of bilberry anthocyanin-rich extract (BAE) protection of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and retina against photooxidative damage via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) upregulation in vitro and in vivo. Results shown that BAE protected ARPE-19 cells from visible light-induced damage, reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, and up-regulated the expression of HO-1. Pigmented rabbits were treated with BAE (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks pre-illumination and 1 week post-illumination until sacrifice. The expression of HO-1 in the retina was up-regulated after BAE treatment. BAE significantly suppressed the photooxidation-induced increase in expression of interleukine-6 protein. BAE also attenuated the expression of inflammation-related gene nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Thus, BAE reduced retinal photooxidative damage through activating the HO-1 expression and suppressing NF-κB activation.
... anthocyanins target NF-κB and MAPKs pathways and inhibit overexpression of pro-oxidative and inflammatory mediators such as COX-2 (inhibiting production of PGE2), iNOs (inhibiting production of NOs) (Hwang et al. 2011, Min et al. 2010, Kwon et al. 2009, Vendrame et al. 2015. ...
Article
Ingestion of berries containing polyphenols is associated with lower risk of inflammatory, metabolic, cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. Diet has been shown to modulate the activation of the complement system, a set of over 50 proteins present in the circulation and tissues that reacts in response to damage or microbial encounter and is critical for the maintenance of homeostasis. Imbalanced activation is tightly correlated with inflammation and various pathologies. Wild blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins and phenolic acids, which can be found in plasma shortly after consumption. Given the involvement of both complement and polyphenols in the modulation of inflammation, we investigated whether wild blueberries modulate the activation of the complement system. Phenolics (Phen) and Anthocyanins (ACNs) were extracted from freeze-dried wild blueberry powder, characterized by liquid chromatography and used in in-vitro complement inhibition assays. We documented that Phen and ACNs inhibit the activation of the complement classical pathway in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 325.6μg/ml and 605.6μg/ml respectively. The activation of the alternative pathway was not impacted by the bioactives. Phenolic metabolites syringic, protocatechuric, gallic, chlorogenic, and hippuric acids also showed inhibitory activity with an IC50 of approximately, 1mM. Mechanistically, we determined that polyphenols impact specifically the complement classical pathway by targeting the activation of complement protein C4 through the C1s enzyme. This study presents novel data on the inhibition of the complement classical pathway by phenolic compounds extracted from wild blueberries, shedding new light on the anti-inflammatory properties and potential health benefits of berry consumption.
... Similarly, in in vitro models of H2O2 injury and Aβ peptide-induced toxicity, anthocyanins directly scavenge intracellular ROS formation [167,171]. Moreover, the indirect intrinsic antioxidant activity of anthocyanins may be due to (i) the restoration or increase in endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, and GPx) [172][173][174] resulting in higher antioxidant glutathione levels [175]; (ii) the activation of these endogenous antioxidants along with phase II detoxification genes by activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) via the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) [176,177]; or (iii) the reduction in oxidative adduct formation in DNA and reduction in endogenous ROS formation by inhibiting xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase or by modifying arachidonic metabolism and mitochondrial respiration [166,178]. ...
Article
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All over the world, metabolic syndrome constitutes severe health problems. Multiple factors have been reported in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic disorders result in reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative stress, playing a vital role in the development and pathogenesis of major health issues, including neurological disorders Alzheimer’s disease (AD) Parkinson's disease (PD). Considerable increasing evidence indicates the substantial contribution of ROS-induced oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. An imbalanced metabolism results in a defective antioxidant defense system, free radicals causing inflammation, cellular apoptosis, and tissue damage. Due to the annual increase in financial and social burdens, in addition to the adverse effects associated with available synthetic agents, treatment diversion from synthetic to natural approaches has occurred. Antioxidants are now being considered as convincing therapeutic agents against various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, medicinal herbs and fruits currently receive substantially more attention as commercial sources of antioxidants. In this review, we argue that ROS-targeted therapeutic interventions with naturally occurring antioxidant flavonoid, anthocyanin, and anthocyanin-loaded nanoparticles might be the ultimate treatment against devastating illnesses. Furthermore, we elucidate the hidden potential of the neuroprotective role of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-loaded nanoparticles in AD and PD neuropathies, which lack sufficient attention compared with other polyphenols, despite their strong antioxidant potential. Moreover, we address the need for future research studies of native anthocyanins and nano-based-anthocyanins, which will be helpful in developing anthocyanin treatments as therapeutic mitochondrial antioxidant drug-like regimens to delay or prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD and PD.
... On the other hand, the use of individual, purified compounds exhibits a weaker effect than those observed using a mixture of both (135). On the other hand, some reports have found that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins are associated with the Nfr2-mediated HO-1 induction (Figure 1) (136)(137)(138). Importantly, anthocyanins orally administered ameliorate inflammatory arthritis in the CIA murine model by decreasing the T H 17 cell number and suppressing NFκB signaling (139). ...
Article
Heme oxygenase (HO) is the primary antioxidant enzyme involved in heme group degradation. A variety of stimuli triggers the expression of the inducible HO-1 isoform, which is modulated by its substrate and cellular stressors. A major anti-inflammatory role has been assigned to the HO-1 activity. Therefore, in recent years HO-1 induction has been employed as an approach to treating several disorders displaying some immune alterations components, such as exacerbated inflammation or self-reactivity. Many natural compounds have shown to be effective inductors of HO-1 without cytotoxic effects; among them, most are chemicals present in plants used as food, flavoring, and medicine. Here we discuss some naturally derived compounds involved in HO-1 induction, their impact in the immune response modulation, and the beneficial effect in diverse autoimmune disorders. We conclude that the use of some compounds from natural sources able to induce HO-1 is an attractive lifestyle toward promoting human health. This review opens a new outlook on the investigation of naturally derived HO-1 inducers, mainly concerning autoimmunity
... Anthocyanin is a natural pigment and has many functions related to nutrition and health (Choi et al. 2010;Kwak et al. 2019). Indeed, these compounds could act as important natural antioxidants to scavenge free radicals (Hwang et al. 2011;Zhang et al. 2013). ...
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Key message The transcription factor (TF) IbERF71 forms a novel complex, IbERF71-IbMYB340-IbbHLH2, to coregulate anthocyanin biosynthesis by binding to the IbANS1 promoter in purple-fleshed sweet potatoes. Abstract Purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is very popular because of its abundant anthocyanins, which are natural pigments with multiple physiological functions. TFs involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis have been identified in many plants. However, the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple-fleshed sweet potatoes has rarely been examined. In this study, TF IbERF71 and its partners were screened by bioinformatics and RT-qPCR analysis. The results showed that the expression levels of IbERF71 and partners IbMYB340 and IbbHLH2 were higher in purple-fleshed sweet potatoes than in other colors and that the expression levels positively correlated with anthocyanin contents. Moreover, transient expression assays showed that cotransformation of IbMYB340+IbbHLH2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves and strawberry receptacles, and additional IbERF71 significantly increased visual aspects. Furthermore, the combination of the three TFs significantly increased the expression levels of FvANS and FvGST, which are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transport of strawberry receptacles. The dual-luciferase reporter system verified that cotransformation of the three TFs enhanced the transcription activity of IbANS1. In addition, yeast two-hybrid and firefly luciferase complementation assays revealed that IbMYB340 interacted with IbbHLH2 and IbERF71 but IbERF71 could not interact with IbbHLH2 in vitro. In summary, our findings provide novel evidence that IbERF71 and IbMYB340-IbbHLH2 form the regulatory complex IbERF71-IbMYB340-IbbHLH2 that coregulates anthocyanin accumulation by binding to the IbANS1 promoter in purple-fleshed sweet potatoes. Thus, the present study provides a new regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis and strong insight into the color development of purple-fleshed sweet potatoes.
... ANC derived from black soybean seed coats has been shown to inhibit UV-induced COX-2 expression [152]. Similarly, ANC-derived purple sweet potato also reduced the expression of COX-2 and iNOS expression in rats with liver injury [153]. This is perhaps due to the heavy involvement of COX-2 in various pathological states, such as ischemiareperfusion injury [154], intestinal inflammation [155], and tumor [156], [157]. ...
Article
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Inflammation and oxidative stress is both two important key players in the development, enhancement, and maintenance of both nociceptive and neuropathic pain. They are almost invariably involved in pain-related diseases, such as all-cause low back pain, diabetic neuropathy, neurodegenerative diseases, myocardial ischemia, cancer, and various autoimmune disorders, among others. They act synergistically and their presence can be beneficial, yet detrimental to neurons and nerves if they are in overdrive state. Meanwhile, anthocyanin, a group of flavonoid polyphenols, is very common in nature and can be easily derived from fruits and vegetables. Accumulating evidence has shown that anthocyanin possesses potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects through numerous mechanisms and that its proof-of-concept in ameliorating various pathology of disease states have been extensively documented. Unfortunately, however, the empirical evidence of anthocyanin for alleviating pain has been very minimal to date, despite its potentials. Herein, we discuss the basic properties of anthocyanin and its relevant pain mechanisms which could become potential targets for pain management using this natural compound
... e activated Nrf2 translocates into the nucleus, binds to antioxidant response element (ARE), and upregulates the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and phase II detoxifying enzymes, which protects and cures cellular damage [146]. A number of reports also showed that some antioxidants or antioxidant-rich plant extracts protect against hepatotoxin-induced liver damages by upregulation of activation of Nrf2 [147][148][149]. ...
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Liver diseases are quite prevalant in many densely populated countries, including Bangladesh. The liver and its hepatocytes are targeted by virus and microbes, as well as by chemical environmental toxicants, causing wide-spread disruption of metabolic fuctions of the human body, leading to death from end-stage liver diseases. The aim of this review is to systematically explore and record the potential of Bangladeshi ethnopharmacological plants to treat liver diseases with focus on their sources, constituents, and therapeutic uses, including mechanisms of actions (MoA). A literature survey was carried out using Pubmed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Scopus databases with articles reported until July, 2020. A total of 88 Bangladeshi hepatoprotective plants (BHPs) belonging to 47 families were listed in this review, including Euphorbiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Compositae families contained 20% of plants, while herbs were the most cited (51%) and leaves were the most consumed parts (23%) as surveyed. The effect of BHPs against different hepatotoxins was observed via upregulation of antioxidant systems and inhibition of lipid peroxidation which subsequently reduced the elevated liver biomarkers. Different active constituents, including phenolics, curcuminoids, cucurbitanes, terpenoids, fatty acids, carotenoids, and polysaccharides, have been reported from these plants. The hepatoameliorative effect of these constituents was mainly involved in the reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation through activation of Nrf2/HO-1 and inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways. In summary, BHPs represent a valuable resource for hepatoprotective lead therapeutics which may offer new alternatives to treat liver diseases.
... Studies indicate the potential of digested and fermented mulberry samples in suppressing the outbreak of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as highlighted in Figure 2 [62]. Anthocyanins and catechins also act as a cellular signaling messenger to regulate the anti-oxidant enzymes and activate the Keap1/ Nrf2 signaling pathway that could increase the gene expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and resultantly maintain the cellular redox balance [60,63]. Black mulberry cultivars exhibited higher bioactive compounds with potent in vitro anti-oxidant activity and cellular ROS scavenging activity among the different tested cultivars. ...
Article
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Among different fruits, mulberry is the most highlighted natural gift in its superior nutritional and bioactive composition, indispensable for continuing a healthy life. It also acts as a hepatoprotective immunostimulator and improves vision, antimicrobial, anti-cancer agent, anti-stress activity, atherosclerosis, neuroprotective functions, and anti-obesity action. -e mulberry fruits also help reduce neurological disorders and mental illness. -e main reason for that is the therapeutic potentials present in the nutritional components of the mulberry fruit. -e available methods for assessing mulberry fruits are mainly chromatographic based, which are destructive and possess many limitations. However, recently some non-invasive techniques, including chlorophyll fluorescence, image processing, and hyperspectral imaging, were employed to detect various mulberry fruit attributes. The present review attempts to collect and explore available information regarding the nutritional and medicinal importance of mulberry fruit. Besides, non-destructive methods established for the fruit are also elaborated. -is work helps encourage many more research works to dug out more hidden information about the essential nutrition of mulberry that can be helpful to resolve many mental-illness-related issues.
... Hanieh et al. (2010) suggested that anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato can boost immune response in broilers after vaccination; however, further research is required to elucidate this mechanism of action. Similarly, Hwang et al. (2011a) proved that anthocyanins derived from purple sweet potato have the potential to enhance immunity via upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) while decreasing inflammatory mediators via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in mice models. The extract of purple sweet potato significantly (P<0.05) ...
Article
Anthocyanins are flavonoids widely spread in various plant species as major phyto-pigment. In recent years, interest in anthocyanins increased markedly owing to their health promoting and other beneficial activities. Anthocyanins possess various pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, anti-obesity, and antioxidant effects. Dietary consumption of anthocyanins has revealed several health benefits like boosting immunity and overall performance. Little is known about health-promoting effects of anthocyanins in avian species, but anthocyanins-rich dried fruits have shown positive effects on various pathological conditions and health promoting markers in human and other animals. This review aims to gather information regarding health benefits of anthocyanins and highlight therapeutic and potential health beneficial effects of anthocyanins for poultry. Additionally, it targets to sensitize scientific community to explore these biologically important flavonoids as alternative feed additive for poultry feed to replace synthetic medicines. Literature reports many studies involving use of anthocyanins focused on human, mice and in vitro models. However, there is a need to explore mechanism of action at molecular level to understand potential beneficial effects of anthocyanins in avian model. It is expected that future investigations will lead to development of anthocyanins as alternative and nontoxic feed additive for poultry industry. Keywords: Anthocyanins, sources, feed additive, biological effects, health benefits, poultry.
... Kemampuan ini berperan dalam mencegah terjadinya penuaan dini (Jang et al. 2005) dan penyakit degeneratif, seperti aterosklerosis (Cevallos-Casals and Cisneros-Zevallos 2002, Suda et al. 2003, Miyazaki et al. 2008, Steed and Truong 2008, dan kanker (Soyoung 2012, Lim et al. 2013. Antosianin pada ubijalar juga memiliki kemampuan sebagai antimutagenik dan antikarsinogenik (Yamakawa andYoshimoto 2002, Saigusa et al. 2005), mencegah gangguan pada fungsi hati (Suda et al. 2003, Suda et al. 2008, Choi et al. 2009, Hwang et al. 2011), antihipertensi (Suda et al. 2003, Kobayashi et al. 2005, menurunkan kadar gula (antihiperglisemik) (Matsui et al. 2002, Suda et al. 2003 dan total kolesterol darah (Jawi dan Budiasa 2011), memperbaiki daya ingat (Cho et al. 2003, Wu et al. 2008, Kwak et al. 2010), antiperadangan (Zhang et al. 2009, Wang et al. 2010, dan antimikrobia (Noda andHoriuchi 2008, Boo et al. 2012). ...
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p>Breeding for sweet potato varieties rich in anthocyanins is essential to promote the use of sweet potato as functional food as well as to support food diversification program. This study was performed to identify physical, chemical, and sensorial characteristics of 10 promising clones of purple-fleshed sweet potato and two varieties (Ayamurasaki and Antin 1) as checks, at the Food Chemistry and Processing Laboratory of ILETRI, Malang from November until December 2012. The trial was arranged in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Observations included physical and chemical characteristics of the fresh roots and sensory attributes of the steamed roots using hedonic test of 20 panelists. The flesh colour varied from white/yellow purplish, purple up to dark purple. The lightness colour (L*) of root flesh was negatively correlated with total anthocyanins (R2 = 0.81), which varied from 1.86 mg (MSU 06044-05) up to 123.92 mg equivalent to cyanidin 3-glycoside/100 g fw (MSU 06046-48). Three clones, namely MSU 06046-48, MSU 06028-71, and MIS 0601-179 had higher total anthocyanins than that of Ayamurasaki (70.41mg/100 g fw) as a check. Moisture, ash, crude fiber, reducing sugar, amylose, and starch contents also varied among clones, ranged from 67.7 to 75.8%; 2.8 to 3.9% dw; 2.5 to 4.8%; 0.9 to 4.4% dw; 20.0 to 27.4% dw and 50.3 to 66.6% dw, respectively. MIS 0601-179 clone had the highest dry matter and starch contents (40.05% dw and 66.64% dw) which were suitable for flour ingredient. The steamed roots of MSU 06044-05 (yellow purplish) gave the highest scores of panelist preferences on colour, texture and taste attributes, followed by MIS 0601-179, Ayamurasaki, and MSU 06028-71 (purple). The bitter taste of MSU 06046-48 steamed roots associated with the highest anthocyanins content was slightly disliked, suggesting that this clone needs an alternative preparation method other than steaming.</p
... Sweet potato is one of the staple foods that has been the mainstay of food consumption in several country and the existence affects world food security [1]. The attractive colors, nutritional and the health benefits for degenerative disease prevention make purple sweet potato (PFSP) as the potential functional food [2]. In 2018, diabetics based on the results of blood glucose test in Indonesia were at 8.5% [3]. ...
Article
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This research was purposed to evaluate the characteristics of physicochemical, and glycemic index of bread made from purple sweet potato (PFSP) flour, starch, and fiber (solid waste of PFSP starch processing). The resulting breads were tested for the physicochemical characteristics and using non factorial completely randomized design as research design with 3 types of ingredient used in bread making as a treatment, namely composite flour from a mixture of PFSP flour, starch and fiber with a ratio 75: 5: 20; 100% PFSP flour, and 100% wheat flour. The results showed that differences in flour had a very significant effect on color, texture profile, ash, protein, fat, and total sugar content of bread. Bread made from composite flour in the form of a mixture of PFSP flour, starch and fiber flour, and also bread made from 100% PFSP flour has higher dietary fiber content than bread made from wheat flour. The daily energy sufficiency of the three types of bread is 10-12%. The glycemic index of bread made from composite flour, PFSP flour, and wheat flour were 41.3, 42.1, and 46.3, respectively, which were classified as low categories. Based on the results, PFSP flour, starch, and fiber flour can be used as wheat flour alternative in making bread.
... It is now becoming apparent that the redox balance inside the cells against free radical induced oxidative stress is majorly depends on the functioning of antioxidative enzymes, the first line of cellular defense and redox signalling pathways (Espinosa-Diez et al. 2015). During normal cellular conditions, Nrf-2 is maintained primarily in the cytoplasm, where it remains bound to the Keap1 (Kelchlike ECH-associated protein 1) which promotes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of Nrf-2 (Hwang et al. 2011). Modification of Keap1 by oxidative stress releases Nrf-2 and allows its translocation into the nucleus where it binds to the antioxidant responsive elements in DNA to initiate the expression of genes responsible for antioxidative and detoxifying enzymes. ...
Article
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Antioxidants having anti-inflammatory potential will be useful in reducing the progression of many lifestyle associated diseases. Under present investigation, buffalo casein derived decapeptide (YQEPVLGPVR) displayed anti-inflammatory response by suppressed (p < 0.01) murine splenocytes proliferation, reduced inflammatory cytokine levels (Interferon-γ) besides elevated levels of regulatory cytokines (Interleukin-10 and Transforming Growth Factor-β) in splenocyte culture supernatant. Decapeptide also improved the phagocytosis (p < 0.01) of peritoneal macrophages. Subsequently, antioxidative feature of the peptide was also identified by efficient (p < 0.01) free radical scavenging using chemical assays (ABTS: 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and ORAC: oxygen radical absorption capacity methods) which was later confirmed for protective action against H2O2 mediated oxidative stress on intestinal epithelial cells by inhibition (p < 0.01) of cellular ROS generation, oxidative products formation along with elevated (p < 0.01) activities of antioxidative enzymes (catalase and glutathione peroxidase). Declined (p < 0.01) mRNA expression of a transcription factor (Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor: Nrf-2) involved in redox signalling further established the protective effect of peptide against oxidative stress induced injury.
... The shading related colors (carotenoids, anthocyanin and so forth) present in GSP are similarly important for their mitigating medical advantages. In creature contemplates, initiation of atomic factor-kappa B (NF-kB), enactment of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and development of malondialdehyde (MDA) have all be appeared to get decreased by utilization of either GSP or its tone containing separates ( Hwang et al., 2010). The shading related GSP phytonutrients additionally affect fibrinogen (Ludvik et al., 2008). ...
Preprint
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In recent times, when the world is busy fighting deadly coronavirus, it is necessary to take extra precautions to keep ourselves protected from getting infected. Therefore, we need a healthy and strong immune system. The best way to strengthen our immunity is by natural way. There are several food plant item to enhance our immunity. One such plant is a Golden Sweet potato, which plays a good role as a natural immunity booster. Golden sweet potato is now highlighted as a valuable member of the tropical tuber crops, having great possibility to be included as a daily diet of the consumer food chain to tackle the problem of vitamin-A deficiency. Golden sweet potato is a cheap and best source of energy, rich in starch, sugar, minerals and vitamin-A. It Benefits not only our immune system but also our heart, teeth, and vision. The aim of this paper is to aware the people about the nutritional properties of GSP and it can be easily grown in the kitchen garden.
... The shading related colors (carotenoids, anthocyanin and so forth) present in GSP are similarly important for their mitigating medical advantages. In creature contemplates, initiation of atomic factor-kappa B (NF-kB), enactment of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and development of malondialdehyde (MDA) have all be appeared to get decreased by utilization of either GSP or its tone containing separates ( Hwang et al., 2010). The shading related GSP phytonutrients additionally affect fibrinogen (Ludvik et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent times, when the world is busy fighting deadly coronavirus, it is necessary to take extra precautions to keep ourselves protected from getting infected. Therefore, we need a healthy and strong immune system. The best way to strengthen our immunity is by natural way. There are several food plant item to enhance our immunity. One such plant is a Golden Sweet potato, which plays a good role as a natural immunity booster. Golden sweet potato is now highlighted as a valuable member of the tropical tuber crops, having great possibility to be included as a daily diet of the consumer food chain to tackle the problem of vitamin-A deficiency. Golden sweet potato is a cheap and best source of energy, rich in starch, sugar, minerals and vitamin-A. It Benefits not only our immune system but also our heart, teeth, and vision. The aim of this paper is to aware the people about the nutritional properties of GSP and it can be easily grown in the kitchen garden.
... Tart cherry juice consumption has been shown to increase hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in mice [123]. Supplementation with anthocyanins isolated from purple sweet potato increased Nrf2 gene expression and Nrf2 nuclear translocation in rat liver [124]. Charles et al. [125] recently demonstrated that the age-related increases in oxidative stress and declines in mitochondrial function in mice were prevented by supplementation with an anthocyanin-rich extract derived from red grapes. ...
Article
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Polyphenols are characterised structurally by two or more hydroxyl groups attached to one or more benzene rings, and provide the taste and colour characteristics of fruits and vegetables. They are radical scavengers and metal chelators, but due to their low concentration in biological fluids in vivo their antioxidant properties seem to be related to enhanced endogenous antioxidant capacity induced via signalling through the Nrf2 pathway. Polyphenols also seem to possess anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to enhance vascular function via nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms. As a consequence, there is a rationale for supplementation with fruit-derived polyphenols both to enhance exercise performance, since excess reactive oxygen species generation has been implicated in fatigue development, and to enhance recovery from muscle damage induced by intensive exercise due to the involvement of inflammation and oxidative damage within muscle. Current evidence would suggest that acute supplementation with ~ 300 mg polyphenols 1–2 h prior to exercise may enhance exercise capacity and/or performance during endurance and repeated sprint exercise via antioxidant and vascular mechanisms. However, only a small number of studies have been performed to date, some with methodological limitations, and more research is needed to confirm these findings. A larger body of evidence suggests that supplementation with > 1000 mg polyphenols per day for 3 or more days prior to and following exercise will enhance recovery following muscle damage via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. The many remaining unanswered questions within the field of polyphenol research and exercise performance and recovery are highlighted within this review article.
... Then these enzymes inhibit the generation of ROS by scavenging and consequently the formation of foam cells in the intima (433). The induction of antioxidant proteins is facilitated by Nrf2, which is considered a critical molecular target of chemopreventive antioxidant enzyme inducers (434,435). Upon stimulation, Nrf2 translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus, resulting in a cytoprotective response by upregulation of many antioxidant defence system genes (436) and a downregulation of NF-κB dependent genes (437). Anthocyanins have consistently appeared to inhibit the translocation and activation of NF-κB directly by the phosphorylation of its upstream inhibitor (438). ...
Thesis
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a collection of metabolic risk factors associated with an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. Reducing levels of modifiable atherogenic risk factors is an essential goal in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Since there is an established relationship between metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease, the first study focused on demonstrating these links. Therefore, this research focuses on a sedentary population who work under conditions that predispose them to risk factors of metabolic syndrome and who are likely to develop atherosclerosis ultimately. Accordingly, a comprehensive evaluation of metabolic syndrome risk factors was conducted on 79 transport drivers. The clinical examination collected anthropometric data and blood biochemistry results. Daily step counts calculated by the Fitbit over seven days were also used to monitor their activity trends over time. Health assessments were conducted at the beginning of the study. The results showed that 68% (n = 51) of participants were recorded as having three or more risk factors which can contribute to MetS including obesity, hyperglycaemia, lipid profile abnormalities, blood pressure, hyperuricemia and markers of inflammation. This study also demonstrated that there are interconnections between oxidative stress and chronic inflammation with MetS components highlighting the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. It could be suggested that the potential use of anthocyanins as antioxidants and with anti-inflammatory properties as an alternative approach for the prevention and management of atherosclerosis in MetS population. Initially, the use of an in vitro model of endothelial cells can offer valuable mechanistic insights into the development and progression of inflammatory conditions that provide an efficient platform for product screening before conducting a human intervention trial. Based on findings from the literature review, it is hypothesised that anthocyanin might exert protective effects on healthy human aortic endothelial cells against inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro. The second study aimed to examine and compare the abilities of healthy and diabetic human aortic endothelial cells to incorporate anthocyanins’ potential benefits against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an oxidative stressor and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation. Cultured Primary Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAEC) and Diseased-(type II diabetic) Aortic Endothelial Cells (D-HAEC) were exposed to oxidative stress by H2O2 (75 μM) and LPS (1μg/ml) and were treated with the anthocyanin (AC, 50 μl/ml). The results showed that anthocyanins might be responsible for protecting that aortic endothelial cells against inflammatory insult. These findings may have important implications for preserving endothelial cell function and preventing the initiation of endothelial cell damage that leads to platelets activation and coagulation associated with endothelial dysfunction. Finally, based on the in vitro finding, the last chapter aimed to investigate the antithrombotic effects of same berry-derived anthocyanin supplements on biomarkers of atherosclerosis, platelet function, and the expression of pro-atherogenic genes in a population with metabolic syndrome. A total of 55 participants in two groups of Normal and MetS (age 25-75y) were given 320 mg anthocyanin supplements twice daily for four weeks in a clinical trial. The effects of berry-derived supplementation were examined on features of metabolic syndrome, including fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress marker (uric acid), platelet surface markers, and the expression of pro-atherogenic genes. The results showed that anthocyanin consumption for four weeks significantly decreased the average fasting blood glucose (FBG) level by 13.3 % in the MetS group. Similarly, significant reductions were observed in triglyceride (24.9%) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (33.1%) levels in the MetS group compared with the Normal group (P ≤ 0.05). Anthocyanin supplementation also caused a reduction (18%) in high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, with no significant difference in the Normal group. There was a positive correlation between decreased hs-CRP values and the levels of LDL-C and FBG in the MetS group (P ≤ 0.05). Anthocyanin supplements also decreased ADP-induced platelet activation configuration expressed as P-selectin by 40%. The data here revealed that anthocyanin intake showed an inhibitory effect on the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1A, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6, as well as endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (ECAM-1) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, with stimulatory effects on the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPRAG). Thus, these findings suggest that short-term consumption of anthocyanin supplements may have atheroprotective effects through the inhibition of chronic inflammation and platelet activation and improvement of MetS components.
... However, redox-active compounds, such as PCA, could indeed participate in regulating the expression of genes associated with transcription factors susceptible to redox activation. Such mechanisms could, at least partly, underline the induction of antioxidant defense via the Nrf2 pathway and the reduction of inflammation via NF-κB inhibition observed in cells and in rodents with cyanidin derivatives [85] or PCA itself [86]. ...
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Owing to their specific pyrylium nucleus (C-ring), anthocyanins express a much richer chemical reactivity than the other flavonoid classes. For instance, anthocyanins are weak diacids, hard and soft electrophiles, nucleophiles, prone to developing π-stacking interactions, and bind hard metal ions. They also display the usual chemical properties of polyphenols, such as electron donation and affinity for proteins. In this review, these properties are revisited through a variety of examples and discussed in relation to their consequences in food and in nutrition with an emphasis on the transformations occurring upon storage or thermal treatment and on the catabolism of anthocyanins in humans, which is of critical importance for interpreting their effects on health.
... NRF2 is a master regulator of antioxidant responses and modulates the expression of many genes in response to anthocyanins [23]. In one study, NRF2 expression was increased and NF-κB activity was decreased in rats fed with the anthocyanin fraction of purple sweet potato [66]. Another study conducted in mouse macrophages showed that NRF2 binds to the promoters of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, and inhibits the recruitment of RNA polymerase II [67]. ...
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... These reported results indicate the activation of upstream molecules controlling inflammatory NRF2 and NF-κB cascades. [20][21][22] Many phytochemicals with anti-inflammatory activities including CE2 fraction inhibited NF-κB activation and in parallel scavenged ROS and induced NRF2-driven defense. This close association between anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties mediated by the same phytochemical shows a cross talk between NRF2 and NF-κB signalling. ...
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Lipids in an Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), Reduce Nitric Oxide Production in BV2 Cells via NRF2 and NF-κB Pathways. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 22(12):1215 – 1223 (2020) ABSTRACT: Cordyceps militaris is known for its curative properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the reduction of nitric oxide production by BV2 cells by the bioactive fraction of stroma powder of C. militaris, and to deduce the potential chemical components and pathways that may be responsible. The CE2 fraction from ethyl acetate extract did not exert any cytotoxic effects toward the BV2 cells at concentrations 0.1 to 100 µg/mL. The CE2 fraction also showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in nitric oxide production at 1–100 µg/mL. At 10 µg/mL, the CE2 fraction attenuated 85% of the NO production in BV2 cells. Further, the CE2 fraction (10 µg/mL) downregulated inflammatory genes, iNOS and COX-2, and upregulated anti-inflammatory genes, HO-1 and NQO-1. The CE2 fraction reduced NO production via activation of NRF2 and NF-κB transcriptions. The chemical constituents of the bioactive CE2 fraction were identified via GCMS. Eleven lipid components were identified including fatty acids, fatty acid esters, and sterols.
... As significant transcription factors, NF-kB and Nrf2 are involved in the regulation of proinflammatory and antioxidant genes, respectively. [76] Nrf2 functions as a redox-sensitive transcription factor, regulating the transcription of antioxidant enzymes, including HO-1, under the oxidative stress condition. Nrf2 mediates HO-1 to decrease ROS generation, resulting in oxidative stressmediated apoptosis reduction. ...
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Anthocyanins exist likely as complexes with flavones/metal ions in some plants. However, few studies indicate the complexation effects on bioactivities, i.e. antioxidant activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of complexes of cyanidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside (CY3D5G) with rutin/Mg(II) on intrinsic antioxidant enzymes and mRNA expressions. All complexes exhibited cellular antioxidant activity in RAW264.7 cells, whereas half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of CY3D5G complexes were significantly lower than its alone. Combination indexes of CY3D5G-rutin, CY3D5G-Mg(II), and CY3D5G-rutin-Mg(II) complexes were < 1 (p < .05), indicating of synergistic effects. Additionally, CY3D5G-Mg(II) rather than others significantly enhanced total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity, and glutathione peroxidase activity while reducing malonic dialdehyde contents in H2O2-induced RAW264.7 cell model (p < 0.05), which were further confirmed with the up-regulated mRNA expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and the down-regulated p21 (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that CY3D5G and its complexes might enhance cellular antioxidant activities via the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Additionally, a synergistic antioxidant effect of CY3D5G in the present of rutin/ Mg(II) as regular food components was evident, suggesting anthocyanin might interact with dietary components such as Mg(II) or rutin in food matrix or biological systems and exhibit a stronger antioxidant activity than it alone. The Mg (II) that exhibited no antioxidant activities alone shows potential as a co-adjuvant for the anthocyanin antioxidant activity.
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Ageing is an inevitable fundamental process for people and is their greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. The ageing processes bring changes in cells that can drive the organisms to experience loss of nutrient sensing, disrupted cellular functions, increased oxidative stress, loss of cellular homeostasis, genomic instability, accumulation of misfolded protein, impaired cellular defenses and telomere shortening. Perturbation of these vital cellular processes in neuronal cells can lead to life threatening neurological disorders like Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Lewy body dementia, etc. Alzheimer's Disease is the most frequent cause of deaths in the elderly population. Various therapeutic molecules have been designed to overcome the social, economic and health care burden caused by Alzheimer's Disease. Almost all the chemical compounds in clinical practice have been found to treat symptoms only limiting them to palliative care. The reason behind such imperfect drugs may result from the inefficiencies of the current drugs to target the cause of the disease. Here, we review the potential role of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that could possibly be the most effective preventative strategy against Alzheimer's Disease.
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This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diabetic and antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic pomegranate peel extract (APE) in alloxan-induced diabetes rat models. We divided 60 rats into the following six equal groups (n = 10): Healthy control; diabetic control (100 mg/kg alloxan); sham + glibenclamide (10 mg/kg); diabetic + glibenclamide (10 mg/kg); sham + APE (200 mg/kg) and diabetic + APE (200 mg/kg). After 8 weeks, kidneys were taken out for biochemical and molecular studies. Following APE treatment, biochemical parameters including malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly induced in the treated group as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Also, gene expression of GPx (3-fold), CAT (2.6-fold), and SOD (1.5-fold) were increased as compared to controls (p < 0.05). Overall, our results indicated that pomegranate can be used as an antioxidant agent to reduce complications from diseases associated with oxidative stress.
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Background Purple maize is a rich source of anthocyanins, known to exhibit bioactive health benefits. However, their potential anti-inflammatory activity is poorly known. Methods Anthocyanin extracts (AE) from purple maize was characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS platform. In vivo experimental model, AE (doses of 2 and 4 mg Antho/100 g body weight) was orally administered at two different times: 30 min before and 1 h after LPS intraperitoneal inflammatory stimulus. Peritoneal exudates were withdrawn 3 h after LPS injection, and leukocyte influx, cytokines and PGE2 were quantified. COX-2, TLR4, and MyD88 protein expression were evaluated by Western blotting. Results Fourteen phenolic compounds were identified in AE, with cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and its acylated form as the major anthocyanins in both baths of purple maize extract evaluated. AE treatment significantly reduced leukocyte migration, mainly the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (p < 0.05) in the peritoneal exudates when administered 30 min and 1 h after LPS injection, at both doses. LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, KC, and CCL2) were inhibited (p < 0.05) by pre and posttreatments with AE (p < 0.05). Similarly, AE treatments suppressed LPS-induced COX-2 protein expression and decrease PGE2 levels in the peritoneal exudates (p < 0.05). Additionally, AE at the higher dose downregulated LPS-induced MyD88 expression (p < 0.05) when administered before and after LPS intraperitoneal injection. Under the experimental conditions, the constitutive expression of TLR4 in leukocytes was not modified. Conclusion Our findings evidence for the first time that AE from purple maize provide preventive and anti-inflammatory beneficial activity by downregulating key acute inflammatory components induced by LPS injection, by modulating MyD88 signaling pathways.
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BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that hyperglycemia could be harmful for cognitive function. That insulin (INS) has a neuro-modulatory role is supported by various findings, but its effect on microglia, the innate immune cells in the brain, is largely unknown. Blueberries have been shown to reduce neuro-inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that high glucose stimulated an inflammation in microglia and that BB and INS were able to reduce it and both might act through GLUT-1 transporter. METHODS: We examined the effects of low (5 mM), medium (25 mM), or high (50 mM) glucose, stimulated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 nM) with either BB extract (2 mg/ml) and/or INS, on inflammatory responses in a microglia cell line. Nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression levels of iNOS, TNF-α, NOX4 and glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1) were assessed. RESULTS: We observed that treatment with BB, similarly to INS treatments, reduced the high glucose concentration-induced response on oxidative stress and inflammation, and that this protective effect is more important with LPS added to glucose media. Interestingly, both BB and INS attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory response on GLUT1. CONCLUSION: Increasing glucose concentration triggers inflammation by microglia. BB as well as INS protected microglia from high glucose levels, by reducing inflammation and altering glucose transport in microglia. These preliminary data compared for the first time BB to Insulin on microglia. Blueberries are promising dietary intervention to prevent diabetic neuropathy. Our preliminary results suggest a possible new mechanism involving GLUT-1 by which BB has insulin-like effects.
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Purple sweet potatoes (PSP) are widely used as color enhancers in food formulations. Investigations on the stability of PSP polyphenolics during simulated digestion and subsequent absorption in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model were accomplished. Measures of bioactive activities were also assessed in vitro. PSP whole polyphenolic extracts as a control (WC) were compared to isolates enriched in anthocyanins (AC) or non-anthocyanin phenolics (NAP). Anthocyanins were also alkali-hydrolyzed to remove acylated moieties. Compounds were subjected to simulated gastro-intestinal digestions where non-hydrolyzed anthocyanins showed higher stability compared to alkali-hydrolyzed. For many alkali-hydrolyzed anthocyanins, the transport through a Caco-2 cell monolayer was reduced. PSP fractions significantly increased the generation of reactive oxygen species in HT-29 cells and was suppressive in the CCD-18Co cells while down-regulated mRNA expression of inflammatory markers. Results indicate the importance of PSP composition and the effects of acyl moieties on anthocyanin stability and functional properties for food colors.
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This research was purposely to study and determine the physicochemical characteristics, sensory and hypocholesterolemic effects of purple sweet potato bread made from flour, starch, and fiber-rich flour from purple sweet potato starch processing waste on white male species Wistar rats conducted in vivo. This study used a non-factorial randomized block design model with the treatment of 100% standard feed, 25% mixture of purple sweet potato bread, and a combination of 50% purple sweet potato bread to healthy rats, and treatment of 100% standard feed and gemfibrozil, 25 % mixture of purple sweet potato bread, and a mixture of 50% purple sweet potato bread against hyper cholesterol rats. This research result shows the different hypocholesterolemic effects on the percent decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein), and an increase in HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) in the ¹ blood serum of rats as test animals.
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Anthocyanins are water-soluble, colored compounds of the flavonoid class, abundantly found in the fruits, leaves, roots, and other parts of the plants. The fruit berries are prime sources and exhibit different colors. The anthocyanins' utility as a traditional medicament for liver protection and cure and importance as strongest plants-based anti-oxidants have conferred these plants products different biological activities. These activities include anti-inflammation, liver protective, analgesic, and anti-cancers, which have provided the anthocyanins an immense commercial value and have impelled their chemistry, biological activity, isolation, and quality investigations as prime focus. Methods in extraction and production of anthocyanin-based products have assumed vital economic importance. Different extraction techniques in aquatic solvents mixtures, eutectic solvents, and other chemically reactive extractions including low acid concentrations-based extractions have been developed. The prophylactic and curative therapy roles of the anthocyanins, together with no reported toxicity have offered much-needed impetus and economic benefits to these classes of compounds which are commercially available. Information retrieval from various search engines, including the PubMed®, ScienceDirect®, Scopus®, and Google Scholar®, were used in the review preparation. This imparted an outlook on the anthocyanins occurrence, roles in plants, isolation-extraction, structures, biosynthetic as well as semi- and total-synthetic pathways, product quality and yields enhancements, including uses as part of traditional medicines, and uses in liver disorders, prophylactic and therapeutic applications in liver protection and longevity, liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. The review also highlights the integrated approach to yields maximizations to meet the regular demands of the anthocyanins products, also as part of the extract-rich preparations together with a listing of marketed products available for human consumption as nutraceuticals/food supplements.
Chapter
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We hypothesized that superoxide from Kupffer cells (KC) contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis. p47phox(-/-) mice, deficient in phagocyte NADPH oxidase and superoxide generation, received a single dose of the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The following hepatic effects were observed at time points between 30 min and 35 days. Liver damage after DEN was manifested by loss of body and liver mass and of liver DNA and by an increase in apoptosis, necrosis and signs of inflammation. These effects were massive in wild-type (wt) male mice, but only very mild in p47phox(-/-) mice. Regenerative DNA synthesis subsequent to liver damage was high in wt male mice, but weak in p47phox(-/-) mice. In females the apparent protection by p47phox(-/-) was less pronounced than in males. Therefore, further experiments were performed with males. In KC isolated from wt mice superoxide production was enhanced by DEN pretreatment in vivo. Also, in vitro addition of DEN to KC cultures induced superoxide release, similarly to lipopolysaccharide, a standard KC activator. Thus, DEN directly activates wt KC to produce superoxide. KC from p47phox(-/-) mice did not release superoxide. TNFalpha production by isolated KC was transiently depressed 0.5 h after DEN treatment in vivo, but recovered rapidly. In blood serum TNFalpha levels of wt mice were elevated for the initial 6 h. TNFalpha in KC cultures and in serum of p47phox(-/-) mice was reduced. DEN in vivo induced DNA damage ('comets') in hepatocytes. This damage was extensive in wt mice but much less in p47phox(-/-) mice. These studies suggest two conclusions: (i) superoxide generation by phagocytes during liver damage and inflammation aggravates genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in hepatocytes and may thus contribute to tumor initiation and promotion; (ii) DEN has a direct stimulatory effect on KC to release superoxide and TNFalpha.
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Purple sweet potato flour could be used to enhance food products through colour, flavour and nutrients. Purple sweet potato flour has not yet been prepared with maltodextrin and amylase treatment using spray drying. Thus, the investigation was to evaluate the effect of various levels of maltodextrin (30 and 50 g kg(-1) w/v), amylase (3 and 7 g kg(-1) puree) and combined with maltodextrin and amylase on the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant capacity of spray dried purple sweet potato flours. Amylase and amylase with maltodextrin-treated flours had a higher anthocyanin and total phenolic content than the control and maltodextrin-treated flours. However, the antioxidant capacity was higher in the control and maltodextrin-treated flours compared to the amylase and amylase with maltodextrin-treated flours. The control had a higher water absorption index and lower water solubility index compared to the maltodextrin and combined with amylase and maltodextrin-treated flours. On the other hand, maltodextrin increased whereas alpha-amylase decreased the glass transition temperature. With respect to morphology, the particles of amylase-treated flours were smaller than the control and maltodextrin-treated flours. The results showed that good quality flour could be prepared by combining 30 g kg(-1) maltodextrin and 7 g kg(-1) amylase treatment.
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Anthocyanin pigments and associated flavonoids have demonstrated ability to protect against a myriad of human diseases, yet they have been notoriously difficult to study with regard to human health. Anthocyanins frequently interact with other phytochemicals to potentiate biological effects, thus contributions from individual components are difficult to decipher. The complex, multicomponent structure of compounds in a bioactive mixture and the degradation of flavonoids during harsh extraction procedures obscure the precise assignment of bioactivity to individual pigments. Extensive metabolic breakdown after ingestion complicates tracking of anthocyanins to assess absorption, bioavailability, and accumulation in various organs. Anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids that are uniformly, predictably produced in rigorously controlled plant cell culture systems can be a great advantage for health and nutrition research because they are quickly, easily isolated, lack interferences found in whole fruits, can be elicited to provoke rapid and prolific accumulation, and are amenable to biolabeling so that metabolic fate can be investigated after ingestion.
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The purification of homogeneous glutathione S transferases B and C from rat liver is described. Kinetic and physical properties of these enzymes are compared with those of homogeneous transferases A and E. The letter designations for the transferases are based on the reverse order of elution from carboxymethylcellulose, the purification step in which the transferases are separated from each other. Transferase B was purified on the basis of its ability to conjugate iodomethane with glutathione, whereas transferase C was purified on the basis of conjugation with 1,2 dichloro 4 nitrobenzene. Although each of the 4 enzymes can be identified by its reactivity with specific substrates, all of the enzymes are active to differing degrees in the conjugation of glutathione with p nitrobenzyl chloride. Assay conditions for a variety of substrates are included. All four glutathione transferases have a molecular weight of 45,000 and are dissociable into subunits of approximately 25,000 daltons. Despite similar physical properties and overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes, only transferases A and C are immunologically related.
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Two new acylated anthocyanins were isolated from the storage root of Ipomoea batatas. On the basis of spectroscopic analyses, these compounds were identified as the 3-O-(6-O-trans-caffeyl-2-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside)-5-O - beta-glucoside of cyanidin and peonidin.
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In patients with chronic hepatitis C, the relationships between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, histological liver injury and serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA titres remain controversial. To evaluate these relationships, 93 Chinese patients with histological diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C were enrolled for this study. Serum ALT levels, HCV-RNA titres and HCV genotypes were examined. The histology was evaluated according to a modified histological activity score based on the degree of periportal necro-inflammation, intralobular necro-inflammation, portal inflammation, total necro-inflammation and fibrosis. The mean serum ALT level was significantly higher in patients with severe intralobular necro-inflammation activity than in patients with mild or no activity (P = 0.013). However, scores of intralobular activity were only weakly correlated with serum ALT levels (r = 0.27) and could not be used to adequately predict ALT values. Serum ALT levels showed no significant correlation with the scores of portal inflammation, periportal necro-inflammation, total necro-inflammation and fibrosis. Also, there was no significant difference in the mean serum ALT level among different serum HCV-RNA levels and HCV genotypes. Serum HCV-RNA titres and genotypes showed no significant correlation with liver histology and serum HCV-RNA titres were only weakly correlated with the total necro-inflammatory score (r = 0.27). In conclusion, although serum ALT levels were higher in patients with more severe intralobular necro-inflammatory activity, the correlation was not strong enough to adequately predict ALT values. Serum HCV-RNA titres and genotypes also showed no significant correlation with serum ALT levels and liver histologies.
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Oxidative stress was studied in blood samples obtained from lindane, malathion and propoxur poisoning cases admitted to the Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi and evaluated for lipid peroxidation, oxygen free radical (OFR) scavenging enzymes, and glutathione (GSH) and related enzymes. Acetylcholine esterase (AChE), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and GSH level were also assayed in lymphocytes. The level of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and GGT were increased and GSH level was decreased in pesticide poisoning. Apparently lindane (at the concentration examined) was more potent than malathion and propoxur in producing alteration in lipid peroxidation, GSH related parameters and OFR scavenging enzymes. However, AChE activity and GSH level in lymphocytes of malathion poisoning cases were reduced and GGT activity was enhanced in comparison to control subjects. The present results suggest that OFR scavenging enzymes were induced while combating oxidative stress in a differential manner in organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate poisoning. Increased lipid peroxidation, coupled with altered levels of GSH and OFR scavenging enzymes in the blood are discussed in the light of oxidative stress.