Changes in the actinomycetal communities during continuous thermophilic composting as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan Province 410082, China.
Bioresource Technology (Impact Factor: 4.49). 09/2010; 102(2):1383-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.09.034
Source: PubMed


Actinomycetes degrade cellulose and solubilize lignin during composting. Changes in the diversity of the actinomycetal communities and the 16S rDNA copy numbers of actinomycetes were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR), respectively, during continuous thermophilic composting (CTC) and traditional composting (TC). qPCR indicated that the copy numbers from the CTC samples were 25-80% higher than those from the TC samples during similar phases of active composting and they were lower than 3×10(9) gene copies/g (dry weight) in the mature compost from both runs. DGGE showed a more diverse actinomycetal community in the CTC than in TC, averaging 16 bands as compared to 12 bands, at the post peak temperature phase. The study suggested that temperatures higher than 50 °C in CTC benefited the growth of actinomycetes.

Download full-text


Available from: Zhaohui Yang, Apr 17, 2014
  • Source
    • "The composting process consists of three phases: mesophilic (<45 °C), thermophilic (>45 °C) and maturation (Xiao et al., 2011). It is a highly dynamic process in which bacteria and fungi play a major role, with protozoa, worms and insects having a more minor function in decomposition (Insam et al., 2002). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Replacing CAN with DWS resulted in a stable product capable of supporting similar levels of plant growth to conventional compost. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected in both CAN- and DWS-amended composts with Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi present also. Proteobacteria in both composts negatively correlated with pH, NO3 concentration and temperature, but were positively influenced by NH4 levels. Sphaerobacter was the most abundant genus in the mature phase of both CAN- and DWS-amended composts but bacterial community structure in mature DWS-amended compost appeared more diverse than that present in mature compost made using CAN.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Bioresource Technology
  • Source
    • "This discovery likely led to the idea that organic piles are good places for food crops to grow (He et al. 1995). The composting process is defined as an aerobic, biological process that depends on a microorganism population, which converts the organic substances of wastes into stabilized humus and less complex compounds by breaking down the organic residues of plants and animals, stabilizing nutrients, destroying weed seeds and pathogens, as well as controlling possible toxins or diseases (Xiao et al. 2011; Zhang et al. 2011; Ogunwande and Osunade 2011). During the composting process, carbon and nitrogen compounds are easily transformed and used as energy and protein sources of the microorganisms, thereby producing heat, CO 2 , NH 3 , H 2 O, organic acids, and mature compost product at the end of the process (Bernal et al. 2009; Marche et al. 2003; Hamdy 2005). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nowadays, the biomass produced in oil palm industry, such as oil palm fronds, palm pressed fibers, palm kernel shells, empty fruit bunch, and liquid waste discharged from the palm oil mill effluent and others, may lead to significant environmental concerns. The quantity of produced wastes by oil palm industry is increasing with the growth of this industry day by day. Therefore, the use of these wastes as compost is considered by researchers to overcome their negative impacts and recycle them to produce a useful byproduct for agriculture. This review analyzes the recent composting studies on palm oil biomass and provides useful information about the potential uses of these biomass in composting as an alternative method for enhanced and sustainable use of biomass pro-duced from oil palm industry. In addition, environmental impacts of composting are dis-cussed. This knowledge could build a platform for researchers in this area to understand the recent developments in palm oil biomass composting by means of addressing the envi-ronmental pollution concerns as well.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Environment Development and Sustainability
  • Source
    • "eratures of 46e40 C ( Mouchacca , 1997 ) . Nakasaki et al . ( 2009 ) demonstrated that thermophilic Actinomycetes ( Ther mobifida fusca ) produce enzymes active for the biodegradation of lignocellulose compounds and lignin dissolution . These Actinomy cetes are active later , at the thermophilic and the maturation phases ( Tuomela et al . , 2000 ; Xiao et al . , 2011 ) ."
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The biotransformation of lignin components during co-composting of sewage sludge activated with palm tree waste was studied for six months using Py-GC-MS. Two main groups of compounds were distinguished. The first includes 7 compounds which occurred during the co-composting process listed here in decreasing order of abundance: toluene, 2,4-dimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, 1-ethyl-2- methylbenzene, 4-methylphenol and 2-methylnaphthalene. The reduction of their concentrations during the process is due to metabolization and biotransformation into other compounds. A second group of 4 components showed concentrations that increased with co-composting time: phenol, benzofuran, ethylmethoxyphenol and dimethoxyphenol. These lignin constituents are probably released parallel with lignin degradation to become incorporated into humic substances.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation
Show more