Community-Acquired Respiratory Coinfection in Critically III Patients With Pandemic 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) Virus

Critical Care Department, Joan XXIII University Hospital, University Rovira i Virgili, CIBERes, Mallafré Guasch 4, 43007 Tarragona, Spain.
Chest (Impact Factor: 7.48). 10/2010; 139(3):555-62. DOI: 10.1378/chest.10-1396
Source: PubMed


Little is known about the impact of community-acquired respiratory coinfection in patients with pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus infection.
This was a prospective, observational, multicenter study conducted in 148 Spanish ICUs.
Severe respiratory syndrome was present in 645 ICU patients. Coinfection occurred in 113 (17.5%) of patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae (in 62 patients [54.8%]) was identified as the most prevalent bacteria. Patients with coinfection at ICU admission were older (47.5±15.7 vs 43.8±14.2 years, P<.05) and presented a higher APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score (16.1±7.3 vs 13.3±7.1, P<.05) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (7.0±3.8 vs 5.2±3.5, P<.05). No differences in comorbidities were observed. Patients who had coinfection required vasopressors (63.7% vs 39.3%, P<.05) and invasive mechanical ventilation (69% vs 58.5%, P<.05) more frequently. ICU length of stay was 3 days longer in patients who had coinfection than in patients who did not (11 [interquartile range, 5-23] vs 8 [interquartile range 4-17], P=.01). Coinfection was associated with increased ICU mortality (26.2% vs 15.5%; OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.21-3.09), but Cox regression analysis adjusted by potential confounders did not confirm a significant association between coinfection and ICU mortality.
During the 2009 pandemics, the role played by bacterial coinfection in bringing patients to the ICU was not clear, S pneumoniae being the most common pathogen. This work provides clear evidence that bacterial coinfection is a contributor to increased consumption of health resources by critical patients infected with the virus and is the virus that causes critical illness in the vast majority of cases.

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Available from: Alejandro Rodriguez, Oct 29, 2014
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    • "Interestingly, while it is well described that pneumococcal infections commonly complicate both seasonal and pandemic influenza infections, more recently it was documented that the pneumococcus was a common bacterial coinfection in patients with influenza A H1N1 infection who were admitted to hospital with CAP [19–21]. In the former two studies, the pneumococcus was the most common bacterial cause of bacterial co-infection, accounting for 62% and 54.8% of cases, respectively, and being associated with a greater risk of septic shock or need for vasopressors, as well as increased need for mechanical ventilation and a longer ICU stay [20, 21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the infectious diseases. Despite the implementation of national pneumococcal polyvalent vaccine-based immunisation strategies targeted at high-risk groups, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains the most common cause of CAP. Notwithstanding the HIV pandemic, major challenges confronting the control of CAP include the range of bacterial and viral pathogens causing this condition, the ever-increasing problem of antibiotic resistance worldwide, and increased vulnerability associated with steadily aging populations in developed countries. These and other risk factors, as well as diagnostic strategies, are covered in the first section of this review. Thereafter, the review is focused on the pneumococcus, specifically the major virulence factors of this microbial pathogen and their role in triggering overexuberant inflammatory responses which contribute to the immunopathogenesis of invasive disease. The final section of the review is devoted to a consideration of pharmacological, anti-inflammatory strategies with adjunctive potential in the antimicrobial chemotherapy of CAP. This is focused on macrolides, corticosteroids, and statins with respect to their modes of anti-inflammatory action, current status, and limitations.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Mediators of Inflammation
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    • "The most frequent polymicrobial pattern was S. pneumoniae and viral infection, particularly influenza virus. Pneumococci have been identified as the most frequent bacterial superinfection in both seasonal [13] and novel H1N1 [14,15] influenza virus-associated pneumonia. "
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency and clinical significance of polymicrobial aetiology in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients admitted to the ICU have been poorly studied. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of severe CAP of polymicrobial aetiology in patients admitted to the ICU. The prospective observational study included 362 consecutive adult patients with CAP admitted to the ICU within 24 hours of presentation; 196 (54%) patients had an established aetiology. Polymicrobial infection was present in 39 (11%) cases (20% of those with defined aetiology): 33 cases with two pathogens, and six cases with three pathogens. The most frequently identified pathogens in polymicrobial infections were Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 28, 72%), respiratory viruses (n = 15, 39%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 8, 21%). Chronic respiratory disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria were independent predictors of polymicrobial aetiology. Inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment was more frequent in the polymicrobial aetiology group compared with the monomicrobial aetiology group (39% vs. 10%, P < 0.001), and was an independent predictor of hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio = 10.79, 95% confidence interval = 3.97 to 29.30; P < 0.001). The trend for higher hospital mortality of the polymicrobial aetiology group compared with the monomicrobial aetiology group (n = 8, 21% versus n = 17, 11%), however, was not significantly different (P = 0.10). Polymicrobial pneumonia occurs frequently in patients admitted to the ICU. This is a risk factor for inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment, which in turn independently predicts hospital mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Critical care (London, England)
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    • "Community-acquired respiratory coinfection (CARC) was defined as any infection diagnosed within the first 2 days of hospitalization. Infections occurring later were considered nosocomial [11]. Patients who presented healthcare-associated pneumonia were excluded from the present study [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Little information exists about the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients with the pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational, multicenter study in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Patients with chronic renal failure were excluded. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Results A total of 661 patients were analyzed. One hundred eighteen (17.7%) patients developed AKI; of these, 37 (31.4%) of the patients with AKI were classified as AKI I, 15 (12.7%) were classified as AKI II and 66 (55.9%) were classified as AKI III, among the latter of whom 50 (75.7%) required continuous renal replacement therapy. Patients with AKI had a higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (19.2 ± 8.3 versus 12.6 ± 5.9; P < 0.001), a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (8.7 ± 4.2 versus 4.8 ± 2.9; P < 0.001), more need for mechanical ventilation (MV) (87.3% versus 56.2%; P < 0.01, odds ratio (OR) 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0 to 9.4), a greater incidence of shock (75.4% versus 38.3%; P < 0.01, OR 4.9, 95% CI, 3.1 to 7.7), a greater incidence of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (92.4% versus 54.7%; P < 0.01, OR 10.0, 95% CI, 4.9 to 20.21) and a greater incidence of coinfection (23.7% versus 14.4%; P < 0.01, OR 1.8, 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.0). In survivors, patients with AKI remained on MV longer and ICU and hospital length of stay were longer than in patients without AKI. The overall mortality was 18.8% and was significantly higher for AKI patients (44.1% versus 13.3%; P < 0.01, OR 5.1, 95% CI, 3.3 to 7.9). Logistic regression analysis was performed with AKIN criteria, and it demonstrated that among patients with AKI, only AKI III was independently associated with higher ICU mortality (P < 0.001, OR 4.81, 95% CI 2.17 to 10.62). Conclusions In our cohort of patients with H1N1 virus infection, only those cases in the AKI III category were independently associated with mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Critical Care
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