Bousquet, J. et al. Uniform definition of asthma severity, control, and exacerbations: document presented for the World Health Organization Consultation on Severe Asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 126, 926-938
Asthma is a global health problem affecting around 300 million individuals of all ages, ethnic groups and countries. It is estimated that around 250,000 people die prematurely each year as a result of asthma. Concepts of asthma severity and control are important in evaluating patients and their response to treatment, as well as for public health, registries, and research (clinical trials, epidemiologic, genetic, and mechanistic studies), but the terminology applied is not standardized, and terms are often used interchangeably. A common international approach is favored to define severe asthma, uncontrolled asthma, and when the 2 coincide, although adaptation may be required in accordance with local conditions. A World Health Organization meeting was convened April 5-6, 2009, to propose a uniform definition of severe asthma. An article was written by a group of experts and reviewed by the Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases review group. Severe asthma is defined by the level of current clinical control and risks as "Uncontrolled asthma which can result in risk of frequent severe exacerbations (or death) and/or adverse reactions to medications and/or chronic morbidity (including impaired lung function or reduced lung growth in children)." Severe asthma includes 3 groups, each carrying different public health messages and challenges: (1) untreated severe asthma, (2) difficult-to-treat severe asthma, and (3) treatment-resistant severe asthma. The last group includes asthma for which control is not achieved despite the highest level of recommended treatment and asthma for which control can be maintained only with the highest level of recommended treatment.
Available from: Timothy JM Moss
- "Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, characterised by reversible airflow limitation or bronchial hyper-responsiveness resulting in respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath and coughing. Asthma has a variety of causes and is phenotypically diverse, but allergic sensitisation is considered the most common initiating factor (Bousquet et al. 2010). Allergic asthma is characterised by an initial airway epithelial response to airborne allergens causing allergen specific IgE activation of lung mast cells (reviewed by Agache et al. 2012). "
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ABSTRACT: Maternal asthma during pregnancy adversely affects pregnancy outcomes but identification of the cause/s, and the ability to evaluate interventions, is limited by the lack of an appropriate animal model. We therefore aimed to characterise maternal lung and cardiovascular responses and fetal-placental growth and lung surfactant levels in a sheep model of allergic asthma. Immune and airway functions were studied in singleton-bearing ewes, either sensitised before pregnancy to house dust mite (HDM, allergic, n = 7) or non-allergic (control, n = 5), and subjected to repeated airway challenges with HDM (allergic group) or saline (control group) throughout gestation. Maternal lung, fetal and placental phenotypes were characterised at 140 ± 1 d gestational age (term, ∼147 d). The eosinophil influx into lungs was greater after HDM challenge in allergic ewes than after saline challenge in control ewes before mating and in late gestation. Airway resistance increased throughout pregnancy in allergic but not control ewes, consistent with increased airway smooth muscle in allergic ewes. Maternal allergic asthma decreased relative fetal weight (-12%) and altered placental phenotype to a more mature form. Expression of surfactant protein B mRNA was 48% lower in fetuses from allergic ewes than controls, with a similar trend for surfactant protein D. Thus, allergic asthma in pregnant sheep modifies placental phenotype, inhibits fetal growth and lung development consistent with observations from human pregnancies. Preconceptional allergen sensitisation and repeated airway challenges in pregnant sheep therefore provides an animal model to identify mechanisms of altered fetal development and adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by maternal asthma in pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Available from: Mario Cazzola
- "Asthma affects about 300 million people of all ages and ethnic groups worldwide , with an estimated increase in prevalence to 400 million by 2025 . The economic burden in terms of direct (hospitalization , use of emergency room visits, therapy) and indirect (missed days of work/school) costs adds to the emotional, physical and social impact of asthma, with consequent quality of life deterioration for both patients and their families . "
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ABSTRACT: International guidelines describe asthma control as the main outcome of asthma management. Prevention of symptoms, improved quality of life, and reduction of exacerbations are the main components, consequently decreasing health care costs. However, many of these objectives remain unmet in real life: several surveys show that a large proportion of asthmatic patients are not well controlled despite the efficacy of current available treatment.
Several randomized controlled clinical trials indicate that combining inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists, by means of a single inhaler, greatly improves the management of the disease. The results of 9 multicenter phase III clinical studies demonstrate that the fixed combination of fluticasone propionate/formoterol in a single inhaler is effective in terms of lung function and symptom control. These studies highlight the dose flexibility, safety and tolerability of this new inhaled combination. These characteristics meet the recommendations of international guidelines, and the preferences of respiratory physicians who identified these aspects as critical components of a successful asthma therapy. Combination of fluticasone propionate/formoterol in a single inhaler provides potent anti-inflammatory activity of fluticasone propionate and rapid onset of action of the β2-agonist formoterol making this association a viable treatment option both in terms of effectiveness and compliance.
Available from: Arzu Didem Yalcin
- "More than 20 million people in the USA are estimated to have asthma . Asthma markedly diminishes quality of life due to limited activity and absences from work or school and causes hospitalizations, with significant social and economic consequences [90,91]. "
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ABSTRACT: Omalizumab, a humanized mAb that binds to the CH3 domain near the binding site for the high-affinity type-I IgE Fc receptors of human IgE, can neutralize free IgE and inhibit the IgE allergic pathway without sensitizing mast cells and basophils. We found that omalizumab in patients with severe persistent asthma (SPA) was an effective therapy for asthma and the following co-morbid conditions: chronic urticaria (CU), bee venom allergy, latex allergy, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and Samter’s syndrome. Information on the use of omalizumab in treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases has improved our understanding that treatment acts on many levels, including regulating levels of inflammatory proteins, including cytokines (copper-containing alpha- 2-glycoprotein, total antioxidant capacity, MDA, NO, H2O2, CXCL8, IL-10, TGF-β, GMCSF, IL-17, IL-1β), MPV, Hs-CRP, eosinophil cationic peptide, vitamin-D (25(OH)D), homocysteine (Hcy), OX-2, d- dimer, albumin, and sApo-2L. The decrease in Hcy concentrations and increase in 25(OH)D also support the existence of a vascular endothelial protection mechanism. Mediators and cells classically involved in pro-coagulant and anticoagulant pathways together play a role in SPA and CU pathophysiology and omalizumab effect.
The mechanism of action of omalizumab in the treatment of asthma is believed to be multifactorial, and includes effects mediated through altered production of redox metabolites, extrinsic coagulation pathway, oxidative markers-related mi RNA, TRAIL-related mi RNA, and regulation of production of known inflammatory proteins.
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