ArticlePDF Available

Comparison of muscle activation during elliptical trainer, treadmill and bike exercise

Authors:

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to compare muscle activation during elliptical trainer (ET), treadmill (TM) and bike (B) exercise. Twenty three voluntary and healthy male athletes (age, 20.65±1.65 years; weight, 74.21±7.21 kg; height, 180.69±5.31 cm; Body Mass Index, 22.4±1.5) participated in our study. Study protocol was decided for three days. Measures were taken by using elliptical trainer on the first day, treadmill on the second day and bicycle device on the third. Exercise devices were run with 65�0metabolic pulse for six minutes and at the end of the sixth minute, surface electrodes were placed on Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Pectoralis Major and Trapezius of upper extremity muscle and on Gastrocnemius, Vastus Lateralis, Rectus Femoris and Gluteus Maximus of lower extremity muscles and Electromyography (EMG) activities were measured. According to the finding of the study, it has been found out that all of the measured upper extremity muscle were more activated by elliptical trainer compared to treadmill and bike exercise (p<0.05). Also, it has been found out that Gastrocnemius and Gluteus Maximus of lower extremity muscle were more activated by treadmill compared to other exercise devices (p<0.05). Rectus Femoris muscle was more activated by elliptical trainer compared to bike exercise (p<0.05). EMG results of Vastus Lateralis did not show any statically differences (p>0.05). In conclusion, due to the advantage of more upper extremity muscle activation, it has been thought that elliptical trainer is a device to be able to be used in rehabilitation and exercise science.
Biology of Sport, Vol. 27 No3, 2010 203
Comparison of muscle activation during elliptical trainer, treadmill and bike exercise
Reprint request to:
Hasan ZEN,
Ondokuz Mayis University, Beden
Eğitimi ve Spor YO. Kurupelit
Samsun/TURKEY
telephone: +90 544 825 5290
fax: +90 362 457 6924
e-mail: hsozen@omu.edu.tr
Accepted
for publication
08.06.2010
INTRODUCTION
Exercise is constantly gaining popularity. It has been widely used
especially in the elds of sporting performance and rehabilitation.
We are provided with new information with the help of testing
methods and scientic researches in sports. Therefore, various
exercises equipments are used in the developed performance
testing protocols. Besides the science of sports, various exercise
equipments are also used in the elds of medicine and rehabilitation
[4].
Along with the developing technology, the designs of equipments
used for exercising have increased and more sophisticated exercise
equipments have been produced. Especially, treadmill and bike have
important places among other exercise equipments.
Treadmill and bike allows us to observe the severe and broad
movements applied in a narrow area, and by this way, enables us
to make tests and kinematic analyses [1]. There are some testing
methods using treadmill and bike to predict the aerobic and anaerobic
capacities. Rhythmic leg movements have an important place in
the researches to analyze the lower extremity functions, nerve control,
rehabilitation and the science of sports [10].
COMPARISON OF MUSCLE ACTIVATION
DURING ELLIPTICAL TRAINER, TREADMILL
AND BIKE EXERCISE
AUTHOR: Sozen H.
School of Physical Education and Sports, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to compare muscle activation during elliptical trainer (ET), treadmill
(TM) and bike (B) exercise. Twenty three voluntary and healthy male athletes (age, 20.65±1.65 years; weight,
74.21±7.21 kg; height, 180.69±5.31 cm; Body Mass Index, 22.4±1.5) participated in our study.
Study protocol was decided for three days. Measures were taken by using elliptical trainer on the rst day,
treadmill on the second day and bicycle device on the third. Exercise devices were run with 65% metabolic pulse
for six minutes and at the end of the sixth minute, surface electrodes were placed on Biceps Brachii, Triceps
Brachii, Pectoralis Major and Trapezius of upper extremity muscle and on Gastrocnemius, Vastus Lateralis, Rectus
Femoris and Gluteus Maximus of lower extremity muscles and Electromyography (EMG) activities were measured.
According to the nding of the study, it has been found out that all of the measured upper extremity muscle were
more activated by elliptical trainer compared to treadmill and bike exercise (p<0.05). Also, it has been found
out that Gastrocnemius and Gluteus Maximus of lower extremity muscle were more activated by treadmill compared
to other exercise devices (p<0.05). Rectus Femoris muscle was more activated by elliptical trainer compared to
bike exercise (p<0.05). EMG results of Vastus Lateralis did not show any statically differences (p>0.05).
In conclusion, due to the advantage of more upper extremity muscle activation, it has been thought that elliptical
trainer is a device to be able to be used in rehabilitation and exercise science.
KEY WORDS: elliptical trainer, treadmill, bike, muscle activation
Elliptical trainer, new equipment compared to these devices, has
been gaining popularity in sport centers in recent years as alternative
exercise equipment [6, 9, 7, 13, 12]. Elliptical trainer enables both
lower and upper extremity muscles to act synchronously. In elliptical
trainer, low body movement acts together with upper body in a static
conversion and step movement [16]. Elliptical trainer creates
a different movement trajectory when compared to treadmill and
bike. Muscle recruitment activity is different when using the elliptical
trainer, treadmill and bike. [5]. The person doing exercise on elliptical
trainer should be aware of having to involve his both lower and upper
extremities while using the device in order to get an optimal physical
response [2]. It may be thought that more muscles are activated on
elliptical trainer as more body parts involve in movement [18].
Determine the muscles used predominantly during the exercise
on these three equipments may contribute to the regulation of
available performance tests or the tests scheduled to be performed
on these equipments. Besides, determining in which muscle groups
the equipments are used more efciently for rehabilitation and
treatment may help treatment be more successful.
Original Paper
Biol. Sport 2010;27:203-206
- - - - -
Electronic PDF security powered by www.IndexCopernicus.com
204
Sozen H.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Subjects: Twenty-three healthy volunteers among the students in
School of Physical Education and Sports participated in the study.
The mean age of the students participated in the study was
20.65±1.65 years, weight 74.21±7.21 kg, height 180.69±5.31
cm, and the mean body mass index was 22.4 ±1.5. Body mass
index values were calculated using {weight (kg) /height² (m²)} [8].
Procedure and Measurements: Study protocol was decided as three
days. Measurements were taken by using elliptical trainer on the rst
day, treadmill on the second day and bicycle equipment on the third
day. The brand of elliptical trainer used as exercise equipment was
Precor EFX 576i., OH, USA, treadmill was Sports Art T 650M (5HP)
and bicycle device was Sports Art C51U. Each volunteer made
warm-up activity for ve minutes in order to adapt to the exercise
equipment and for personal adjustments.
After ve minutes warm-up activity, surface electromyography
electrodes (Surface Electrode NM-3128, Nihon Kohden, Japan) were
placed on the central parts of Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii,
Pectoralis Major and Trapezius” muscles of upper extremity on the
left side of the body. Reference electrode was placed on the wrist
area of the left arm for upper extremity measurement. Before placing
the electrodes, in order to prevent the artifact, rst, the skin was
cleaned with intoxicated solution and shaved to make it smooth,
then, paste was applied between the skin and electrodes (Elex
Electrode Paste) and electrodes and its cables were xed with an
adhesive tape.
After attaching the electrodes to the skin, the subjects worked on
the exercise equipment for six minutes within the 65% of maximum
velocity heart rate. Personal maximum heart rate values were
calculated using Karvonen formula {220 age} [11]. Pulse rate
were taken by using Polar RS 400 Finnish infrared pulse measuring
device. At the end of the sixth minute, EMG activities of the muscles
on which surface electrodes had been placed were measured using
electromyography device (500Hz) (Nihon Kohden-Neuropack MEB
5504 F/K, Japan).
After measuring the upper extremity muscles, same electrodes
were placed on the central parts of left leg of lower extremity muscles;
“Gastrocnemius, Vastus Lateralis, Rectus Femoris and Gluteus
Maximus”. At the same time, lower extremity reference electrode
was placed on the ankle of left leg. The subjects exercised on the
same exercise equipments within the 65% of maximum heart rate
velocity for six minutes and at the end of the sixth minute, the action
potential amplitudes of muscles were measured on millivolt (mV)
value.
Statistics: One-way ANOVA test was used in analyzing the
electromyography values obtained from these muscles during the
exercises on the elliptical trainer, treadmill and bicycle equipments
and differences among groups were analyzed using Scheffe test, a
Post hoc test. The level of signicance used in this study was p<0.05.
RESULTS
In this section, in order to compare the muscle activations during
elliptical trainer, treadmill and bicycle exercises, examined
the statistical analyses of amplitude values obtained by using
electromyography, which are the indicators of action potentials of
eight different muscle groups (Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii,
Pectoralis Major, Trapezius, Gastrocnemius, Vastus Lateralis, Rectus
Femoris, Gluteus Maximus) and the ndings obtained as a result of
these analyses.
According to the ANOVA test results of EMG values obtained from
muscles while using different exercise equipment; during elliptical
trainer, treadmill and bicycle exercises, remarkable statistical
differences were found in the muscles of upper extremity;
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Sig.
Biceps Brachii
Between
Groups
31.611 2 15.805 26.949 .000
Within
Groups
38.709 66 .587
Total 70.320 68
Triceps Brachii
Between
Groups
10.877 2 5.439 38.900 .000
Within
Groups
9.228 66 .140
Total 20.105 68
Pectoralis Major
Between
Groups
22.769 2 11.385 57.088 .000
Within
Groups
13.162 66 .199
Total 35.932 68
Trapezius
Between
Groups
7.476 2 3.738 31.550 .000
Within
Groups
7.819 66 .118
Total 15.295 68
Gastrocnemius
Between
Groups
12.282 2 6.141 10.282 .000
Within
Groups
39.418 66 .597
Total 51.700 68
Vastus Lateralis
Between
Groups
1.353 2 .676 1.969 .148
Within
Groups
22.676 66 .344
Total 24.029 68
Rectus Femoris
Between
Groups
7.792 2 3.896 3.663 .031
Within
Groups
70.197 66 1.064
Total 77.989 68
Gluteus Maximus
Between
Groups
1.382 2 .691 5.247 .008
Within
Groups
8.694 66 .132
Total 10.076 68
TABLE 1.
MEAN DISTRIBUTION OF EMG VALUES OF DIFFERENT
MUSCLE GROUPS DURING ELLIPTICAL TRAINER, TREADMILL
AND BIKE EXERCISES
- - - - -
Electronic PDF security powered by www.IndexCopernicus.com
Biology of Sport, Vol. 27 No3, 2010
205
Comparison of muscle activation during elliptical trainer, treadmill and bike exercise
Biceps Brachii (F=26,949, p<.05), Triceps Brachii (F=38,900,
p<.05), Pectoralis Major (F= 57,088, p<.05), Trapezius
(F= 31,550, p<.05) and in the muscles of lower extremity;
Gastrocnemius (F=10,282, p<.05), Rectus Femoris (F= 3,663,
p<.05), and Gluteus Maximus (F=5,247, p<.05). The values
obtained from Vastus Lateralis (F= 1,969, p>.05) from lower
extremity muscles are not statistically signicant (Table 1).
According to Scheffe test results of EMG values obtained from
upper extremity muscles during elliptical trainer, treadmill and bicycle
exercises; it has been observed that the highest EMG value for Biceps
Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Pectoralis Major and Trapezius muscles
were obtained during elliptical trainer exercise. These upper extremity
muscles values during elliptical trainer exercise are statistically
remarkably higher (p<.05) than those obtained during treadmill and
bicycle exercise. There are no signicantly statistical differences
between these upper extremity muscles values during treadmill and
bicycle exercises (p>.05), (Table 2).
According to Scheffe test results of EMG values obtained from
Gastrocnemius and Gluteus Maximus from lower extremity muscles
during elliptical trainer, treadmill and bicycle exercises, it has been
observed that the highest EMG value for Gastrocnemius and Gluteus
Maximus muscles were obtained during treadmill exercise.
Gastrocnemius and Gluteus Maximus values during treadmill exercise
are statistically signicantly higher (p<.05) than those obtained
during elliptical trainer and bicycle exercises. There are no statistically
signicant differences between Gastrocnemius and Gluteus Maximus
values during elliptical trainer and bicycle exercises (p>.05),
(Table 3).
According to Scheffe test results of EMG values obtained from rectus
femoris from lower extremity muscles during elliptical trainer, treadmill
and bicycle exercises; elliptical trainer has more rectus femoris values
compared to bicycle exercise. This value is statistically on a signicant
level (p<.05). Rectus femoris values between treadmill and elliptical
trainer and between treadmill and bicycle exercise are not statistically
signicant (p>.05), (Table 3).
According to Scheffe test results of EMG values obtained from vastus
lateralis from lower extremity muscles during elliptical trainer,
treadmill and bicycle exercises; there are no statistically signicant
differences between vastus lateralis values during elliptical trainer,
treadmill and bicycle exercises (p>.05),
(Table 3).
Exercise
devices
(I)
Exercise
devices
(J)
Mean
Difference
(I-J)
Std.
Error
Sig.
Biceps Brachii
Treadmill
Bike .04783 .22583 .978
Elliptical Trainer -1.41130 .22583 .000
Bike
Treadmill -.04783 .22583 .978
Elliptical Trainer -1.45913 .22583 .000
Elliptical Trainer
Treadmill 1.41130 .22583 .000
Bike 1.45913 .22583 .000
Triceps Brachii
Treadmill
Bike -.01391 .11026 .992
Elliptical Trainer -.84913 .11026 .000
Bike
Treadmill .01391 .11026 .992
Elliptical Trainer -.83522 .11026 .000
Elliptical Trainer
Treadmill .84913 .11026 .000
Bike .83522 .11026 .000
Pectoralis Major
Treadmill
Bike .04217 .13169 .950
Elliptical Trainer -1.19696 .13169 .000
Bike
Treadmill -.04217 .13169 .950
Elliptical Trainer -1.23913 .13169 .000
Elliptical Trainer
Treadmill 1.19696 .13169 .000
Bike 1.23913 .13169 .000
Trapezius
Treadmill
Bike .09826 .10150 .628
Elliptical Trainer -.64391 .10150 .000
Bike
Treadmill -.09826 .10150 .628
Elliptical Trainer -.74217 .10150 .000
Elliptical Trainer
Treadmill .64391 .10150 .000
Bike .74217 .10150 .000
TABLE 2.
MEAN DISTRIBUTION OF EMG VALUES OF UPPER
EXTREMITY MUSCLES DURING ELLIPTICAL TRAINER,
TREADMILL AND BIKE EXERCISES.
Exercise
devices
(I)
Exercise
devices
(J)
Mean
Difference
(I-J)
Std.
Error
Sig.
Gastrocnemius
Treadmill
Bike .90609 .22789 .001
Elliptical Trainer .88348 .22789 .001
Bike
Treadmill -.90609 .22789 .001
Elliptical Trainer -.02261 .22789 .995
Elliptical Trainer
Treadmill -.88348 .22789 .001
Bike .02261 .22789 .995
Vastus Lateralis
Treadmill
Bike .33391 .17285 .163
Elliptical Trainer .09913 .17285 .849
Bike
Treadmill -.33391 .17285 .163
Elliptical Trainer -.23478 .17285 .403
Elliptical Trainer
Treadmill -.09913 .17285 .849
Bike .23478 .17285 .403
Rectus Femoris
Treadmill
Bike .16217 .30412 .868
Elliptical Trainer -.61783 .30412 .135
Bike
Treadmill -.16217 .30412 .868
Elliptical Trainer -.78000 .30412 .043
Elliptical Trainer
Treadmill .61783 .30412 .135
Bike .78000 .30412 .043
Gluteus Maximus
Treadmill
Bike .28783 .10703 .032
Elliptical Trainer .31130 .10703 .019
Bike
Treadmill -.28783 .10703 .032
Elliptical Trainer .02348 .10703 .976
Elliptical Trainer
Treadmill -.31130 .10703 .019
Bike -.02348 .10703 .976
TABLE 3.
MEAN DISTRIBUTION OF EMG VALUES OF LOWER
EXTREMITY MUSCLES DURING ELLIPTICAL TRAINER,
TREADMILL AND BIKE EXERCISES.
- - - - -
Electronic PDF security powered by www.IndexCopernicus.com
206
Sozen H.
1. Alton F., Baldey L., Caplan S.,
Morrissey M.C. A kinematic comparison
of overground and treadmill wailking.
Clin. Biomech. 1998;13:434-440.
2. Batte A.L., Darling J., Evans J., Lance
L.M., Olson E.I., Pincivero D.M.
Physiologic response to a prescribed
rating of perceived exertion on an elliptical
tness cross trainer. J. Sports Med. Phys.
Fitness 2003;43:300-305.
3. Browder K., Dolny D., Cowin B.,
Hadley M., Jasper C., McAllister T.,
Stewart C., Terrell B. Muscle activation
during elliptical trainer and recumbent
bike exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.
2005;37:106.
4. Burke E.R. Fitness frontlines.
NSCA’s Performance Training J.
2002;1(2):7.
5. Cheng C.L., Smith R.W., Shiang T.Y.
The comparison of muscle activation
using different trajectory elliptical.
J. Biom. 2007;40:361.
6. Dalleck L.C., Kravitz L., Robergs R.A.
Maximal exercise testing using the
elliptical cross-trainer and treadmill. J.
Exerc. Physiol. 2004;7:1097-9751.
7. Egana M., Donne B. Physiological
changes following a 12 week gym based
stair climbing, elliptical trainer and
treadmill running program in females.
J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness
2004;44:141-146.
8. Fahey D.T., Insel M.P., Roth T.W. Fit &
Well, Seventh Edition, McGraw Hill, New
York, USA, 2007.
9. Green J.M., Crews T.R., Pritchett R.C.,
Matheld C., Hall L. Heart rate and
ratings of perceived exertion during
treadmill and elliptical exercise training.
Percept. Motor Skills 2004;98: 340-348.
10. Gregor R.J., Broker J.P., Ryan M.M.
The biomechanics of cycling. Exerc.
Sports Sci. 1991;19:127.
11. Karvonen M.J., Kentala E., Mustala O.
The effects of training on heart rate:
a longitudinal study. Ann. Med. Exp. Biol.
Fenn 1957;35:307-315.
12. Knutzen K.M., Lawson A., Brilla L.,
Chalmers G. Pedal reaction forces during
exercise on the elliptical trainer.
AAHPERD National Convention and
Exposition, 296, Baltimore, MD. 2007.
13. Lu T.W., Chien H.L., Chen H.L.
Joint loading in the lower extremities
during elliptical exercise. Med. Sci.
Sports Exerc. 2007;39:1651-1658.
14. Matsui, H., Kitamura K., Miyamura M.
Oxygen uptake and blood ow of
the lower limb in maximal treadmill and
bicycle exercise.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1978;40:57-62.
15. Mier C.M., Feito Y. Metabolic cost of
stride rate, resistance, and combined use
of arms and legs on the elliptical trainer.
Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 2006;77:507-513.
16. Porcari J., Foster C., Schneider P.
Exercise response to elliptical trainers.
Fitness Management Magazine, Los
Angeles, USA, 2000.
17. Ross V., Griswold L., Hodgon J.A.
A Comparison of Three Models of
Elliptical Trainer. Storming Media,
Pentagon Reports. USA, 2006.
18. Sweitzer M.L., Kravitz L., Weingart H.M.,
Dalleck L.C., Chitwood L.F., Dahl E.
The cardiopulmonary responses of
elliptical crosstraining versus treadmill
walking in CAD patients. JEPonline
2002;5:11-15.
DISCUSSION
The obtained results evidenced that, upper extremity muscles
Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Pectoralis Major and Trapezius
were more activated during elliptical trainer exercise than treadmill
and bike exercises. In accordance with the obtained results, Browder
et al. used EMG device in measuring the muscle activations.
Consequently, biceps brachii results obtained from elliptical trainer
and were higher compared to those obtained from treadmill and
bike exercises [3].
In our study, according to result of lower extremity muscles
Gastrocnemius and Gluteus Maximus muscles were more activated
during treadmill exercises than elliptical trainer and bicycle
exercises. Rectus femoris muscle was more activated during
elliptical trainer exercise than bike exercise. There are no statistically
significant differences between vastus lateralis values during
elliptical trainer, treadmill and bicycle exercises.
Literature researches aimed to compare the muscle activations on
elliptical trainer, treadmill and bicycle equipments have indicated
that there are limited numbers of studies related to this subject.
In the literature, there are studies comparing mainly the physiological
responses to exercise equipments.
In the study carried out by Mier and Feito in some physical responses
were compared during elliptical trainer and treadmill exercises they
declared that more energy could be consumed on elliptical trainer
with the same heart rate as on treadmill. They also reported that
this difference could arise from both legs’ and armsinvolving in
action at the same time [15]. In a study done by Matsui et al.; it
was reported that the results obtained from the tests on treadmill
and bicycle exercises were actually the results aimed at only the
lower extremity of the body [14]. In another study by Ross et al.,
they argued that elliptical trainer was more effective exercise
equipment as it activated more muscle groups compared to treadmill
exercise [17].
The results of these studies show parallelism with our study and
elliptical trainer has more physiological affect on organism compared
to other exercise equipments and upper extremity muscles also
involve in action during the exercises done with this equipment.
CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, elliptical trainer equipment is more advantageous
to activate different muscle groups compared to treadmill and
bicycle equipments so that elliptical trainer can be used in new
performance test protocols because of its advantage to activate
more upper extremity muscles and elliptical trainer can be considered
as efcient equipment in the elds of rehabilitation and the science
of exercise regarding the statistical results.
REFERENCES
- - - - -
Electronic PDF security powered by www.IndexCopernicus.com
... Exercise is constantly gaining popularity. It has been widely used especially in the fields of sports performance and rehabilitation [1]. ...
... Most of the issues affecting this modality have already been covered. Electrodes are almost always sited along the body of the muscle in question, with locations one-third and two-thirds along the length being the norm, As mentioned earlier, small pre-amplifiers are often used in order to improve signal-to-noise ratios, especially since telemetry of signals is increasingly used in order to maintain ecologically valid movement patterns [30,33,1,34]. Once the signal is filtered and amplified, some form of rectification of the signal is usually applied. As with other indices, examination of the raw signal waveform is interesting but offers little in the way of empirically analyzable data. ...
... As a result; elliptical trainer equipment is more advantageous to activate different muscle groups compared to treadmill and bicycle equipments. By more muscles groups' involving in action, more cardiorespiratory output, accordingly more energy consumption and production can be provided as a response to the exercise on elliptical trainer [1]. ...
... Eliptik bisiklet spor salonları ve kardiyak rehabilitasyon alanlarında son yıllarda alternatif egzersiz cihazı olarak popülaritesi artmaktadır. (Dalleck ve ark., 2004;Green ve ark., 2004;Egana ve Done, 2004;Lu ve ark., 2007;Knutzen ve ark., 2007;Sözen, 2010). Eliptik bisiklet cihazı vücudun hem alt hem de üst ekstremite kaslarına eşzamanlı olarak çalışma imkânı sağlamaktadır. ...
... Özellikle üst ektremite sporlarında etkili bir ısınma cihazıdır (Mier ve Feito, 2006;Sözen, 2010). ...
... Bu tip bir ölçümün ana amacı; belirli bir hareketi sağlayan bir ya da daha fazla kasın aktivitesinin belirlenmesidir (Sözen, 2010 (Tesch ve ark., 1983). Fakat bizim yaptığımız çalışmada ise ısınma protokolündeki farklılıklar kasın elektriksel aktivasyonuna egzersiz sırasında bir farklılık yaratmadığı yöndedir. ...
... The elliptical trainer is a typical stationary exercise machine that provides upper and lower limb exercises without causing an excessive impact on body joints [1]. It offers efficient training with relatively smaller floor space and lower noise than other equipment options [2]. While the elliptical machine has been known as a weight loss and fitness equipment, it also has been used for rehabilitation purposes for people with chronic conditions, physical disabilities, or several types of injuries [3][4][5]. ...
Article
This work aims to introduce simple-to-implement modifications to the elliptical trainer device to increase its utility with added new exercise options. The effectiveness of the introduced modifications was assessed on 51 subjects, with effectiveness representing the recruitment of a broader range of muscle groups with desired intensity levels. The improvements include a new in-phase mode, where bilateral body synchronization creates a skiing-like motion, and a variable range of motion through adjusting the stride length of a rotating-link mechanism. The impact of these modifications on muscle recruitment was assessed by recording surface electromyogram (sEMG) from eleven major muscles while performing a total of six exercise routines. The routines have various combinations of mode and intensity to cover the traditional mechanism and the newly- introduced mechanism adjustments for comparative analysis. The results have shown that increasing the stride length increases the demand on lower limbs muscles during the anti-phase mode while decreasing it on upper limb muscles. When comparing the two exercise modes, all muscle groups showed significantly higher activity in the in-phase mode except for thigh muscles (Hamstrings and Quadriceps). Hamstrings revealed significantly higher activity in the anti-phase mode, while Quadriceps showed no significantly different activity between the two modes. The introduced design modifications are shown to diversify the demand on major skeletal muscles hence improving its functionality at low added cost. Furthermore, these results can be exploited to implement gradual physiotherapeutic rehabilitation plans targeting various muscle groups with desired intensity levels.
... This includes measuring the ground reaction force using a force plate and muscle contraction force using an electromyogram (EMG). Surface EMG data can noninvasively capture individual muscle activity during physical exercise [11]. Analysis and evaluation using EMG have been reported for the push movement of the hand rim, which is a basic element of wheelchair control. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wheelchair sports are recognized as an international sport, and research and support are being promoted to increase the competitiveness of wheelchair sports. For example, an electromyogram can observe muscle activity. However, it is generally used under controlled conditions due to the complexity of preparing the measurement equipment and the movement restrictions imposed by cables and measurement equipment. It is difficult to perform measurements in actual competition environments. Therefore, in this study, we developed a method to estimate myoelectric potential that can be used in competitive environments and does not limit physical movement. We developed a deep learning model that outputs surface myoelectric potentials by inputting camera images of wheelchair movements and the measured values of inertial sensors installed on wheelchairs. For seven subjects, we estimated the myoelectric potential during chair work, which is important in wheelchair sports. As a result of creating an in-subject model and comparing the estimated myoelectric potential with the myoelectric potential measured by an electromyogram, we confirmed a correlation (correlation coefficient 0.5 or greater at a significance level of 0.1%). Since this method can estimate the myoelectric potential without limiting the movement of the body, it is considered that it can be applied to the performance evaluation of wheelchair sports.
... This result could be in part explained by increasing the hip muscles strength which contributed significantly to the propulsive forces generated during running. 20 however, it must be underlined that these two training programs combine speed and strength to produce the explosive-reactive movement leading to involve ec-G plyo improved significantly the running (p<0.01, eS=0.67 and p<0.01, eS=0.55), ...
Article
Background: This study aims to determine the effect of flexibility exercises combined with plyometrics in hurdles race, on physical fitness, motor skills (MS) and hip range of motion. Methods: 34 male hurdlers, (age = 15.7±0.7 years, body mass = 59.7±2.3 kg, height = 170.8±2.4 cm) were randomly assigned to four independent groups. The (Gflex+plyo), the (Gplyo), the (Gflex) and a control group (Gcon). All participants performed different tests: a test of right and left hip flexion (RHF, LHF) and extension (RHE, LHE), squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), stiffness jump (STFJ) and three (MS) exercises (running, hopping and leaping). A 60-m sprint on the hurdles was also performed. Results: The two-way analyses of covariance for repeated measures showed that Gflex+plyo increased significantly: the CMJ, performance on 60-m and showed higher performance in the between groups' comparison. The Gflex+plyo and Gflex showed the higher percentages of changes in flexibility (RHF: 3.2±1.3% and 3.0±2.1%; RHE: 6.4±2.4% and 9.4±4.1%, LHE: 8.4±3.4% and 7.8±4.3%, respectively). Gplyo increased significantly the LHF (3.9 ± 1.4%) more than the other groups. In the between groups' comparison, Gplyo showed the higher percentage of change in STFJ (6.4±1.8%) and the Gflex+plyo showed the higher values in running and hopping (10.7±4.6% and 13.3±2.1%, respectively). Conclusions: Specific stretching exercises combined with plyometrics may be more beneficial than other training strategies in young sprint-hurdlers. This may better improve physical fitness, hip range of motion and may increase different level of skills which may better improve performance in hurdles race.
... However, our study displayed a decrease in fat free body mass in contrast of the other study. This discrepancy could have been caused by the utilization of the treadmill exercise, which uses more muscle groups, in contrast to bicycle exercise (Sözen, 2010). This result is supported by another study too (Short et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise (Ex) shares the first-line approach with pharmacological inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5-Is), including tadalafil, in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in obese men. The effect of elliptical training (ET) on ED was not questioned in the literature. This study aimed to clarify the effect of adding a 2-month consequent continuous and interval ET to once-daily 5-mg tadalafil administration on ED in obese men. Sixty obese men aged 34–56 years with ED were randomly assigned to the Ex group (n = 30) and the non-Ex group (n = 30). Both groups received 8-week oral tadalafil administration (five-milligram tablet, one time/day). Ex group only received a 1-h concurrent interval and continuous ET (three times/week for 2 months). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin, body mass index (BMI), the circumference of the waist (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglycerides (TG), Five-Item Version of International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF-5), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were screened before and after the trial. A significant statistical difference of all measures was ascertained from the within-Ex-group comparison (P < 0.05) while this significance was not achieved from the within-comparison of the non-Ex group (except IIEF-5 which showed a significant difference, P < 0.05). The established post-intervention comparison between Ex and non-Ex groups exhibited a non-significant difference in BMI, HDL, and WC while other variables exhibited a statistically-significant difference in favor of the Ex group. Adding 1-h consequent continuous and interval ET to tadalafil drug is a highly efficient procedure in improving ED than tadalafil alone in obese men.
Article
Background Exercise – with or without dietary regimens – is the first lifestyle modification approach for metabolic syndrome (MetSyndrome) treatment. The effect of combined exercise protocol, moderate-intensity continuous training (CT) plus high-intensity interval training (HIIT), on the relatively-new elliptical trainer (ET) rehabilitation device, was not examined before. This randomised-controlled training trial aimed to explore the effect of combined CT + HIIT – conducted on ET – on body mass index (BMI) and MetSyndrome components: fasting blood glucose, systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP), abdominal circumference, triglycerides (TGs) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Methods Two women and 38 men (aged 51 ± 8.21 years old) with MetSyndrome were randomly assigned to the elliptical exercise (EEX) group (1 ♂, 19 ♀) and control group (requested to maintain their usual/normal daily physical exertion). Results While there were no significant modifications within the control group, pre-to-post comparison (by paired test) after the 16-week intervention within the EEx group showed significantly improved BMI and MetSyndorme components (except HDL). Conclusions Starting an exercise session with moderate-intensity CT, then followed or augmented with HIIT three times weekly for 16 weeks on an ET device can prevent, alter or treat the deterioration of MetSyndrome components.
Article
Muscle contractions can be categorized into isometric, isotonic (concentric and eccentric) and isokinetic contractions. The eccentric contractions are very effective for promoting muscle hypertrophy and produce larger forces when compared to the concentric or isometric contractions. Surface electromyography signals are widely used for analyzing muscle activities. These signals are nonstationary, nonlinear and exhibit self-similar multifractal behavior. The research on surface electromyography signals using multifractal analysis is not well established for concentric and eccentric contractions. In this study, an attempt has been made to analyze the concentric and eccentric contractions associated with biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography signals and multifractal detrended moving average algorithm. Surface electromyography signals were recorded from 20 healthy individuals while performing a single curl exercise. The preprocessed signals were divided into concentric and eccentric cycles and in turn divided into phases based on range of motion: lower (0°–90°) and upper (>90°). The segments of surface electromyography signal were subjected to multifractal detrended moving average algorithm, and multifractal features such as strength of multifractality, peak exponent value, maximum exponent and exponent index were extracted in addition to conventional linear features such as root mean square and median frequency. The results show that surface electromyography signals exhibit multifractal behavior in both concentric and eccentric cycles. The mean strength of multifractality increased by 15% in eccentric contraction compared to concentric contraction. The lowest and highest exponent index values are observed in the upper concentric and lower eccentric contractions, respectively. The multifractal features are observed to be helpful in differentiating surface electromyography signals along the range of motion as compared to root mean square and median frequency. It appears that these multifractal features extracted from the concentric and eccentric contractions can be useful in the assessment of surface electromyography signals in sports medicine and training and also in rehabilitation programs.
Article
Full-text available
-This study investigated enjoyment and naturalness of movement perceived during short bouts of exercise with three aerobic machines: treadmill, elliptical crosstrainer, and Vario. The participants were 72 experienced and 60 inexperienced users. Immediately after the exercise with each machine, they filled in a 12-item form of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) and a Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) about naturalness of movement. Results showed significant within-subjects differences on all scales; exercise with the treadmill and Vario were perceived to be similarly enjoyable and more enjoyable and natural in comparison with the elliptical crosstrainer. Differences in naturalness ratings between experienced and inexperienced users were observed. Exercise was not equally enjoyable when performed with different aerobic machines, and this should be considered by professionals when prescribing aerobic training to enhance motivation and adherence.
Article
Full-text available
MAXIMAL EXERCISE TESTING USING THE ELLIPTICAL CROSS-TRAINER AND TREADMILL. Lance C. Dalleck, Len Kravitz, Robert A. Robergs. JEPonline 2004;7(3):94-101. The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses during incremental exercise to fatigue using the elliptical cross-trainer and treadmill running. Twenty recreationally active individuals (10 men and 10 women, mean age, height, weight, and body composition = 29.5±7.1 yr, 173.3±12.6 cm, 72.3±7.9 kg, and 17.3±5.0 BF%) completed two randomized VO 2 max tests: treadmill and Precor elliptical cross-trainer separated by 1-3 days. Breath-by-breath data were collected using a fast response turbine flow transducer and custom developed software with AEI oxygen and carbon dioxide electronic gas analyzers. All breath-by-breath data were smoothed using a 7-breath moving average. Criteria for attainment of VO 2 max included two of the following: respiratory exchange ratio (RER) > 1.1, maximal heart rate (HR) within 15 b/min of the calculated value, or VO 2 plateau (∆VO 2 < 50 mL/min with an increase in power output). Paired t-tests were performed to determine mean differences between VO 2 max, maximal HR, maximal RER, and protocol duration. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found in VO 2 max (47.9 vs. 47.3 ml/kg/min), maximal HR (186 vs. 184 b/min), maximal RER (1.22 vs. 1.25), and protocol duration (11.56 vs. 12.17 min) between elliptical crosstraining and treadmill running. In conclusion, this study revealed that the elliptical cross-trainer produced similar maximal physiological values compared to treadmill running during VO 2 max testing.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiopulmonary responses of elliptical cross-training versus treadmill walking in CAD patients (9 men, 3 women). Subjects performed four randomized, submaximal exercise trials (treadmill=2 trials, elliptical cross-trainer=2 trials) based upon different ratings of perceived exertion (RPE); 10 and 14. Steady-state measurements for oxygen consumption (VO 2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and expired ventilation (VE) were obtained for each trial. A repeated measures 2-way ANOVA was used to determine differences for VO 2, HR, BP, and VE between the two modes of exercise. During exercise trials at the 10 RPE level it was found that VO 2 (12.6±2.2 vs 11.2±3.4 ml/kg/min), HR (110±19 vs 98±23 b/min), and VE (27.9±7.1 vs 23.6±9.6 L/min) were significantly higher (p 0.05) while elliptical cross-training compared to treadmill walking. During exercise trials at the 14 RPE level it was found that HR (127±13 vs 115±19 b/min), VE (40.7±7.16 vs 33.3±8.85 L/min), systolic BP (176±21 vs 166±19 mmHg) and diastolic BP (75±10 vs 69±7 mmHg) were significantly higher (p 0.05) while elliptical cross-training compared to treadmill walking. In conclusion, for this sample of CAD patients, this study revealed that the elliptical cross-trainer produced greater cardiopulmonary responses when compared to the treadmill at equivalent levels of RPE. However, the greater cardiovascular strain for the RPE=14 condition despite a similar VO 2 indicates concern for the use of the elliptical cross-training for individuals with CAD unfamiliar with this mode of exercise.
The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of maximal treadmill and bicycle exercise on maximum oxygen uptake and blood flow in the lower extremity. Mean maximum oxygen uptake in maximal treadmill exercise was higher than that in bicycle exercise (p less than 0.001). Mean values and standard errors of blood flow measured immediately after maximal treadmill and bicycle exercise in the thigh were 39.1 +/- 4.0 and 44.2 +/- 2.8 ml/100 ml . min, the difference not being significant. However, a significant difference in blood flow in the calf measured immediately after both types of exercise was observed (p less than 0.001). Blood flow in the thigh immediately after bicycle exercise was significantly higher than that in the calf (p less than 0.001), whereas the difference between thigh and calf in treadmill exercise was small and statistically not significant. Leg blood flow, the average value of blood flow of the thigh and calf added together, was used as an index of blood flow in the lower extremity. It was found that the leg blood flow was significantly higher on the treadmill than with bicycle exercise (p less than 0.05). From these results, it is suggested that the lower maximum oxygen uptake observed during bicycle exercise as compared with treadmill exercise seems to be due to a lower blood flow in the lower limb.
Article
Objective. To compare overground and treadmill ambulation for possible differences in gait temporal variables and leg joint kinematics. Design. A human subject trial of walking in two conditions. Background. The treadmill is frequently used to simulate overground ambulation; however, the literature shows a wide difference of opinion as to whether the treadmill replicates the overground environment. Methods. A total of 17 uninjured subjects walked overground at their preferred velocity. The treadmill was then set at the average velocity obtained in overground walking. Gait temporal variables and leg joint kinematics were analysed using the three dimensional (3D) Kinemetrix Motion Analysis System. The data were analysed separately for the two gender groups and for the groups combined. Results. In the females, only the maximum hip flexion angle was significantly different in the two conditions with greater flexion occurring on the treadmill. For males, significant differences were noted between the two conditions for cadence and maximum knee flexion angle with greater values in the treadmill walking. When all subjects were compared, significant increases were seen during treadmill walking in hip range of motion, maximum hip flexion joint angle and cadence, while a significant decrease was observed in stance time. Conclusions. Statistically significant differences exist between overground and treadmill walking in healthy subjects for some joint kinematic and temporal variables.